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Early Detection of Systems Response: Molecular and Functional Imaging of Angiogenesis

  • Fabian Kiessling
  • Wiltrud Lederle
Chapter
Part of the The Tumor Microenvironment book series (TTME, volume 3)

Abstract

Non invasive imaging plays a crucial role in monitoring the efficacy of tumor therapy in the clinics. In addition, it has also been established in preclinical research and can favorably bridge from preclinical research to the clinics. However, up to now clinical imaging is mostly morphologic and does not meet the demands for innovative molecular and personalized therapy concepts. In order to become more disease and therapy specific, functional and molecular imaging strategies are of general interest. In this context, imaging of tumor angiogenesis as a general phenomenon of most tumors and as an important target for tumor therapy is an attractive approach.

This chapter reports on current strategies to assess functional parameters of vascularization (e.g. relative blood volume, perfusion, vessel permeability) as well as molecular vascular profiles by non invasive imaging. Hereby, CT, MRI, PET, optical imaging and ultrasound are covered. It is also reported how these tools can be used to assess tumor response to therapy and which role they may play in preclinical research and clinical use.

Keywords

Molecular imaging Functional imaging Perfusion Therapy monitoring Angiogenesis Personalized medicine 

Abbreviations

A

Amplitude

BOLD

Blood oxygenation level dependent

CT

Computed tomography

CLIO

Cross linked iron oxide particle

[64]Cu-ATMS

[64]Cu-allyltrimethylsilane

DCE CT

Dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography

DCE MRI

Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

DOTA

1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid

[18F]FAZA

[18F]-fluoroazomycin arabinoside

[18F]FDG

[18F]fluoro-desoxy-glucose

FGF-2

Fibroblast growth factor-2

[18F]FLT

3′Deoxy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine

[18]F-MISO

[18F]-Fluoromisonidazole

Gd-DTPA

Gadolinium-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate

ICAM-1

Inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1

kep

Uptake rate constant (extravascular space per unit volume)

Ktrans

Volume transfer constant

MION

Monocristalline iron oxide nanoparticle

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MT1-MMP

Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase

NIRF

Near-infrared fluorescence

OI

Optical imaging

PFC

Perfluorocarbon emulsion

PET

Positron emission tomography

QD

Quantum dot

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

SPIO

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle

SU11248

Sunitinib malate

TGF-ß

Transforming growth factor beta

T1w

T1 weighted

USPIO

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle

US

Ultrasound

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR-2

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

vep

Extracellular volume fraction

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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging (ExMI), Helmholtz-InstituteRWTH-Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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