Advertisement

Tidal Sands of the Bahamian Archipelago

  • Eugene C. Rankey
  • Stacy Lynn Reeder
Chapter

Abstract

Tidal sands consisting entirely of carbonate sediments are ubiquitous in the Bahamian archipelago. These sands include a diversity of sediment types, including ooids, peloids, and skeletal fragments. Sands transported by tides, waves, and currents create barforms in tidal sand complexes with a range of shapes and sizes. These features are shaped by, and in turn modify, tidal currents that move on and off the shallow platforms; waves and wave-driven currents play a subordinate but locally important role in their genesis and architecture. Collectively, barforms make up shallow shoal complexes. These shoal complexes are focused in areas with elevated tidal currents (locally in excess of 200 cm/s) near platform margins, and can exceed 10 km in width. The diversity of barforms and shoal morphology evident in Holocene examples is reflected in the stratigraphic record of numerous ancient tidal sand shoals, with preservation favored by the early cementation ubiquitous in these carbonate systems.

Keywords

Sand Flat Platform Interior Tidal Sand Oolitic Shoal Sand Shoal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agassiz A (1896) The elevated reef of Florida. Bull Mus Comp Zool 28:1–62Google Scholar
  2. Ashley GM (1990) Classification of large-scale sub-aqueous bedforms: a new look at an old problem. J Sediment Petrol 60:160–172Google Scholar
  3. Aurell M, McNeill DF, Guyomard T, Kindler P (1995) Pleistocene shallowing-upward sequences in New Providence, Bahamas: signature of high-frequency sea-level fluctuations in shallow carbonate platforms. J Sediment Res B65:170–182Google Scholar
  4. Ball MM (1967) Carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas. J Sediment Petrol 37:556–591Google Scholar
  5. Bathurst RGC (1967) Oolitic films on low energy carbonate sand grains, Bimini Lagoon, Bahamas. Mar Geol 5:89-109.Google Scholar
  6. Bathurst RGC (1975) Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis, vol 12, Developments in sedimentology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 658 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Beach DK, Ginsburg RN (1980) Facies succession of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonates, northwestern Great Bahama Bank. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 64:1634–1642Google Scholar
  8. Braithwaite CJR (1973) Settling behaviour related to sieve analysis of skeletal sands. Sedimentology 20:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown MA, Archer AA, Kvale EP (1990) Neap-spring tidal cyclicity in laminated carbonate channel-fill deposits and its implications; Salem Limestone (Mississippian), south-central Indiana, U.S.A. J Sediment Res 60:152–159Google Scholar
  10. Budd DA (1984) Freshwater diagenesis of Holocene ooid sands, Schooner Cays, Bahamas. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, 491 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Carney C, Boardman MR (1993) Trends in sedimentary microfabrics of ooid tidal channels and deltas. In: Rezak R, Lavoie DL (eds) Frontiers in sedimentary geology: carbonate microfabrics. Springer, New York, pp 29–39Google Scholar
  12. Carr DD (1973) Geometry and origin of oolite bodies in the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (Mississippian) in the Illinois basin. Indiana Geol Surv Bulletin 48, 81 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Caston VND (1972) Linear sand banks in the southern North Sea. Sedimentology 18:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavallo LJ, Smosna R (1997) Predicting porosity distribution within oolitic bars in J.A. Kupecz, J. Gluyas, and S. Block (eds.), reservoir quality prediction in sandstones and carbonates. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 69:211–229Google Scholar
  15. Cayeux L (1935) Les Roches Sedimentares de France. Roches Carbonatees Masson, Paris, 463 pGoogle Scholar
  16. Cruz FE (2008) Processes, patterns and petrophysical heterogeneity of grainstone shoals at Ocean Cay, Western Great Bahama Bank. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of MiamiGoogle Scholar
  17. Dalrymple RW, Rhodes RN (1995) Estuarine dunes and barforms. In: Perillo GM (ed) Geomorphology and sedimentology of Estuaries, vol 53, Developments in sedimentology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 359–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies PJ, Bubela B, Ferguson J (1978) The formation of ooids. Sedimentology 25:703–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deelman JC (1978) Experimental ooids and grapestones: carbonate aggregates and their origin. J Sediment Petrol 48:503–512Google Scholar
  20. Dill RF, Shinn EA, Jones AT, Kelly K, Steinen RP (1986) Giant subtidal stromatolites forming in normal salinity waters. Nature 324:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dravis J (1979) Rapid and widespread generation of recent oolitic hardgrounds on a high energy Bahamian platform, Eleuthera Bank, Bahamas. J Sediment Petrol 49:195–208Google Scholar
  22. Duguid SMA, Kyser TK, James NP, Rankey EC (2010) Microbes and ooids. J Sediment Res 80:236–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dyer K, Huntey DA (1999) The origin, classification, and modeling of sand banks and ridges. Cont Shelf Res 19:1285–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Enos P (1974) Surface sediment facies map of the Florida-Bahamas Plateau. Geol Soc Am Map Series MC-5, Boulder, CO, 5 pGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans CC (1987) The relationship between the topography and internal structure of an ooid shoal sand complex: the upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone, p 18–41. In: Maurasse FJ-MR (ed) Symposium on South Florida geology, Miami Geological Society, Miami, 233 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Folk RL, Lynch FL (2001) Organic matter, putative nannobacteria, and the formation of ooids and hardgrounds. Sedimentology 48:215–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. French JA, Watney WL (1993) Stratigraphy and depositional setting of the lower Missourian (Pennsylvanian) Bethany Falls and Mound Valley limestones, analogues for age-equivalent ooid grainstone reservoirs. Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, Kansas, pp 27–39Google Scholar
  28. Ginsburg RN, Shinn EA (1993) Preferential distribution of reefs in the Florida reef tract: the past is the key to the present, Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards, and History. University of Miami Press, Miami, pp H21–H26Google Scholar
  29. Gonzalez R, Eberli GP (1997) Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Islands, Bahamas. Sedimentology 44:1015–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grammer M, Crescini CM, McNeill DF, Taylor LH (1999) Quantifying rates of syndepositional marine cementation in deeper platform environments – new insights into a fundamental process. J Sediment Res 69:202–207Google Scholar
  31. Grasmueck M, Weger RJ (2002) 3D GPR reveals complex internal structure of Pleistocene oolitic sandbar. Lead Edge 21:634–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Halley RB, Evans CC (1983) The Miami Limestone: a guide to selected outcrops and their interpretation. Miami Geological Society, Coral Gables, 67 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Halley RB, Harris PM (1979) Fresh-water cementation of a 1,000-year old oolite. J Sediment Petrol 49:969–987Google Scholar
  34. Halley RB, Shinn EA, Hudson JH, Lidz BH (1977) Pleistocene barrier bar seaward of ooid shoal complex near Miami, Florida. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 61:519–526Google Scholar
  35. Halley RB, Harris PM, Hine AC (1983) Bank margin environments. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 33:463–506Google Scholar
  36. Handford CR (1988) Review of carbonate sand-belt deposition of ooid grainstones and application to Mississippian reservoir, Damme Field, southwestern Kansas. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 72:1184–1199Google Scholar
  37. Harris PM (1979) Facies anatomy and diagenesis of a Bahamian ooid shoal, vol VII, Sedimenta. University of Miami, Miami, 163 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris PM, Weber LJ (eds) (2006) Giant hydrocarbon reservoirs of the world: from rocks to reservoir characterization and modeling. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 88, 469 pGoogle Scholar
  39. Hayes MO (1975) Morphology of sand accumulation in estuaries and introduction to the symposium. In: Cronin LE (ed) Estuarine research. Academic, New York, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  40. Hearty PJ, Kindler P (1993) New perspectives on Bahamian geology. J Coast Res 9:577–594Google Scholar
  41. Hillgärtner H, Dupraz C, Hug W (2001) Microbially induced cementation of carbonate sands: are micritic meniscus cements good indicators of vadose diagenesis? Sedimentology 48:117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hine AC (1977) Lily Bank, Bahamas: history of an active oolite sand shoal. J Sediment Petrol 47:1554–1581Google Scholar
  43. Hine AC, Neumann AC (1977) Shallow carbonate-bank-margin growth and structure, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 61:376–406Google Scholar
  44. Hine AC, Wilber RJ, Neumann AC (1981) Carbonate sand bodies along contrasting shallow bank margins facing open seaways in northern Bahamas. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 65:261–290Google Scholar
  45. Hoffmeister JE, Stockman KW, Multer HG (1967) Miami Limestone of Florida and its recent Bahamian counterpart. Geol Soc Am Bull 78:75–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Houbolt JJHC (1968) Recent sediments in the Southern Bight of the North Sea. Geol Mijnb 47:245–273Google Scholar
  47. Illing LV (1954) Bahamian calcareous sands. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 38:1–95Google Scholar
  48. Imbrie J, Buchanan H (1965) Sedimentary structures in modern carbonate sands of the Bahamas. In: Middleton GV (ed) Primary sedimentary structures and their hydrodynamic interpretations. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral Spec Publ 12:149–172Google Scholar
  49. James NP (1983) Reef environment (Chap. 8). In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 33:346–462Google Scholar
  50. Keith BD, Zuppann CW (eds) (1993) Mississippian oolites and modern analogs. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology, Tulsa, 35Google Scholar
  51. Kench PS, McLean RF (1996) Hydraulic characteristics of bioclastic deposits: new possibilities for environmental interpretation using settling velocity fractions. Sedimentology 43:561–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee K, Tong LT, Millero FJ, Sabine CL, Dickson AG, Goyet C, Park G-H, Wanninkhof R, Feely RA, Key RM (2006) Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world’s oceans. Geophys Res Lett 33:L19605. doi: 10.1029/2006GL027207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neal A, Grasmueck M, McNeill DF, Viggiano DA, Eberli GP (2008) Full-resolution 3D radar stratigraphy of complex oolitic sedimentary architecture: Miami Limestone, Florida, U.S.A. J Sediment Res 78:638–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neumann AC, Macintyre I (1985) Reef response to sea level rise: keep-up, catch-up or give-up. In: Proceedings of the 5th international coral reef congress, Tahiti, 27 May–1 June 1985, vol 3, pp 105–110Google Scholar
  55. Neumann CJ, Cry GW, Caso EE, Jarvinen BR (1978) Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871–1977. National Climatic Center, Asheville, 170 pGoogle Scholar
  56. Newell ND, Rigby JK (1957) Geological studies on the Great Bahama Bank. In: Le Blanc RJ, Breeding JG (eds) Regional aspects of carbonate deposition. Soc Econ Paleontol Miner Spec Publ 5:15–72Google Scholar
  57. Newell ND, Imbrie J, Purdy EG, Thurber DL (1959) Organism communities and bottom facies, Great Bahama Bank. Bull Am Mus Natl Hist 117:177–228Google Scholar
  58. Newell ND, Purdy EG, Imbrie J (1960) Bahamian oolitic sand. J Geol 68:481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Off T (1963) Rhythmic linear sand bodies caused by tidal currents. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 47:324–341Google Scholar
  60. Opdyke BN, Wilkinson BH (1990) Paleolatitude distribution of Phanerozoic marine ooids and cements. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 78:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Palmer MS (1979) Holocene facies geometry of the leeward bank margin, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. MS thesis, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 199 pGoogle Scholar
  62. Prager EJ, Southard JB, Vivoni-Gallart ER (1996) Experiments on the entrainment threshold of well-sorted and poorly sorted carbonate sands. Sedimentology 43:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Purdy EG (1961) Bahamian oolite shoals. In: Peterson JA, Osmond JC (eds) Geometry of sandstone bodies. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology, Tulsa, pp 53–63Google Scholar
  64. Purdy EG (1963) Recent calcium carbonate facies of the Great Bahama Bank. 2. Sedimentary facies. J Geol 71:472–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rankey EC, Reeder SL (2009) Holocene ooids of Aitutaki Atoll, Cook Islands, South Pacific. Geology 37:971–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rankey EC, Reeder SL (2010) Controls on platform-scale patterns of surface sediments, shallow Holocene platforms, Bahamas. Sedimentology 57:1545–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rankey EC, Reeder SL (2011) Holocene oolitic marine sand complexes of the Bahamas. J Sediment Res 81:97-117Google Scholar
  68. Rankey EC, Riegl B, Steffen K (2006) Form and function in a tidally dominated ooid shoal, Bahamas. Sedimentology 53:1191–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rankey EC, Reeder SL, Correa TBS (2008) Geomorphology and sedimentology of Ambergris ooid shoal, Caicos Platform. In: Morgan WA, Harris PM (eds) Developing models and analogs for isolated carbonate platforms – Holocene and Pleistocene carbonates of Caicos Platform, British West Indies SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Core workshop, vol 22, pp 127–132Google Scholar
  70. Reeder SL, Rankey EC (2008) Interactions between tidal flows and ooid shoals, northern Bahamas. J Sediment Res 78:175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reeder SL, Rankey EC (2009a) An integrated field, remote sensing, and modeling study examining the impact of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on carbonate systems, Bahamas. In: Swart PK, Eberli GP, McKenzie JA (eds) Perspectives in carbonate geology: a tribute to the career of Robert Nathan Ginsburg. IAS special publication 41. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 75–90Google Scholar
  72. Reeder SL, Rankey EC (2009b) Controls on morphology and sedimentology of carbonate tidal deltas, Abacos, Bahamas. Mar Geol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2009.09.010
  73. Rich JL (1948) Submarine sedimentary features on Bahama Banks and their bearing on distribution patterns of lenticular oil sands. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 32:767–779Google Scholar
  74. Roberts HH, Rouse LJ Jr, Walker ND, Hudson JH (1982) Cold-water stress in Florida Bay and northern Bahamas – a product of winter cold-air outbreaks. J Sediment Petrol 52:145–155Google Scholar
  75. Roberts HH, Wilson PA, Lugo-Fernandez A (1992) Biologic and geologic responses to physical processes: examples from modern reef systems of the Caribbean-Atlantic region. Cont Shelf Res 12:809–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sedimentology Seminar (1966) Cross-bedding in the Salem Limestone of central Indiana. Sedimentology 6:95–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith NP (1995) On long-term net flow over Great Bahama Bank. J Phys Oceanogr 25:679–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Society R (2005) Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, London, pp 1–55, Policy Document 12/05Google Scholar
  79. Sumner DY, Grotzinger JP (1993) Numerical modeling of ooid size and the problem of Neoproterozoic giant ooids. J Sediment Petrol 63:974–982Google Scholar
  80. Taft WH, Arrington F, Haimovitz A, MacDonald C, Woolheater C (1968) Lithification of modern marine carbonate sediments at Yellow Bank, Bahamas. Bull Mar Sci 18:762–828Google Scholar
  81. Tucker ME, Wright VP (1996) Carbonate sedimentology. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Veen J (1936) Onderzoekingen in de Hoofden in verband met de gesteldheid previous termvannext term de Nederlandse kust. (Measurements in the Straits of Dover, and their relation to the Netherlands coast). Algemeene Landsdrukkerij, The Hague, 252 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Wanless HR, Tedesco LP (1993) Comparison of oolitic sand bodies generated by tidal vs. wind-wave agitation. In: Keith BD, Zuppan ZW (eds) Mississippian oolites and modern analogs. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Stud Geol 35:199–225Google Scholar
  84. Wanless HR, Burton EA, Dravis JJ (1981) Hydrodynamics of carbonate fecal pellets. J Sediment Petrol 51:27–36Google Scholar
  85. Wanless HR, Tedesco LP, Rossinsky V, Dravis JJ (1989) Carbonate environments and sequences of Caicos Platform with an introductory evaluation of South Florida. American Geophysical Union, 28th international Geological congress field trip guidebook T374, 75 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Wood LJ (2004) Predicting tidal sand reservoir architecture using data from modern and ancient depositional systems. In: Grammer MG, Harris PM, Eberli GP (eds) Integration of outdrop and modern analogs in reservoir modeling. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 80:45–66Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Schlumberger-Doll ResearchCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations