Pre-existing Fisheries Management Systems in Indonesia, Focusing on Lombok and Maluku

  • Arif SatriaEmail author
  • Dedi S. Adhuri


In Indonesia pre-existing systems of fisheries management were delegitimized during the ‘New Order Era’ (1966–1998), and revived after the ‘Reform Era’ began, in 1998. Three such systems are examined; the awig–awig and sawen of North Lombok, and the petuanan and sasi of Maluku. Based on the pre-existing system that contained sawen, with its basic values and norms for integrated management of forest, farmland and coastal resources, local people took the initiative to revive three awig–awig, and adapted them to both combat destructive fishing practices and implement sustainable fisheries management. Sea tenure in Maluku is based on the concept of petuanan laut, the sea territory of a particular social group, to which ‘the right to eat’ (compounded from the rights of access, usage and exploitation) and ‘the right of ownership’ are attached. Sasi refers to the beliefs, rules and rituals regarding temporal prohibitions for a petuanan laut. The performance of pre-existing fisheries management systems is evaluated and national policy for them examined.


Awig–awig Marine resources Petuanan Sasi Sawen 


  1. Adhuri, D. S. (1998). Saat sebuah desa dibakar menjadi abu: hak ulayat laut dan konflik antar kelompok di Pulau Kei Besar (When a village was burnt to ashes: Communal marine tenure and social conflict in Kei Besar). Antropologi Indonesia, 57, 92–109 (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  2. Adhuri, D. S. (2002a). Selling the sea, fishing for power: A study of conflict over marine tenure in the Kei Islands, Eastern Indonesia. Dissertation, The Australian National University.Google Scholar
  3. Adhuri, D. S. (2002b, June). From ‘old’ to ‘contemporary’ sea wars: analysing conflicts over sea resources, calculating the challenges for fishery co-management. Paper presented at the EDEN II Workshop: Sustainability and depletion in island Southeast Asia: Forest and fisheries, past and present, Leiden.Google Scholar
  4. Adhuri, D. S. (2005). Menjual laut, mengail kekuasaan: studi mengenai konflik hak ulayat laut di Kepulauan Kei, Maluku Tenggara. (Selling the sea fishing for power: A study on conflict over marine tenure in Kei Islands, Southeastern Maluku). Masyarakat Indonesia, 21(1), 127–150.Google Scholar
  5. Anon. (1991). Laporan penelitian hak adat kelautan di Maluku (Report on marine traditional rights in Maluku). Ambon: Yayasan Hualopo, Fak. Hukum dan Pusat Studi Maluku Unpatti (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  6. Antunès, I. (2000). Le développement local de la pêche en Indonésie, entre unité politique et diversité culturelle. Une approche à partir de deux cas d’étude contrastés, Bendar à Java et Watlar aux Moluques. Dissertation, Université de Paris-IV Sorbonne and University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  7. Antunès, I., & Dwiono, S. A. P. (1998). Watlar, an Eastern-Indonesian village caught between tradition and modernity. Monpellier: Centre Orstom.Google Scholar
  8. Bachtiar, I. (2002, Sept). A strategy of awig–awig development in resources management in Nusatenggara Barat (translated). Paper presented at the Workshop on AwigAwig of Fisheries Resources Management, Mataram. Google Scholar
  9. Benda-Beckmann von, F., von Benda-Beckmann, K., & Brouwer, A. (1992, Aug). Changing ‘indigenous environmental law’ in the Central Moluccas: Communal regulation and privatization of sasi. Paper presented at the Congress of the Commission on Folk Law and Legal Pluralism, Wellington.Google Scholar
  10. Kamardi. (1999, July). Kearifan tradisional dan aspek ekologis (Traditional wisdom and ecological aspect). Paper presented at the Seminar Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Adat Nusa Tenggara Barat, Mataram.Google Scholar
  11. Kissya, E. (1995). Sasi aman Haru-ukui (Traditional management of sustainable natural resources in Haruku). Jakarta: Sejati Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. Lokollo. (1988). Hukum sasi di Maluku: Suatu potret binamulia lingkungan pedesaan yang dicari pemerintah. (Sasi Law in Maluku: A portrait of rural environmental development that is looked for by the government). Ambon: Faculty of Law, University of Pattimura (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  13. Lokollo. (1994). Asas-asas hukum adat kelautan dan manfaatnya bagi pembinaan peraturan daerah di Kabupaten Maluku Tengah dalam rangka implementasi undang-undang nomor 4 tahun 1982 dan undang-undang nomor 9 tahun 1985 (The foundation of traditional marine law and its functions for a better implementation of Law No. 4/1982 and Law No. 9/1985). Ambon: Faculty of Law, University of Pattimura (in Indonesian).Google Scholar
  14. Monk, K. A., De Fretes, Y., & Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1997). The ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. In The ecology of Indonesia (Vol. V). Singapore: Eric Oey.Google Scholar
  15. Naamin, N. & Badrudin, M. (1992). The role of coastal village communities and fishermen’s organization in the management of coastal fisheries resources in Indonesia. In Anon (Ed.), Proceedings of FAO/Japan expert consultation on the development of community-based coastal fishery management system for Asia and the Pacific volume 2. FAO: RomeGoogle Scholar
  16. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pannell, S. (1997). Managing the discourse of resource management: The case of sasi from ‘Southeast’ Maluku, Indonesia. Oceania, 67, 289–307.Google Scholar
  18. Pusdi-PSL Unpatti. (1995). Kajian hukum tentang norma adat dalam perlindungan lingkungan (Legal study on traditional norms in environmental protection). Ambon: Kantor Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup RI dengan Pusdi-PSL Universitas Pattimura (in Indonsian).Google Scholar
  19. Rahail, J. P. (1995). Bat Batang Fitroa Fitnangan: tata guna tanah dan laut tradisional Kei. Vol. 4, Seri pustaka khasanah budaya local (Bat Batang Fitroa Fitnangan: Kei traditional land and sea management). Jakarta: Yayasan Sejati (in Indonsian).Google Scholar
  20. Ruddle, K. (1998). The context of policy design for existing community-based fisheries management systems in the Pacific Islands. Ocean and Coastal Management, 40(4), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saad, S. (2003). Politik hukum perikanan (Fisheries legal politics). Jakarta: Lembaga Sentra Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (in Indonsian).Google Scholar
  22. Satria, A. (2007a). Sawen: Institution, local knowledge and myths in fisheries management in North Lombok, Indonesia. In N. Haggan, B. Neis, & I. G. Baird (Eds.), Fishers’ knowledge in fisheries science and fisheries management (pp. 199–220). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  23. Satria, A. (2007b July). Do the fishers own their coast? Challenge to devolution of fisheries management: Indonesian perspective. Paper presented at the Conference on People and the Sea, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  24. Satria, A., & Matsuda, Y. (2004a). Decentralization of fisheries management in Indonesia. Marine Policy, 28, 437–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Satria, A., & Matsuda, Y. (2004b). Decentralization policy: An opportunity for strengthening fisheries management system. The Journal of Environment and Development, 13(2), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Satria, A., Matsuda, Y., & Sano, M. (2006). Questioning community based coral reef management systems: Case study of awigawig in Gili Indah, Indonesia. Journal of Environment, Development and Sustainability, 8, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Satria, A., Umbari, A., Fauzi, A., Purbayanto, A., Sutarto, E., Muchsin, I., et al. (2002). Menuju desentralisasi kelautan. Cidesindo: Jakarta (in Indonsian).Google Scholar
  28. Wahyono, A., Laksono, D. S., Antarika, I. G. P., Masyhuri, I., Ratna, I., & Sudiyono, S. A. (2000). Hak ulayat laut di kawasan Timur Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo (in Indonsian).Google Scholar
  29. Zerner, C. (1991, September). Imagining the common law in Maluku: Of men, molluscs, and the marine environment. Paper presented at The Second Annual Meeting of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  30. Zerner, C. (1992, June). Community management of marine resources in the Maluku Islands. Paper prepared for FAO/Japan Expert Consultation on the Development of Community-Based Coastal Fishery Management Systems For Asia and the Pacific, Kobe.Google Scholar
  31. Zerner, C. (1994). Through a green lens: the construction of customary environmental law and community in Indonesia’s Maluku islands. Law & Society Review, 28(5), 1079–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BogorIndonesia
  2. 2.The WorldFish CenterBayan LepasMalaysia

Personalised recommendations