Azolla as a Superorganism. Its Implication in Symbiotic Studies

  • Francisco CarrapiçoEmail author
Part of the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology book series (COLE, volume 17)


The symbiosis history begun many million years ago, probably even before the first manifestation of life arose in our planet (Carrapiço et al., 2007). But it was only in the nineteenth century with the presentation in 1867, by the Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener, of the “dual hypothesis” related to the lichens structure, that this “real story” had a scientific starting point for society (Boucher, 1985; Sapp, 1994; Honegger, 2000).


Symbiotic Association Symbiotic System Dorsal Lobe Central Arctic Ocean Simple Hair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author is grateful and expresses his sincere thanks to Dr. Frédéric Danet, Head of the Herbarium of the Botanical Garden of Lyon (LYJB), France, for the photos and information about the Azolla samples existing at the LYJB, and to Dr. Cécile Aupic, Dr. Gérard Aymonin, and Dr. Germinal Rouhan, from the Herbarium of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturel of Paris, for the facilities to study the historical Azolla samples existing in their Institution. A special thanks to Dr. Jeannine Monnier for the information on Philibert Commerson’s life and work and to Dr. Jonathan Bujak for the discussion and comments on the ACEX material and Azolla found in the Arctic, and to Dr. Ana L. Pereira for the research work developed on the biology of Azolla for her Ph.D. thesis. A particular thanks to the anonymous referee for the comments and suggestions and to Helena Carrapiço for the English revision of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of Plant Biology, Centre for Environmental BiologyUniversity of LisbonLisboaPortugal

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