Introduction: Networking in Schools

  • Daniel Muijs
  • Mel Ainscow
  • Chris Chapman
  • Mel West
Chapter

Abstract

Traditionally, a network has been defined as a set of actors (individuals or organisations such as schools) connected by a set of ties, which can be of a more or less formal nature (Borgatti & Foster, 2003). The principle of networking and collaboration has become more prevalent and more widely studied in organisations both in the private and public sectors. This move is seen to arise from advances in the understanding of learning and especially the perceived advantages of collaborative learning, and, in the private sector at least, from an increased need for innovation stemming from intensified international competition, that is seen to necessitate flexible networks that can reduce the exposure of firms to risk and uncertainty (Cohen & Levintal, 1990; Borgatti & Foster, 2003). Arguably, this need for increased innovation is also present in the education system, as demands on the system have increased due to a greater political interest in education.

Keywords

Collaborative Learning School Improvement School Network Collaborative Arrangement Challenging Circumstance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adler, L. (1995). The Los Angeles area business/education partnership. A study of the impact of a community based school to work program for high risk youth. Washington, DC: Educational Information Center (ERIC).Google Scholar
  2. Ainscow, M., & West, M. (2006). Improving urban schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Borgatti, S., & Foster, P. (2003). The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology. Journal of Management, 29(6), 991–1013.Google Scholar
  4. Chapman, C., & Allen, T (2005). Partnerships for improvement: The specialist schools achievement programme. London: The Specialist Schools Trust.Google Scholar
  5. Chapman, C., & Fullan, M (2007). Collaboration and partnership for equitable improvement: Towards a networked learning system? School Leadership and Management, 27(3), 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman, C., & Harris, A. (2004). Improving schools in difficult and challenging contexts: Strategies for improvement. Journal of Education Research, 46(3), 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Datnow, A., Hubbard, L., & Mehan, H. (2002). Extending educational reform: From one school to many. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Hargreaves, A. (2003a). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hargreaves, D. H. (2003b). Education epidemic: Transforming secondary schools through innovation networks. London: Demos.Google Scholar
  10. Kahne, J., et al. (2001). Leveraging social capital and school improvement: The case of a school network and a comprehensive community initiative in Chicago. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37(4), 429–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lindsay, G., Harris, A., Chapman, C., & Muijs, D. (2005). School federations. Preliminary report to the DfES. Coventry: University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  12. Montgomery, D. (2001). Increasing native American Indian involvement in gifted programs in rural schools. Psychology in the Schools, 38(5), 467–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Muijs, D., Harris, A., Chapman, C., Stoll, L., & Russ, J. (2004). Improving schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas: An overview of research. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nooteboom, B. (2004). Inter-firm collaboration, networks and strategy: An integrated approach (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Pinon, D., Samii-Shore, K., & Batchelder, M. (2002). Principles of learning: 2001–2002 Evaluation report. Austin, TX: The University of Texas.Google Scholar
  16. Potter, D., Reynolds, D., & Chapman, C. (2002). School improvement for schools facing challenging circumstances: A review of research and practice. School Leadership and Management, 22(2), 14–21.Google Scholar
  17. Reyes, P., & Phillips, J. C. (2002). The Houston Annenberg challenge research and evaluation study. Year two evaluation report. Transforming public schools. Austin, TX: The University of Texas.Google Scholar
  18. Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday/Currency.Google Scholar
  19. Stoll, L. (1999). Realising our potential: Understanding and developing capacity for lasting improvement. School Effectiveness and Improvement, 10(4), 503–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Teddlie, C., & Reynolds, D. (Eds.). (2000). International handbook of school effectiveness research. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  21. Thurlow, M., et al. (1999). District partnership approach to inclusion: A qualitative evaluation of impact. Minneapolis, MN: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  22. Bielefeldt, T., et al. (1999). Connected learning communities: Findings from the road ahead program, 1995–1997. Paper presented at the American educational research association annual conference, Montreal, QC, Canada, April 1999.Google Scholar
  23. CUREE. (2005). Systematic research review: The impact of networks on pupils, practitioners, organisations and the committees they serve. Nottingham: NCSL.Google Scholar
  24. Greenberg, K. H. (1996, June). The cognitive enrichment network education model (COGNET). Paper presented at the 3rd head start national research conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  25. West, M., & Ainscow, M. (2006,September). School-to-school cooperation as a strategy for school improvement in schools in difficult urban contexts. Paper presented at the European conference on educational research, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  26. West, M., & Muijs, D. (2006). Improving schools in complex and challenging circumstances through school-to school collaboration: A review of key findings from recent UK initiatives promoting school partnership arrangements. Paper presented at the European conference on educational research, Geneva, Switzerland, September 2006.Google Scholar
  27. Cohen, W., & Levithal, D. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. OECD. (2000). Knowledge management in the learning society. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  29. 216.
    Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, B., Smith, T., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools that learn: A fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  30. Sanders, M. G. (1999). Schools’ programs and progress in the national network of partnership schools. Journal of Educational Research, 92(4), 220–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 215.
    Riley, K., & Jordan, J. (2004). “It makes sense to me”: Reforming classrooms from the bottom up: a case study in change. Improving Schools, 7(3), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 2.
    Ainscow, M., & West, M. (2005). School-to-school collaboration in complex and challenging circumstances. Paper prepared for the National College for School leadership. Manchester: University of Manchester.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Muijs
    • 1
  • Mel Ainscow
    • 2
  • Chris Chapman
    • 2
  • Mel West
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Southampton, School of EducationSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.University of Manchester, School of EducationManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations