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Tiny Ticks are Vast Sources of Antihaemostatic Factors

  • Mária KazimírováEmail author
  • Cho Yeow Koh
  • R. Manjunatha Kini
Chapter

Abstract

Ticks are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites. Damage of the skin of vertebrates leads to hemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses. These would disrupt tick feeding with detrimental consequences. To avoid host reactions, ticks inject saliva, a cocktail of pharmacologically active compounds, such as vasodilators, antiplatelet factors, anticoagulants, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory substances. Ticks have evolved powerful tools to prevent or prolong coagulation of the host blood. Majority of the inhibitors identified so far are proteins that display a variety of molecular masses, targets and inhibitory mechanisms. These anticoagulants can be classified as thrombin inhibitors, factor Xa inhibitors, extrinsic and intrinsic tenase complex inhibitors and contact system proteins inhibitors. Based on the diversity of antihemostatic strategies, it has been assumed that the main tick families have adapted to blood feeding independently. The key enzyme of the coagulation cascade – thrombin is often targeted by tick anticoagulants. The most well characterized thrombin inhibitors are the Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors, i.e., ornithodorin, savignin and monobin from soft ticks, or boophilin, amblin, hemalin from hard ticks. A class of novel thrombin inhibitors is represented by variegin, isolated from the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This class of inhibitors display structural and functional similarity to hirulog, a peptide designed based on hirudin isolated from leech. TAP, a Kunitz-type FXa inhibitor from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata has been among the best studied tick anticoagulants. Novel tick-derived molecules represent potentially useful therapeutic agents for treatment of hemostatic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the immune system.

Keywords

Salivary Gland Tick Species Anticoagulant Activity Hard Tick Salivary Gland Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency (contract no. APVV-51-004505) to MK, and Academic Research Grants from National University of Singapore to RMK.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mária Kazimírová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cho Yeow Koh
    • 2
  • R. Manjunatha Kini
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of ZoologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Protein Science Laboratory, Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Medical College of VirginiaVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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