Autism Spectrum Disorders

Chapter

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders are becoming more recognized in the general population. With increased awareness, primary care physicians are diagnosing these disorders at an earlier age. The following is a brief review of the proposed diagnostic changes in DSM-V, and recommendations for making a diagnosis and for treatment planning.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autistic Child Asperger Syndrome Autistic Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Author gratefully acknowledges the editorial contributions by Dr Michael Liepman in the preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child. 1943;2:217–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asperger H. Die ‘Autistischen Psychopathen’ im Kindesalter. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1944;117:76–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wing L. Asperger’s syndrome: a clinical account. Psychol Med. 1981;11:115–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rutter M. Diagnosis and definition. In: Rutter M, Schopler E, editors. Autism: a reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1978.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-III). 3rd ed. Washington, DC: APA; 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-V development. Washington, DC: APA; 2010.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Text revision. Washington, DC: APA; 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:591–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2006 Principal Investigators. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders. Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. MMWR. 2009;58:1–20.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bailey A, Le Couteur A, Gottesman I, Bolton P, Simonoff E, Yuzda E, Rutter M. Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychol Med. 1995;25:63–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumar RA, Christian SL. Genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9:188–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Landrigan PJ. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;22:219–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Watt N, Wetherby AM, Barber A, Morgan L. Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38:1518–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Autism information center. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html. Accessed 23 Aug 2010.
  15. 15.
    Autism: Caring for children with Autism spectrum disorders: A resource toolkit for clinicians. Elk Grove Village, IL: Am Acad Pediatr; 2007.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Medical Association. Special issue on autism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:313–424.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Volkmar F, Cook EH Jr, Pomeroy J, Realmuto G, Tanguay P. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(12):32S–54S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghaziuddin M, Weidmer-Mikhail E, Ghaziuddin N. Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome: A preliminary report. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1998;42:279–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stewart ME, Barnard L, Pearson J, Hasan R, O’Brien G. Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: a review. Autism. 2006;10:103–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryKalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Michigan State UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations