Symbioses and Stress

Volume 17 of the series Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology pp 225-241


Azolla as a Superorganism. Its Implication in Symbiotic Studies

  • Francisco CarrapiçoAffiliated withFaculty of Science, Department of Plant Biology, Centre for Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon Email author 

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The symbiosis history begun many million years ago, probably even before the first manifestation of life arose in our planet (Carrapiço et al., 2007). But it was only in the nineteenth century with the presentation in 1867, by the Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener, of the “dual hypothesis” related to the lichens structure, that this “real story” had a scientific starting point for society (Boucher, 1985; Sapp, 1994; Honegger, 2000).