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Plant Breeding pp 317-332 | Cite as

Application of Biotechnology to Maize and Wheat Improvement

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Abstract

Today, scientists can take advantage of genes that are derived from various sources, including related and unrelated species, those identified via genetic mapping experiments and most recently from the efforts of functional genomics. Through the application of molecular genetics and genetic engineering, coupled. with conventional crossing approaches, these genes can be efficiently incorporated into modern plant varieties. One of the most studied traits at CIMMYT is abiotic stress tolerance, especially tolerance to water-limited conditions. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping, has identified several regions of the maize genome involved in the response to water stress. Efforts are underway to identify the underlying genes in these regions and to determine their potential to further improve the water-stress responses in maize and wheat. Candidate gene approaches are also being used employing resistance-like sequences isolated from rice and maize, to find possible homologies with genes conditioning disease resistance in wheat. The possibility of utilizing markers identified for Lr4/Yr29 and Lr34/Yr18 in applications in the wheat breeding activities are being explored. While the PCR-based marker systems have allowed more effective and efficient genotyping, DNA-array technology offers a substantially increase the number of genes that can be analysed. Efforts are also underway to develop complete EST databases for many cereals, including maize and wheat. Marker-assisted selection for polygenic trait improvement is in an important transition phase, and this field is on the verge of producing convincing results. Considering the potential for the development of new strategies, the future for polygenic trait improvement through DNA markers and the contribution of this to plant breeding efforts worldwide, appear bright.

Keywords

Quantitative Trait Locus Drought Tolerance Fusarium Head Blight Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Leaf Rust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Mexico

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