Inflammation

Chapter

Abstract

Inflammation is the complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells or irritants [1] that consists of both vascular and cellular responses. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and initiate healing process and to restore both structure and function. It should be understood that infection and inflammation are not synonymous: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen while inflammation is the response of the organism to the pathogen. Inflammation may be local or systemic, and it can be acute or chronic. During the inflammatory process, the reaction of blood vessels is unique that leads to the accumulation of fluid and leukocytes in extravascular tissues. The reaction of blood vessels can be in the form of vasodilatation that is seen in the form of hyperemia at the site(s) of injury, that increases blood supply to the injured tissue/organ so that cellular elements, antibodies and nutrients can reach the site of injury in adequate amounts to eliminate the inflammation-inducing agent and/or repair process can be initiated once inflammation subsides. Thus, both injury and repair are two sides of the inflammatory process that are very closely intertwined such that it is difficult to separate these two processes. In fact, in majority of the instances, both inflammation to injury and repair occur almost simultaneously.

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Nitric Oxide Metabolic Syndrome Nitric Oxide NADPH Oxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UND Life ScienceShaker HeightsUSA
  2. 2.School of BiotechnologyJawaharlal Nehru Technological UniversityKakinadaIndia

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