Instruments and Methodologies for Measurement of the Earth’s Magnetic Field

Chapter
Part of the IAGA Special Sopron Book Series book series (IAGA, volume 5)

Abstract

In modern magnetic observatories the most widely used instrument for recording magnetic field variations is the triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. For absolute observations, the declination-inclination magnetometer, in conjunction with a proton precession or an Overhauser magnetometer, is the norm. To meet the needs of users, a triaxial fluxgate must have a resolution of 0.01 nT. It must also have good temperature and long-term stability. Several sources of error can lead to degradation of the data, temperature variations and tilting of the sensors being among the most important. The declination-inclination magnetometer consists of a single-axis fluxgate sensor mounted on a nonmagnetic theodolite. With care, most sources of error can be eliminated, and an absolute accuracy of better than 0.1 arcmin is achievable. Proton precession and Overhauser magnetometers make use of the quantum-mechanical properties of protons and electrons to determine the strength of the magnetic field. The Overhauser magnetometer is rapidly supplanting the proton magnetometer (0.1 nT once per second sensitivity) because it can sample the field much more rapidly and precisely (0.01 nT once per second). Potassium magnetometers, which belong to the family of optically pumped magnetometers, are an attractive alternative to Overhauser magnetometers, especially when used in a dIdD instrument.

Keywords

Absolute Accuracy Magnetic Field Component Precession Frequency Magnetic Observatory Fluxgate Magnetometer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AMOS

Automatic Magnetic Observatory System (Canada)

ASMO

Automatic Magnetic Observatory System (USA)

AUTODIF

Automated DIM

BMZ

Balance magnetometrique zero

CARISMA

Canadian Array for Realtime Investi-gations of Magnetic Activity

CCD

charge coupled device

dIdD

(delta Inclination/delta Declination)

DIM

Declination-inclination fluxgate magnetometer

DMI

Danish Meteorological Institute

EDA

Electronic Design Automation

EPR

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

GAUSS

Geomagnetic Automated System

GPS

Global Positioning System

IAGA

International Association of Geomag-netism and Aeronomy

IGRF

International Geomagnetic Reference Field

KASMMER

Kakioka Automatic Standard Magnetometer

LEMI

The Laboratory of Electromagnetic Innovations

MACCS

Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NIM

The National Institute of Metrology (CHINA)

NIST

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA)

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NPL

National Physical Laboratory (U.K.)

PCs

Personal computers

PDAs

Personal Digital Assistants

ppm

proton precession magnetometer

ppm

parts per million

QHM

Quartz horizontal magnetometer

THEMIS

Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms

TCXO

Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator

TPM

Torsion photoelectric magnetometer

TMS

tetra methyl silane

UCLA

University of California at Los Angeles’ fluxgate magnetometer

VNIIM

D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (RUSSIA)

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Jean Rasson and Barry Narod and the anonymous reviewer for their valuable input.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GEM Systems Inc.MarkhamCanada
  2. 2.Boreal Language and Science ServicesOttawaCanada

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