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Antivenoms and Coagulation

  • Elda E. Sánchez
  • Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
  • Esteban Cantu
  • Belsy Guerrero
Chapter

Abstract

The treatment of snake envenomations has been a complicated battle for over a century. Since the development of antivenoms, inevitably fatal venoms have decreased to rarely fatal provided that antivenom is administered early. Snake venoms contain many molecules that act directly at the site of the bite, while others set off cascades of reactions leading to cumulative disruptions. A primary example is the disruption on the coagulation cascade. Venom molecules promote or inhibit molecules involved in the hemostatic system causing major disturbances that can lead to detrimental consequences. Although antivenoms have been present for a long time, the production and availability of these snakebite antidotes have fallen short. In recent years, some pharmaceutical companies have halted their production of antivenoms due to unprofitable circumstances, and the stringent regulations to meet safety standards have deterred others from considering taking on such an endeavor. Physicians, scientists, poison control and government administrators must make a profound effort to come together to bring in new ideas that will aid in resolving those troubled issues surrounding antivenoms. The focus of this chapter is to briefly address venom components acting on the hemostatic pathway and the use and concerns involved with the antivenoms utilized to neutralize them.

Keywords

Snake Venom Hemostatic System Venom Protein Venom Component Clot Retraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elda E. Sánchez
    • 1
  • Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
    • 2
  • Esteban Cantu
    • 1
  • Belsy Guerrero
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural Toxins Research Center, College of Arts and SciencesTexas A&M University-KingsvilleKingsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Immunochemistry SectionTropical Medicine Institute of the Universidad Central de VenezuelaCaracasRepública Bolivariana de Venezuela
  3. 3.Laboratorio de Fisiopatología, Centro de Medicina ExperimentalInstituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)CaracasRepública Bolivariana de Venezuela

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