Antisepsis of the Skin by Treatment with Tissue-Tolerable Plasma (TTP): Risk Assessment and Perspectives

  • Jürgen Lademann
  • Heike Richter
  • Alexa Patzelt
  • Martina C. Meinke
  • Joachim W. Fluhr
  • Axel Kramer
  • Klaus-Dieter Weltmann
  • Olaf Lademann
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)

Abstract

The application of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) is well suited for ­disinfection of living tissue. In particular, when treating chronic wounds, it has ­several advantages in comparison to the classical application of antiseptics, which do not penetrate sufficiently into the tissue or inhibit wound regeneration. The mode of action of the plasma is mainly based on synergetic effects between temperature increase and the formation of free radicals, which destroy the bacteria and fungi.

In the present paper a risk assessment of TTP in dermatology is given. The investigations have been carried out with an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet working with Argon as a discharge medium. It was found that during the plasma treatment of tissue, the antioxidative potential is reduced only in the upper part of the stratum corneum, but not in deeper cell layers. Selecting the optimum parameters of the plasma formation, the UV exposure of the skin is less than in the case of UV irradiation of the sun on a summer day at noon.

If the duration of the plasma treatment of the skin is in the optimal range for wound healing, no thermal damage has to be expected.

Additionally, it could be demonstrated that plasma is able to reach the follicular reservoir for antisepsis where germs are located.

Keywords

Stratum Corneum Plasma Treatment Hair Follicle Skin Surface Skin Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was realized within the framework of the multi-disciplinary research cooperation of “Campus PlasmaMed”, particularly within the project “PlasmaWound”. The authors acknowledge that this work was supported by a grant funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Grant No, 13 N9779).

References

  1. 1.
    Phillips TJ (2001) Current approaches to venous ulcers and compression. Dermatol Surg 27(7):611–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sekkat N, Kalia YN, Guy RH (2002) Biophysical study of porcine ear skin in vitro and its comparison to human skin in vivo. J Pharm Sci 91(11):2376–2381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    von Woedtke T, Kramer A, Weltmann KD (2008) Plasma sterilization: what are the conditions to meet this claim? Plasma Process Polym 5(6):534–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weltmann KD, Kindel E, Brandenburg R, Meyer C, Bussiahn R, Wilke C, von Woedtke T (2009) Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for medical therapy: plasma parameters and risk estimation. Contrib Plasma Phys 49(9):631–640ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weltmann KD, Kindel E, von Woedtke T, Hahnel M, Stieber M, Brandenburg R (2010) Atmospheric-pressure plasma sources: prospective tools for plasma medicine. Pure Appl Chem 82(6):1223–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zastrow L, Groth N, Klein F, Kockott D, Lademann J, Renneberg R, Ferrero L (2009) The missing link–light-induced (280–1,600 nm) free radical formation in human skin. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 22(1):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lademann J, Richter H, Alborova A, Humme D, Patzelt A, Kramer A, Weltmann KD, Hartmann B, Ottomann C, Fluhr JW, Hinz P, Hubner G, Lademann O (2009) Risk assessment of the application of a plasma jet in dermatology. J Biomed Opt 14(5):054025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lademann O, Richter H, Patzelt A, Alborova A, Humme D, Weltmann KD, Hartmann B, Hinz P, Kramer A, Koch S (2010) Application of a plasma-jet for skin antisepsis: analysis of the thermal action of the plasma by laser scanning microscopy. Laser Phys Lett 7(6):458–462ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hammann A, Huebner NO, Bender C, Ekkernkamp A, Hartmann B, Hinz P, Kindel E, Koban I, Koch S, Kohlmann T, Lademann J, Matthes R, Muller G, Titze R, Weltmann KD, Kramer A (2010) Antiseptic efficacy and tolerance of tissue-tolerable plasma compared with two wound antiseptics on artificially bacterially contaminated eyes from commercially slaughtered pigs. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 23(6):328–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lademann O (2011) Antisepsis of the follicular reservoir by treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP). Laser Phys Lett 1-5. doi:10.1002/lapl.201010123Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Alborova A, Kruger-Corcoran D, Patzelt A, Richter H, Sterry W, Kramer A, Stockfleth E, Lademann J (2009) Effects of a topically applied wound ointment on epidermal wound healing studied by in vivo fluorescence laser scanning microscopy analysis. J Biomed Opt 14(5):054001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meyer W, Schwarz R, Neurand K (1978) The skin of domestic mammals as a model for the human skin, with special reference to the domestic pig. Curr Probl Dermatol 7:39–52Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Foest R, Kindel E, Ohl A, Stieber M, Weltmann KD (2005) Non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges for surface modification. Plasma Phys Control Fusion 47:B525–B536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weltmann KD, Brandenburg R, von Woedtke T, Ehlbeck J, Foest R, Stieber M, Kindel E (2008) Antimicrobial treatment of heat sensitive products by miniaturized atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs). J Phys D Appl Phys 41(19):194008Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lademann J, Jacobi U, Surber C, Weigmann HJ, Fluhr JW (2009) The tape stripping procedure – evaluation of some critical parameters. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 72(2):317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Williamson PT, Roth JF, Haddingham T, Watts A (2000) Expression and purification of recombinant neurotensin in Escherichia coli. Protein Exp Purif 19(2):271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martschick A, Teichmann A, Richter H, Schanzer S, Antoniou C, Sterry W, Lademann J (2007) Analysis of the penetration profiles of topically applied substances by laser scanning microscopy. Laser Phys Lett 4(5):395–398ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kandarova H, Richter H, Liebsch M, Lademann J (2007) Stratum corneum architecture of reconstructed human skin models monitored by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy. Laser Phys Lett 4(4):308–311ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lademann J, Jacobi U, Richter H, Otberg N, Weigmann HJ, Meffert H, Schaefer H, Blume-Peytavi U, Sterry W (2004) In vivo determination of UV-photons entering into human skin. Laser Phys 14(2):234–237Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fluhr JW, Sassning S, Lademann O, Darvin ME, Schanzer S, Kramer A, Richter H, Sterry W, Lademann J (2011) The influence of skin treatment with tissue tolerable plasma on the antioxidant concentration in human skin. Experimental Dermatology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01411.xGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lademann O, Kramer A, Richter H, Patzelt A, Meinke MC, Röwert-Huber J, Czaika V, Weltmann K-D, Hartmann B, Koch S (2011) Antisepsis of the follicular reservoir by treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP). Laser Phys Lett 8(4):313–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Lademann
    • 1
  • Heike Richter
    • 1
  • Alexa Patzelt
    • 1
  • Martina C. Meinke
    • 1
  • Joachim W. Fluhr
    • 1
  • Axel Kramer
    • 2
  • Klaus-Dieter Weltmann
    • 3
    • 4
  • Olaf Lademann
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Hygiene and Environmental MedicineErnst-Moritz-Arndt UniversityGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineHelios KlinikBad SaarowGermany
  4. 4.Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e. V. (INP Greifswald)GreifswaldGermany

Personalised recommendations