Stress and Developmental Strategies in Lichens

Part of the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology book series (COLE, volume 17)


In the very beginning, the lichen was simply noticed as a very enigmatic, but uniform plant with an unusual appearance and structure.

In the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, by discovering “symbiosis” as a common strategy of life, lichens were recognized to have a double nature and found to be composed of “a fungus and algae/cyanobacteria” (e.g., Schwendener, 1869).


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Organismic BiologyUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria

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