Abstract

Cotton leaf curl disease is the major biotic threat to cotton production in India and Pakistan. The typical symptoms of the disease on cotton and several other malvaceous and solanaceous plant species include vein swelling and formation of leaf-like outgrowths called enations. Severely infected leaves show rolling with spirally twisted leaf petioles, branches and the main stem. Severely infected plants become stunted in growth resulting in high yield losses and poor fiber quality. In association with essential disease-specific satellite components beta DNA satellite and a nonfunctional alpha satellite the disease is caused by a group of whitefly-transmitted Geminiviruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Like other Begomoviruses Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is exclusively transmitted by a whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci in a circulative, persistent manner, and can be retained from few days to the entire life period of the whitefly. The virus is not transmitted transovarially by the vector. Whiteflies require an acquisition threshold period ranging from 15 min to 4 h and an inoculation threshold period of 5 min to 1 h to successfully transmit the virus depending upon the virus strain, host plant, vector behavior and the abiotic factors. Up to 8 h latent period is also required between the acquisition and inoculation periods for successful transmission of the virus to new plants. The transmission efficiency is greatly improved with an increase in acquisition and inoculation periods and number of whiteflies. The virus has mixed effects on the biology and behavior of whiteflies. Despite the importance of virus-vector interactions in disease epidemiology and spread the studies on interactions between CLCuV and B. tabaci are still in infancy. This chapter reviews the basic interactions between this very important virus-vector system.

Keywords

Cotton Plant Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Insect Vector Cotton Leaf Sooty Mold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entomology and NematologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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