Engineering Earth pp 1465-1480 | Cite as

The Impacts of Megahydraulic Engineering Projects from a Dutch Perspective

  • Guus J. Borger
  • Sjoerd J. Kluiving
  • Adriaan M.J. De Kraker
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the building of two megahydraulic engineering projects in Holland: the Zuiderzee Project and the Delta Project. The initial objectives of these megastructures were safety and reducing the salt gradient and land reclamation in order to guarantee food supply. Only the Delta Project focused on the first objective. Although the initial objectives were met, the perception of the initial objectives shifted during the 1970s, rendering nature building, ecology, fresh water supply, urbanization and recreation as being important as well. As a result of this promotion, megahydraulic engineering projects in the Netherlands have undergone similar changes. While the vast reclaimed areas in the Zuiderzee area and the abandoned reclamation of the Markermeer already anticipated the need for nature building, ecology, urbanization and fresh water supply, this was not the case in the Delta area. Here only the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier anticipated the shift in perception, but some ecological changes were not anticipated until recently.

Keywords

Storm Surge Initial Objective Tidal Inlet Tectonic Subsidence Salt Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Beets, D. J., & Van der Spek, A. J. F. (2000). The Holocene evolution of the barrier and the back-barrier basins of Belgium and the Netherlands as a function of late Weichselian morphology, relative sea-level rise and sediment supply. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 79(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  2. Bijker, W. E. (2002). The Oosterschelde storm surge barrier: A test case for Dutch water technology, management, and politics. Technology and Culture, 43(3), 569–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De Gans, W. (2007). Quaternary. In: T. E. Wong, T. E. D. Batjes, & J. De Jager (Eds.), The geology of the Netherlands (pp. 173–196). Amsterdam Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, vii.Google Scholar
  4. De Kraker, A. M. J. (2006). Flood events in the southwestern Netherlands and coastal Belgium, 1400–1953. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 51(5), 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Ridder, T. (2005). Wassermanagement in römischer Zeit: Die ältesten Deltawerke in Westeuropa. In: M. Fansa & C. Endlich (Eds.) Kulturlandschaft Marsch. Natur – Geschichte – Gegenwart. Vorträge anlässlich des Symposiums in Oldenburg vom 3. bis 5. Juni 2004. Schriftenreihe des Landesmuseums für Natur und Mensch, Heft 33 (pp. 60–67). Oldenburg: Isensee-Verlag (German).Google Scholar
  6. Doornbos, G. (1982). Changes in the fish fauna of the former Grevelingen estuary, before and after the closure in 1971. Hydrobiological Bulletin, 16, 279–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferguson, H. A. (1970). The Haringvliet sluices. Directie Algemene Dienst van de Rijkswaterstaat. The Hague.Google Scholar
  8. Groenendijk, A. M. (1987). Ecological consequences of a storm-surge barrier in the Oosterschelde: the salt marshes. Rotterdam: Communication of the Delta Institute for Hydrobiological Research, Diss. Utrecht.Google Scholar
  9. Lammers, C. J. (1955). Studies in Holland flood disaster 1953. Instituut voor Sociaal Onderzoek van het Nederlandse volk. Published by the Instituut voor Sociaal Onderzoek van het Nederlandse volk (4 Vols.). Washington, DC: Amsterdam and National Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  10. Parma, S. (1978). Political aspects of the closure of the Eastern Scheldt estuary. Hydrobiological Bulletin, 12, 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Roebroeks, W. (2005). Neanderthals and their predecessors. Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. In: L. P. Louwe Kooijmans, P. W. Van den Broeke, H. Fokkens. & A. L. Van Gijn (Eds.), The prehistory of the Netherlands. (pp. 93–114). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Van de Ven, G. P. (2004). Man-made lowlands. History of water management and land reclamation in the Netherlands. Utrecht: Matrijs.Google Scholar
  13. Van Duin, R. A., & De Kaste, G. (1995). Het Zuiderzeeprojekt in zakformaat. Provincie Flevoland, Lelystad (Dutch).Google Scholar
  14. Vink, A., Steifen, H., Reinhardt, L., & Kaufman, G. (2007). Holocene relative sea-level change, isostatic subsidence and the radial viscosity structure of the mantle of northwest Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, the southern North Sea). Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(25–28), 3249–3275.Google Scholar
  15. Vos, P. C., & Van Heeringen, R. M. (1997). Holocene geology and occupation history of the Province of Zeeland. In: M. M. Fischer (Ed.), Holocene evolution of Zeeland (SW Netherlands) (pp. 5–109). NITG-TNO Haarlem.Google Scholar
  16. Zagwijn, W. H. (1989). The Netherlands during the tertiary and the quaternary: A case history of coastal lowland evolution. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 68, 107–120.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guus J. Borger
    • 1
  • Sjoerd J. Kluiving
    • 1
  • Adriaan M.J. De Kraker
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Institute for Geo and BioarchaeologyVU University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute for Geo and BioarchaeologyVU University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations