Mineralogy in Exploration of Mineral Deposits Using Magnetic, Electrical and Gravitational Properties
Exploration geology is the process and science of locating valuable mineral or petroleum deposits, i.e., those which have commercial value. The term “prospecting” is almost synonymous with the term “exploration”. The exploitation of the vast mineral reserves to meet the growing requirements for a variety of applications has been a major economic activity, contributing significantly to a country’s industrial development and export trade. If bedrock is exposed anywhere at or around a prospect, then surface bedrock mapping is an essential beginning step for an exploration programme. This would include mapping and sampling (field geologic methods). This work focusses on identifying and mapping outcrops, describing mineralization and alteration, measuring structural features (geometry), and making geologic cross sections. Geochemical methods involve the collection and geochemical analysis of geological materials, including rocks, soils and stream sediments. The results mapping and sampling may suggest patterns indicating the direction where an ore deposit could be present underground or at the surface. Geophysical methods focus on measuring physical characteristics (such as magnetism, density or conductivity) of rocks at or near the earth’s surface. The measured values are then used to compare with the values and models of known ore deposits. A closer look on all these methods will be given in this chapter.
KeywordsClay Mineral Seismic Wave Gravity Anomaly Mineral Deposit Induce Polarization
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