Adhesion Mechanisms of Plant-Pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae
- 3.7k Downloads
The family Xanthomonadaceae is a wide-spread family of bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Gram-negative proteobacteria, including the two plant-pathogenic genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, and the related genus Stenotrophomonas. Adhesion is a widely conserved virulence mechanism among Gram-negative bacteria, no matter whether they are human, animal or plant pathogens, since attachment to the host tissue is one of the key early steps of the bacterial infection process. Bacterial attachment to surfaces is mediated by surface structures that are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane and cover a broad group of fimbrial and non-fimbrial structures, commonly known as adhesins. In this chapter, we discuss recent findings on candidate adhesins of plant-pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae, including polysaccharidic (lipopolysaccharides, exopolysaccharides) and proteineous structures (chaperone/usher pili, type IV pili, autotransporters, two-partner-secreted and other outer membrane adhesins), their involvement in the formation of biofilms and their mode of regulation via quorum sensing. We then compare the arsenals of adhesins among different Xanthomonas strains and evaluate their mode of selection. Finally, we summarize the sparse knowledge on specific adhesin receptors in plants and the possible role of RGD motifs in binding to integrin-like plant molecules.
KeywordsXylem Vessel Diffusible Signal Factor Fimbrial Subunit Adhesin Gene Filamentous Hemagglutinin
We are grateful to Maurice Lesourd and Robert Filmon from the Service Commun d’Imagerie et d’Analyses Microscopiques, Faculté de Médecine, Université d’Angers, France, for help with scanning electron microscopy.
- Bhattacharyya A, Stilwagen S, Ivanova N, D’Souza M, Bernal A, Lykidis A, Kapatral V, Anderson I, Larsen N, Los T, Reznik G, Selkov Jr E, Walunas TE, Feil H, Feil WS, Purcell A, Lassez JL, Hawkins TL, Haselkorn R, Overbeek R, Predki PF, Kyrpides NC (2002) Whole-genome comparative analysis of three phytopathogenic Xylella fastidiosa strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12403–12408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cotter SE, Surana NK, Geme 3rd JW (2005) Trimeric autotransporters: a distinct subfamily of autotransporter proteins. Trends Microbiol 13:199–205Google Scholar
- He YW, Xu M, Lin K, Ng YJ, Wen CM, Wang LH, Liu ZD, Zhang HB, Dong YH, Dow JM, Zhang LH (2006) Genome scale analysis of diffusible signal factor regulon in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris: identification of novel cell-cell communication-dependent genes and functions. Mol Microbiol 59:610–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lu H, Patil P, Van Sluys MA, White FF, Ryan RP, Dow JM, Rabinowicz J, Salzberg SL, Leach JE, Sonti R, Brendel V, Bogdanove AJ (2008) Acquisition and evolution of plant pathogenesis-associated gene clusters and candidate determinants of tissue-specificity in Xanthomonas. PLoS One 3:e3828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mhedbi-Hajri N, Darrasse A, Pigné S, Durand K, Fouteau S, Barbe V, Manceau C, Lemaire C, Jacques MA (2011) Sensing and adhesion are adaptive functions in the plant pathogenic xanthomonads. BMC Evol Biol (in press)Google Scholar
- Ojanen-Reuhs T, Kalkkinen N, Westerlund-Wikström B, van Doorn J, Haahtela K, Nurmiaho-Lassila EL, Wengelnik K, Bonas U, Korhonen TK (1997) Characterization of the fimA gene encoding bundle-forming fimbriae of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. J Bacteriol 179:1280–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qian W, Jia Y, Ren SX, He YQ, Feng JX, Lu LF, Sun Q, Ying G, Tang DJ, Tang H, Wu W, Hao P, Wang L, Jiang BL, Zeng S, Gu WY, Lu G, Rong L, Tian Y, Yao Z, Fu G, Chen B, Fang R, Qiang B, Chen Z, Zhao GP, Tang JL, He C (2005) Comparative and functional genomic analyses of the pathogenicity of phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Genome Res 15:757–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- St. Geme 3rd JW, Yeo HJ (2009) A prototype two-partner secretion pathway: the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesin systems. Trends Microbiol 17:355–360Google Scholar
- Tahara ST, Mehta A, Rosato YB (2003) Proteins induced by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae with leaf extract of the host plant (Passiflorae edulis). Proteomics 3:95–102Google Scholar
- Torres PS, Malamud F, Rigano LA, Russo DM, Marano MR, Castagnaro AP, Zorreguieta A, Bouarab K, Dow JM, Vojnov AA (2007) Controlled synthesis of the DSF cell-cell signal is required for biofilm formation and virulence in Xanthomonas campestris. Environ Microbiol 9:2101–2109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar