Cellular, Molecular and Biological Insight into Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Potential of 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM)

  • Sanjeev Banerjee
  • Mansi A. Parasramka
  • Fazlul H. SarkarEmail author


Emerging evidence suggest that bioactive phytochemical is achievable by consuming moderate amount of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, brussel sprouts, cauliflower and cabbage. Evaluation for chemopreventive effectiveness of these vegetables led to the identification of 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM) which is generated in the acidic environment of the stomach following dimerization of Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) monomers originating from the aforementioned class of vegetables. This article evaluates the potential targets and biological effects elicited by DIM against tumor cells to ascertain chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy. We provide mechanistic insight into their pleiotropic action resulting in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the disruption of intracellular signaling network cascade that are known to regulate angiogenesis, metastasis and invasion. The beneficial effect of DIM has been observed by preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, suggesting that DIM could be useful as a chemopreventive agent and an adjunct to conventional therapeutics. Moreover, DIM has moved through preclinical development into clinical trials and the outcome of such investigation would likely provide definitive role of DIM in human health and diseases.


3,3’-Diindolylmethane Brassica genus Prevention Therapy 



Grant support from National Cancer Institute/NIH grants 5R01CA083695, 5R01CA108535 and 5R01CA101870 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also express their sincere appreciation to Ms Jacqueline Schaffert for her editorial assistance.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjeev Banerjee
    • 1
  • Mansi A. Parasramka
    • 1
  • Fazlul H. Sarkar
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PathologyBarbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pathology and OncologyKarmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

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