Individual Resources and Structural Constraints in Immigrants’ Labour Market Integration

  • Irena Kogan
  • Frank Kalter
  • Elisabeth Liebau
  • Yinon Cohen
Chapter

Abstract

Entering the labour market, gaining adequate employment and pursuing a successful occupational career are central events in the life course of each individual. Among immigrants such events might occur several times in various societal contexts, implying that opportunities and constraints of these specific social circumstances have to be taken into account. Migration in itself is interconnected with the above-mentioned life course events, so that understanding these interrelationships and figuring out how these might vary across various immigrant origins and socio-economic groups are important aims of the migration-related life course research.

Keywords

Labour Market Host Country Former Soviet Union Reservation Wage Jewish Immigrant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (Grant number 823/2004). Many thanks go to Betty Haire Weyerer for polishing the English of this paper.

References

  1. Barrik, M., & Mount,M. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personal Psychology, 44, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker, F. (2001). Ankommen in Deutschland: Einwanderungspolitik als biographische Erfahrung im Migrationsprozeß russischer Juden. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.Google Scholar
  3. Bonacich, E. (1972). A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor market. American Sociological Review, 37, 547–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borjas, G. J. (1987). Self-selection and the earnings of immigrants. The American Economic Review, 77, 531–553.Google Scholar
  5. Borjas, G. J. (1990). Friends or strangers: The impact of immigration on the US economy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Borjas, G. J. (1994). The economics of immigration. Journal of Economic Literature, 32, 1667–1717.Google Scholar
  7. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burt, R. S. (2001). Structural holes versus network closure as social capital. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital. Theory and research (pp. 31–56). New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  9. Chiswick, B. R. (1978). The effect of Americanisation on the earnings of foreign-born men. Journal of Political Economy, 86(5), 897–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiswick, B. R. (1979). The economic progress of immigrants: Some apparently universal patterns. In W. Fellner (Ed.), Contemporary economic problems (pp. 357–399). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  11. Chiswick, B. R. (2000). Are immigrants favorably self-selected? In C. B. Brettell & J. F. Hollifield (Eds.), Migration theory: Talking across disciplines (pp. 61–77). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Chiswick, B. (2005). The economics of immigration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, Y., & Haberfeld, Y. (2007). Self selection and earnings assimilation: Immigrants from the former soviet union in Israel and the United States. Demography, 44, 649–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, Y., & Kogan, I. (2005). Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union to Germany and Israel in the 1990 s. In J. A. S. Grenville & R. Gross (Eds.), Leo Baeck institute year book (pp. 249–265). Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, Y., & Kogan, I. (2007). Next year in Jerusalem… or in Cologne? Labor market integration of Jewish: Immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany in the 1990 s. European Sociological Review, 23(2), 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, Y., Haberfeld, Y., & Kogan, I. (2008). Jüdische Immigration aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion: Ein natürliches Experiment zur Migrationsentscheidung. In F. Kalter (Ed.), Migration und Integration, Sonderheft 48 der Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (pp. 185–201). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Dehne, M., & Schupp, J. (2007). Persönlichkeitsmerkmale im Sozio-oekonomischen Panel (SOEP) – Konzept, Umsetzung und empirische Eigenschaften. Research Notes 26. DIW, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. Dietz, B. (2000). German and Jewish migration from the former Soviet Union to Germany: Background, trends and implications. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26, 635–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DiPrete, T., & McManus, P. (1996). Institutions, technical change, and diverging life chances: Earnings mobility in the U.S. and Germany. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 34–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Drever, A., & Hoffmeister, O. (2008). Immigrants and social networks in a job-scarce environment: The case of Germany. International Migration Review, 42(2), 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dustmann, C. (2000). Temporary migration and economic assimilation. IZA Discussion Paper no. 186.Google Scholar
  22. Elder, G. H., Jr., et al. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–17). New York: Kluwer/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elliott, J. R. (2001). Referral hiring and ethnically homogeneous jobs: How prevalent is the connection and for whom? Social Science Research, 30, 401–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. England, P. (1992). Comparable worth. Theories and evidence. New York: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  25. Erickson, B. H. (2001). Good networks and good jobs: The value of social capital to employers and employees. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research (pp. 127–158). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Esser, H. (1999). Soziologie. Spezielle Grundlagen. Band 1: Situationslogik und Handeln. Frankfurt a. M: Campus.Google Scholar
  27. Esser, H. (2006). Sprache und Integration: Die sozialen Bedingungen und Folgen des Spracherwerbs von Migranten. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  28. Falcon, L., & Melendez, E. (2001). The social context of job searching for racial groups in urban centers. In T. O’Connor & L. D. Bobo (Eds.), Urban inequality: Evidence from four cities. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Flap, H., & Boxman, E. (2001). Getting started: The influence of social capital on the start of the occupational career. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research (pp. 159–184). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Friedberg, R. M. (2000). You can’t take it with you? Immigrant assimilation and the portability of human capital. Journal of Labor Economics, 18, 221–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Granovetter, M. (1974). Getting a job: A study of contacts and careers (2nd ed.). Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Green, G. P., Tigges, L. M., & Diaz, D. (1999). Racial and ethnic differences in job-search strategies in Atlanta, Boston and Los Angeles. Social Science Quarterly, 80(2), 263–278.Google Scholar
  34. Gruber, S., & Rüßler, H. (2002). Hochqualifiziert und arbeitslos. Opladen: Leske and Budrich.Google Scholar
  35. Haug, S. (2007). Soziales Kapital als Ressource im Kontext von Migration und Integration. In J. Lüdicke & M. Diewald (Eds.), Soziale Netzwerke und soziale Ungleichheit. Zur Rolle von Sozialkapital in modernen Gesellschaften (pp. 85–112). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  36. Heath, A., & Birnbaum, Y. (2007). Guest editorial: Explaining ethnic inequalities in educational attainment. Ethnicities, 7(3), 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heath, A., & Cheung, S. Y. (Eds.). (2007). Unequal chances: Ethnic minorities in western labour markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Heath, A., & Ridge, J. (1983). Social mobility of ethnic minorities. Journal of Biosocial Science Supplement, 8, 169–184.Google Scholar
  39. Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Utzua, S. (2006). The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 411–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ioannides, Y. M., & Loury, L. D. (2004). Job information networks, neighborhood effects and inequality. Journal of Economic Literature, 42(4), 1056–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kalleberg, A. L., & Sørensen, A. B. (1979). The sociology of labor markets. Annual Review of Sociology, 5, 351–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalter, F. (2003). Chancen, Fouls und Abseitsfallen. Migranten im deutschen Ligenfussball. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. Kalter, F. (2006). Auf der Suche nach einer Erklärung für die spezifischen Arbeitsmarktnachteile von Jugendlichen türkischer Herkunft. Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 35, 144–160.Google Scholar
  44. Kalter, F., & Granato, N. (2007). Educational hurdles on the way to structural assimilation in Germany. In A. Heath & S.-Y. Cheung (Eds.), Unequal chances: Ethnic minorities in western labour markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kalter, F., & Kogan, I. (2006). Ethnic inequalities at the transition from school to work in Belgium and Spain: Discrimination or self-exclusion? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 24, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kazemipur, A. (2006). The market value of friendship: Social networks of immigrants. Canadian Ethic Studies Journal, 38(2), 47–71.Google Scholar
  47. Kogan, I. (2007). Working through barriers: Host country institutions and immigrant labour market performance in Europe. Dordrecht: Spinger.Google Scholar
  48. Kogan, I. (2011). New immigrants – old disadvantage patterns? Labour market integration of recent immigrants into Germany. International Migration, 49(1), 91–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kogan, I., & Cohen, Y. (2007). Educational selectivity and labor market attainment of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany in the 1990 s. In H. Kolb & H. Egbert (Eds.), Work, entrepreneurship and economic integration (pp. 104–119). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kossoudji, S. (1988). English language ability and the labor market opportunities of Hispanic and East Asian immigrant men. Journal of Labor Economics, 6, 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kunh, P., & Weinberger, C. (2005). Leadership skills and wages. Journal of Labor Economics, 23, 395–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lang, F., & Lüdtke, O. (2005). Der Big Five-Ansatz der Persönlichkeitsforschung: Instrumente und Vorgehen. In S. Schumann (Ed.), Persönlichkeit: Eine vergessene Größe der empirischen Sozialforschung (pp. 29–40). Wiebaden: VS-Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Liebau, E. (2010). Integrationsmuster in den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt von Zuwanderern aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion – Eine Ursachenanalyse der Entstehungsbedingungen. Inaugural dissertation, Universität Mannheim.Google Scholar
  54. Lin, N. (1999). Social networks and status attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 467–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lin, N. (2001). Social capital. A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Lin, N., Cook, K., & Burt, R. S. (Eds.). (2001). Social capital: Theory and research. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Marsden, P. V. (2001). Interpersonal ties, social capital, and employer staffing practices. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research (pp. 105–126). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Martinovic, B., van Tubergen, F., & Maas, I. (2009). Dynamics of interethnic contact: A panel study of immigrants in the Netherlands. European Sociological Review, 25(3), 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mayer, K. U. (2001). The sociology of the life course and life span psychology – diverging or converging pathways. Ann Arbor: Society for the Study of Human Development, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  60. Mesch, G. (2002). Between spatial and social segregation among immigrants: The case of immigrants from the FSU in Israel. International Migration Review, 36, 912–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Montgomery, J. D. (1992). Job search and network composition: Implications of the strength-of-weak-ties hypothesis. American Sociological Review, 57, 586–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mouw, T. (2002). Racial differences in the effects of job contacts: Conflicting evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Social Science Research, 31(4), 511–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Müller, W., Steinmann, S., & Ell, R. (1998). Education and labour market entry in Germany. In Y. Shavit & W. Müller (Eds.), From school to work. A comparative study of educational qualifications and occupational destinations (pp. 143–188). Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  64. Portes, A. (1995). The economic sociology of immigration: Essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  67. Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. The American Journal of Sociology., 98(6), 1320–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sanders, J., & Nee, V. (1996). Immigrant self-employment: The family as social capital and the value of human capital. American Sociological Review, 61(2), 231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sanders, J., Nee, V., & Sernal, S. (2002). Asian immigrants’ reliance on social ties in a multiethnic labor market. Social Forces, 81(1), 281–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schoeps, J. H., Jasper, W., & Vogt, B. (Eds.). (1996). Russische Juden in Deutschland. Beltz Altenäum Verlag: Weinheim.Google Scholar
  72. Schoeps, J. H., Jasper, W., & Vogt, B. (Eds.). (1999). Ein neues Judentum in Deutschland? Fremdund Eigenbilder der russisch-jüdischen Einwanderer. Potsdam: Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg.Google Scholar
  73. Stainback, K. (2008). Social contacts and race/ethnic job matching. Social Forces, 87(4), 857–886.Google Scholar
  74. Thelen, K. (1991). Union of parts: Labor politics in postwar Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Uhlig, J., Solga, H., & Schupp, J. (2009). Bildungsungleichheiten und blockierte Lernpotenziale: Welche Bedeutung hat die Persönlichkeitsstruktur für diesen Zusammenhang? Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 37(5), 418–441.Google Scholar
  76. Waldinger, R. (1994). The making of an immigrant niche. International Migration Review, 28(1), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Waldinger, R. (1996). Still the promised city: African-Americans and new immigration in postindustrial New York. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Waldinger, R. (2005). Networks and niches: The continuing significance of ethnic connections. In G. C. Loury, T. Modood, & S. M. Teles (Eds.), Ethnicity, social mobility and public policy (pp. 342–362). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Wiley, N. F. (1970). The ethnic mobility trap and stratification theory. In P. I. Rose (Ed.), The study of society. An integrated anthology (2nd ed., pp. 397–408). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  80. Xie, Y., & Goyette, K. (2003). Social mobility and the educational choices of Asian Americans. Social Science Research, 3, 467–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhou, M. (1992). Chinatown: The socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Zhou, M. (1999). Segmented assimilation: Issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. In C. Hirschman, P. Kasinitz, & J. DeWind (Eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 196–211). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irena Kogan
    • 1
  • Frank Kalter
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Liebau
    • 2
  • Yinon Cohen
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of MannheimMannheimGermany
  2. 2.German Institute for Economic Research (DIW)BerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of SociologyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations