A study was carried out to evaluate the performance of sampling plans to determine fumonisin in maize produced and marketed in Nigeria, Africa (Whitaker et al. 2007). A total of 86 food-grade maize lots intended for human consumption were sampled in 2002 from five regions in Nigeria. From each lot, a 2 kg ‘aggregate’ sample was taken, comprising 20 laboratory samples of 100 g each. Each laboratory sample was identified by sample number, lot number, and location. Each 100 g laboratory sample was finely ground using a RAS II Romer mill. The comminuted 100 g laboratory sample was thoroughly mixed before removing a 25 g test portion for fumonisin extraction. Fumonisin B1 was extracted from the 25 g test portion with 50 mL-methanol-water (3 + 1) into a 500 mL Duran screw-cap glass container, using Certomat SII rotary shaker (B. Braun Biotech International), 1 h at 170 rpm, and then filtered through Whatman filter paper number 4. Fumonisin B1 was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, using an orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatization method. For each lot, an observed FB1 distribution was constructed from the 17 laboratory sample test results and a total of 86 observed FB1 distributions were obtained.