Activation of Oxygen: Multipurpose Tool

  • Christian E. W. SteinbergEmail author


To most biomolecules, elemental oxygen is inert since it usually does not oxidize them without prior activation either inside or outside of organisms. Atmospheric oxygen in its ground state is distinctive among the gaseous elements because it is a bi-radical. This means it possesses two unpaired electrons with parallel spins which make it paramagnetic. In this constitution, it is very unlikely to participate in reactions with organic molecules unless activated.


Reactive Oxygen Species Humic Substance Programme Cell Death Reactive Oxygen Species Production NADPH Oxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology Laboratory of Freshwater and Stress EcologyHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany

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