Remediation of Metal Ion-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil Using Nanocarbon-Polymer Composition
The presence of different organic and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater and soil has a large environmental, public health and economic impact. The paper deals with a novel method of groundwater and soil remediation using nanocarbon-polymer composition (NCPC). The process of NCPC synthesis and its chemical characteristics have been described. Nano-carbon colloids (NCC) and polyethylenimine (PEI) are used to synthesis of NCPC. Metal ions interact with NCPC via ion exchange and complexation mechanism. The ability to remove metal ions from water against pH, ratio of NCC and PEI in NCPC, speed of coagulation of NCPC and size of NCC has been investigated. NCPC has a high bonding capacity of 4.0–5.7 mmol/g at pH 6 for most divalent metal ions. The percent of sorption of Zn (II), Cd (II), Cu (II), Hg (II), Ni (II) and Cr (VI) ions is higher than 99%, and distribution coefficients are 101–103. The lifetime of NCPC before coagulation in the treated water and soil is 1 s to 1,000 min and depends on the ratio of polymeric molecules and carbon nanoparticle concentrations. Accordingly, the depth of penetration of NCPC in a soil or depth of remediation of soil can change from 1 to 100 cm, and distance of moving the NCPC with groundwater or remediation zone of ground can change from 1 to 100 m. Thus NCPC can be used for effective removal of metal ions from contaminated water and remediation of soil. The results of field tests of the method have been also described.
KeywordsCarbon Nanoparticles Nitrate Hexahydrate Removal Ratio Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Bonding Capacity
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