The American Community College

Chapter
Part of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (TVET, volume 15)

Abstract

The community college has become a fixture in the American higher education landscape. From the very beginning, community colleges have had to serve multiple constituencies: they have been expected to provide academically rigorous programs, offer initial vocational education, help underprepared students, provide lifelong learning for all community members, and engage in specified industry training all while serving as a focal point of the community and being open to all students desirous of a college education. This chapter describes community colleges in terms of social roles, students, student services, programs, leadership, finances, and faculty members. It further explains how all these different parts of the college are affected by and deal with the complex college mission and how community colleges can respond to the challenges of the twenty-first century.

Keywords

Vocational Education Community College Department Chair Associate Degree Community College Student 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acebo, S. C. (1994). A paradigm shift to leadership in the community college. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 580–588). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Association of Community Colleges. (2009). About community colleges. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://webadmin.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Pages/default.aspx
  3. American Council on International Intercultural Education. (1996). Educating for the global community: A framework for community colleges. Des Plaines, IL: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Astin, A. W. (1977). Four critical years. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Bender, L. W. (1994). State articulation policies: Myths and realities. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 165–182). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Bogart, Q. T. (1994). The community college mission. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 60–73). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  7. Boylan, H. R., Bonham, B. S., Clark-Keefe, K., Drewes, S., & Saxon, D. P. (2004). Forging new partnerships: Adult and developmental education in community colleges. (Working Paper 8. CAAL Community College Series). New York: Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy.Google Scholar
  8. Breneman, D. W., & Nelson, S. C. (1981). Financing community colleges: An economic perspective. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  9. Bryant, D. W. (1994). New leadership considerations for old realities. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 411–416). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, G. (2008, January 24). What is a community college? Community College Review. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from http://www.communitycollegereview.com/articles/1
  11. Clark, B. R. (1960). The open-door college: A case study. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Clowes, D. A., & Levin, B. H. (1994). Community, technical, and junior colleges: Are they leaving higher education? In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 459–464). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (1987). The collegiate function of community colleges: Fostering higher learning through curriculum and student transfer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (2008). The American community college (5th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Community College Baccalaureate Association. (2009). Better jobs, better lifestyle: The baccalaureate degree. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.accbd.org
  16. Deegan, W. L. (1994). Proven techniques—the use and impact of major management concepts in community colleges. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 431–438). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Dougherty, K. J. (1994). The community college at the crossroads: The need for structural reform. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 465–488). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Eaton, J. S. (1994). Strengthening collegiate education in community colleges. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  19. Forde, M. L. (2002). America’s global prosperity: Planting the seeds. Community College Journal, 73(3), 17–19.Google Scholar
  20. Garms, W. I. (1977). Financing community colleges. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gleazer, E. J., III. (1994a). Evolution of junior colleges into community colleges. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 17–27). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gleazer, E. J., III. (1994b). Beyond the open door, the open college. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 33–42). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Gordon, H. R. D. (2003). The history and growth of vocational education in America (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gray, K. C., & Herr, E. L. (1998). Workforce education: The basics. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  25. Grubb, W. N., Badway, N., Bell, D., Bragg, D., & Russman, M. (1997). Workforce, economic, and community development: The changing landscape of the entrepreneurial community college (Report No. MDS-1094). Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.Google Scholar
  26. Grubb, W. N., & Cox, R. D. (2005). Pedagogical alignment and curricular consistency: The challenges for developmental education. New Directions for Community Colleges, 129, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Illinois Board of Higher Education. (2000, February 2). Full-time faculty and civil service salaries at Illinois colleges and universities. Springfield, IL: Author. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from http://www.ibhe.state.il.us/Board/agendas/2000/February/2000-02-08.pdf
  28. Kasper, H. T. (2002). The changing role of the community college. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 14–21.Google Scholar
  29. Levin, J. S. (2001). Globalizing the community college: Strategies for change in the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  30. Lombardi, J. (1973). Managing finances in community colleges. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. Matson, J. E. (1994). The role of student services in the response to reduced support. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 485–491). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  32. McGrath, D., & Spear, M. B. (1994). The remedialization of the community college. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 217–228). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Mezack, M., III. (1994). Synthesis of the literature on the community services function assumed by community colleges to meet the needs of local communities and citizens over the life cycle. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 151–160). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  34. Myran, G. (1995). Leadership pathways to the new century. In B. Greiner & L. J. Sawicki (Eds.), Community college leadership in the new century: Learning to improve learning (pp. 1–9). Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.Google Scholar
  35. Myran, G., & Howdyshell, L. (1994). Strategic management of community colleges in a dynamic environment. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 589–602). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  36. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Phelan, D. J. (1994). The challenges and obligations facing community colleges in the twenty-first century: A community-based perspective. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 603–614). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  38. Prager, C. (1994). The articulation function of the community college. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 495–507). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  39. Provasnik, S., & Planty, M. (2008, August). Community colleges: Special supplement to The Condition of Education 2008 (NCES Report No. 2008-033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  40. Ratcliff, J. L. (1994). Seven streams in the historical development of the modern American community college. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 3–16). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  41. Rendón, L. I., & Valadez, J. R. (1994). New wave students and the community college. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 565–579). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  42. Richardson, R. C., Jr. (1994). Responding to student diversity: A community college perspective. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 295–308). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Richardson, R. C., Blocker, C. E., & Bender, L. W. (1994). Administrative organization: Chief executive officer. In J. L. Ratcliff, S. Schwarz, & L. H. Ebbers (Eds.), Community colleges (pp. 91–104). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Ruiz, A. (2002). Global diversity and leadership. Community College Journal, 73(3), 29–31.Google Scholar
  45. Scott, J. L., & Sarkees-Wircenski, M. (2004). Overview of career and technical education (4th ed.). Homewood, IL: American Technical Publishers.Google Scholar
  46. Simmons, H. L. (1994). Diversity among community college student populations. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 454–461). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  47. Spann, M. G. (2000). Remediation: A must for the 21st century learning society (Policy paper.. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.Google Scholar
  48. Spann, M. G., Jr., & McCrimmon, S. (1994). Remedial/developmental education: Past, present, and future. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 161–175). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  49. U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Welcome to NCES. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov
  50. Walker, K. P. (2006). Globalization is changing the world of education: A case for the community college baccalaureate. Community College Journal, 76(6), 14–19.Google Scholar
  51. Wei, C. C., Berkner, L., He, S., & Lew, S. (2009, May). Web tables: Undergraduate financial aid estimates by type of institution in 2007–2008 (NCES Report No. 2009-201). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  52. Wellman, J. V. (2002). State policy and community college-baccalaureate transfer (Report No. #02-6). San Jose, CA, and Washington, DC: The National Center of Public Policy and Higher Education and The Institute for Higher Education Policy.Google Scholar
  53. Witt, A. A., Wattenbarger, J. L., Gollattscheck, J. F., & Suppiger, J. E. (1980). America’s community colleges: The first century. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Workforce Development EducationCollege of Education and Health Professions, University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations