Science and Technology in Portugal: From Late Awakening to the Challenge of Knowledge-Integrated Communities

Chapter

Abstract

The evolution over time of science and technology (S&T) in Portugal and its impact on modernising higher education are analysed taking account of the relationship between knowledge diffusion and the development of Portuguese society in a world grown increasingly globalised. Three crucial aspects are underlined: (1) the scale of the system and the need for continued public support for the advanced training of human resources through R&D; (2) the need to diversify, differentiating the role of public and private funding for science, whilst preserving the integrity of research institutions; (3) the recognition that S&T requires both stability and the ongoing commitment of people and institutions. In recent years, of OECD Member States, Portugal showed one of the highest S&T growth rates. In 2009, related investment reached 1.71% of GDP as against just 0.8% in 2005 and less than 0.4% in late 1980s. If further sustainability and maturity are to be achieved as too, an effective socioeconomic impact, Portugal needs to maintain its S&T investment. Strengthening linkages between S&T and higher education is critical to the latter’s continued modernisation.

References

  1. Amaral, A., & Magalhães, A. (2005). Implementation of higher education policies: A Portuguese example. In A. Gornitzka, M. Kogan, & A. Amaral (Eds.), Reform and change in higher ­education – Analysing policy implementation. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Baptista, R., & Mendonça, J. (2010). Proximity to knowledge sources and the location of ­knowledge-based start-ups. The Annals of Regional Science, 45, 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bensaúde, A. (1922). Notas Histórico-Pedagógicas sobre o Instituto Superior Técnico. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.Google Scholar
  4. Bodmer, W. (1985). The public understanding of science. London: Royal Society.Google Scholar
  5. Campos, E. de. (1943). O Enquadramento Geoeconómico da População Portuguesa Através dos Séculos (2nd ed.). Lisboa: Revista Ocidente.Google Scholar
  6. Caraça, J. (1993). Do Saber ao Fazer: Porquê Organizar a Ciência. Lisboa: Gradiva.Google Scholar
  7. Caraça, J., & Pernes, F. (2002). “Ciência e Investigação em Portugal no século XX” in Panorama da Cultura Portuguesa no Século XX. Porto: Edições Afrontamento.Google Scholar
  8. Castro-Cruz, L., & Menéndez, L. S. (2005). Bringing science and technology human resources back in: The Spanish Ramón y Cajal programme. Science & Public Policy, 32(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coelho, E. (1962). Da problemática da Universidade, o seu sentido ecuménico e nacional. Lisboa: Imp. portuguesa.Google Scholar
  10. Conceição, P., & Heitor, M. V. (2005). Innovation for All? Learning from the Portuguese Path to Technical Change and the Dynamics of Innovation. Praeger: Westport.Google Scholar
  11. Conceição, P., Heitor, M. V., Sirilli, G., & Wilson, R. (2004). The ‘swing of the pendulum’ from public to market support for science and technology: Is the US leading the way? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 71, 553–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa, A. F., Ávila, P., & Mateus, S. (2002). Públicos de Ciência em Portugal. Lisboa: Gradiva.Google Scholar
  13. Costa, A. F., Conceição, C. P., Pereira, I., Abrantes, P., & Gomes, M. C. (2005). Cultura Científica e Movimento Social. Oeiras: Celta Editora.Google Scholar
  14. Crespo, V. (1993). Uma Universidade para os Anos 2000 – O Ensino Superior numa perspectiva de futuro. Mem Martins: Editorial Inquérito.Google Scholar
  15. Delicado, A. (2010). Exhibiting science in Portugal: Practices and representations in museums. Portuguese Journal of Social Science, 9(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dias, J. F. (1961). A posição Actual da Indústria Metalomecânica. Lisboa: Associação Industrial Portuguesa.Google Scholar
  17. Dias, J. N. F., Jr. (1998). Linha de Rumo I e II e Outros Escritos Económicos, 1926–1962. In J. M. Brandão de Brito (Ed.), Colecção de Obras Clássicas do Pensamento Económico Português, (20, 3 vols.). Lisboa: Banco de Portugal.Google Scholar
  18. Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). (2002). Relatório: Cinco anos de Actividades 1997 a 2001. Lisboa: FCT.Google Scholar
  19. Gago, J. M. (1990). Manifesto para a Ciência em Portugal – ensaio. Viseu: Gradiva.Google Scholar
  20. GPEARI. (2009a). Produção Científica Portuguesa, 1990–2008: séries estatísticas. Lisboa: GPEARI.Google Scholar
  21. GPEARI. (2009b). Doutoramentos realizados ou reconhecidos por universidades Portuguesas: 1970 a 2008. Lisboa: GPEARI.Google Scholar
  22. GPEARI. (2010a). Inquérito ao Potencial Científico e Tecnológico Nacional. Lisboa: GPEARI.Google Scholar
  23. GPEARI. (2010b). Docentes do Ensino Superior 2001–2009. Lisboa: GPEARI.Google Scholar
  24. Hakala, J. (1998). Internationalisation of science. Views of the scientific elite in Finland. Science Studies, 11(1), 52–74.Google Scholar
  25. Hasan, A. (2007). Independent legal status and universities as foundations. Paper prepared for the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education.Google Scholar
  26. Heitor, M. (2001). Relatório da Avaliação de Unidades de Investigação financiadas pelo ­programmea plurianual – 1999/2000. Lisboa: MCT.Google Scholar
  27. Heitor, M. (2008). A system approach to tertiary education institutions: Towards knowledge ­networks and enhanced societal trust. Science & Public Policy, 35(8), 607–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heitor, M., & Bravo, M. (2010). Portugal at the crossroads of change, facing the shock of the new: People, knowledge and ideas fostering the social fabric to facilitate the concentration of know­ledge integrated communities. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77(2), 218–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heitor, M., & Horta, H. (2004). Engenharia e desenvolvimento científico. In J. M. B. Brito,M. Heitor, & M. F. Rollo (Eds.), Engenharia em Portugal no Século XX. Lisboa: D. Quixote.Google Scholar
  30. Horta, H. (2008). On improving the university research base: The technical university of Lisbon case in perspective. Higher Education Policy, 21, 123–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Horta, H. (2009). Holding a post-doctoral position before becoming faculty member: Does it brings benefits for the scholarly enterprise? Higher Education, 58(5), 689–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Horta, H. (2010). The role of the state in the internationalization of universities in catching-up countries: An analysis of the Portuguese higher education system. Higher Education Policy, 23, 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Horta, H., & Lacy, T. A. (2011). How does size matter for science? Exploring the effects of research unit size on academics’ scientific productivity and information exchange behaviors. Science and Public Policy, 38(6), 449–460.Google Scholar
  34. Lundvall, B., & Johnson, B. (1994). The learning economy. Journal of Industry Studies, 1(2), 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Macedo, J. B. (1970). A dívida externa portuguesa. In Cadernos de Ciência e Técnica Fiscal. Lisboa: Centro de Estudos Fiscais da DGCI, Ministério das Finanças.Google Scholar
  36. Marques, A. H. O. (1986). História de Portugal (Vol. II). Lisboa: Pala Editores.Google Scholar
  37. Marques, J. P. C., Caraça, J. M. G., & Diz, H. (2006). How can university–industry–government interactions change the innovation scenario in Portugal? —The case of the university of Coimbra. Technovation, 26(4), 534–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller, S. (2001). Public understanding of science at the crossroads. Public Understanding of Science, 10, 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miller, S., Caro, P., Koulaidis, V., Semir, V., Staveloz, W., & Vargas, R. (2002). Report from the Expert Group Benchmarking the promotion of RTD culture and Public Understanding of Science. ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/era/docs/bench_pus_0702.pdf
  40. Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES). (2010). A new landscape for ­science, technology and tertiary education in Portugal. Lisboa: MCTES.Google Scholar
  41. Murteira, M., & Branquinho, I. (1968). Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos e Ensino Superior: Problemática Portuguesa numa perspectiva comparativa. Análise Social, 6(20–21), 81–95.Google Scholar
  42. Nunes, J. A., & Gonçalves, M. E. (2001). Introdução. In J. A. Nunes & M. E. Gonçalves (Eds.), Enteados de Galileu? A semi-periferia no sistema mundial de ciência (pp. 13–31). Afrontamento: Porto.Google Scholar
  43. OECD. (2009). OECD regions at a glance. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oliveira Martins, J. P. (1895). Portugal contemporâneo – 1845–1894. Lisboa: Livr. de Antonio Maria Pereira.Google Scholar
  45. Ribeiro, J. F., Fernandes, L. G., & Ramos, M. M. C. (1987). Grande Indústria, banca e grupos financeiros – 1953–73. Análise Social, XXIII(99), 945–1018.Google Scholar
  46. Roberts, G. (2003). Review of Research Assessment preparado por solicitação, em Junho de 2002, dos quatro Higher Education Funding Councils. London: HEFCGoogle Scholar
  47. Rocha, M. (1962). A Reforma do Ensino da engenharia – A Educação Permanente – A Investigação em Portugal. Lisboa: LNEC.Google Scholar
  48. Rodrigues, M. L. (1999). Os Engenheiros em Portugal. Oeiras: Celta.Google Scholar
  49. Rollo, M. F. (1994). Portugal e o Plano Marshall: história de uma adesão a contragosto (1947–1952). Análise Social, 29(4), 841–869.Google Scholar
  50. Rollo, M. F. (1996). Indústria/Industrialização’. In F. Rosas & J. M. B. Brito (Eds.), Dicionário de História do Estado Novo. Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores.Google Scholar
  51. Rosas, F. (1995). Portugal entre a Paz e a Guerra. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa.Google Scholar
  52. Ruivo, B. (1995). As políticas de ciência e tecnologia e o sistema de investigação. Lisboa: INCM.Google Scholar
  53. Santos, A. R. (1996). Grupos económicos/Conglomerados. In F. Rosas & J. M. B. Brito (Eds.), Dicionário de História do Estado Novo (Vol. I). Lisboa: Círculo de Leitores.Google Scholar
  54. Saxanian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competititon in silicon valley and route 128. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Serrão, J. (1966). Notícias Literárias de Portugal. Lisboa: Seara Nova.Google Scholar
  56. Smeby, J.-C., & Trondal, J. (2005). Globalisation or Europeanisation? International contact among university staff. Higher Education, 49, 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sunkel, C. (2009). Research units evaluation – 2007 global report. Lisbon: FCT.Google Scholar
  58. Torgal, L. R. (1999). A Universidade e o Estado Novo. Coimbra: Minerva.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Estudos em Inovação, Tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimento, IN+, Instituto Superior TécnicoTechnical University of LisbonLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations