Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity of Crops

  • Uwe Rascher
  • Alexander Damm
  • Sebastian van der Linden
  • Akpona Okujeni
  • Roland Pieruschka
  • Anke Schickling
  • Patrick Hostert
Chapter

Abstract

The light use efficiency of photosynthesis dynamically adapts to environmental factors and is one major factor determining crop yield. Optical remote sensing techniques have the potential to detect physiological and biochemical changes in plant ecosystems, and non-invasive detection of changes in photosynthetic energy conversion may be of great potential for managing agricultural production in a future bio-based economy. Here we give an overview on the principles of optical remote sensing in crop systems with a special emphasis on investigating hyperspectral reflectance data and the sun-induced fluorescence signal. Especially sun-induced fluorescence as a parameter, which becomes important in remote sensing research may have great potential quantifying the physiological status of the photosynthetic apparatus. Both remote sensing principles were applied during the CEFLES2 campaign in Southern France, where the structural and functional status of several crops was measured on the ground and using state-of-the-art optical remote sensing techniques. Sun-induced fluorescence measurements over a variety of crops showed that additional information can be retrieved also over dense canopies, where classical remote sensing signals often saturate. With a view to the future, we discuss how hyperspectral reflectance and sun-induced fluorescence can quantitatively be related to photosynthetic efficiency and help to measure and manage productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been made possible by the funding support of the ESA-projects (1) Technical Assistance for Airborne/Ground Measurements in support of Sentinel-2 mission during CEFLES2 Campaign (ESRIN/Contract No. 20801/07/I-LG) (2) Technical Assistance for Airborne/Ground Measurements in support of FLEX mission proposal during CEFLES2 Campaign (ESRIN/Contract No. 20802/07/I-LG) (3) FLEX Performance analysis and requirements consolidation study (ESTEC/Contract No. 21264/07/NL/FF). Additional financial and intellectual support was provided by the SFB/TR 32 ‘Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Systems: Monitoring, Modelling, and Data Assimilation’ – project D2, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

References

  1. Alonso L, Gómez-Chova L, Vila-Francés J et al (2007) Sensitivity analysis of the FLD method for the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence using a field spectroradiometer. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Remote Sensing of Vegetation Fluorescence, Florence, Italy, 7–9 Feb 2007Google Scholar
  2. Ananyev G, Kolber ZS, Klimov D et al (2005) Remote sensing of heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, electron transport and dissipation of excess light in Populus deltoides stands under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, and in a tropical forest canopy, using a new laser-induced fluorescence transient device. Global Change Biol 11:1195–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asner GP (1998) Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance. Rem Sens Environ 64:234–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker NR (2008) Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe of photosynthesis in vivo. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:89–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton CVM, North PRJ (2001) Remote sensing of canopy light use efficiency using the photochemical reflectance index; model and sensitivity analysis. Rem Sens Environ 78: 264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergh J, McMurtrie RE, Linder S (1998) Climatic factors controlling the productivity of Norway spruce: a model-based analysis. Forest Ecol Manage 110:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter GA, Theisen AF, Mitchell RJ (1990) Chlorophyll fluorescence measured using the Fraunhofer line-depth principle and relationship to photosynthetic rate in the field. Plant Cell Environ 13:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen JM, Li X, Nilson T et al (2000) Recent advances in geometrical optical modelling and its applications. Rem Sens Rev 18:227–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Curran PJ (1989) Remote-sensing of foliar chemistry. Rem Sens Environ 30:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Damm A, Elbers J, Erler E et al (2009) Remote sensing of sun induced fluorescence to improve modelling of diurnal courses of gross primary production (GPP). Global Change Biol DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01908.xGoogle Scholar
  11. Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW (1996) The role of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 1:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Filella I, Peñuelas J, Llorens L et al (2004) Reflectance assessment of seasonal and annual changes in biomass and CO2 uptake of a Mediterranean shrubland submitted to experimental warming and drought. Rem Sens Environ 90:308–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fourty T, Baret F (1998) On spectral estimates of fresh leaf biochemistry. Int J Rem Sens 19: 1283–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gamon JA, Peñuelas J, Field CB (1992) A narrow-waveband spectral index that tracks diurnal changes in photosynthetic efficiency. Rem Sens Environm 41:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gausman HW, Allen WA (1973) Optical parameters of leaves of 30 plant species. Plant Physiol 52:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goel NS (1988) Models of vegetation canopy reflectance and their use in estimation of biophysical parameters from reflectance data. Rem Sens Rev 4:1–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goel NS (1989) Inversion of canopy reflectance models for estimation of biophysical parameters from reflectance data. In: Asrar G (ed) Theory and applications of optical remote sensing. Wiley, New York, pp 205–251Google Scholar
  19. Goetz SJ, Prince SD (1999) Modelling terrestrial carbon exchange and storage: evidence and implications of functional convergence in light-use efficiency. Adv Ecol Res 28:57–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gower ST, Kucharik CJ, Norman JM (1999) Direct and indirect estimation of leaf area index, f(APAR), and net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Rem Sens Environ 70:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grant L (1987) Diffuse and specular characteristics of leaf reflectance. Rem Sens Environ 22: 309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guo JM, Trotter CM (2004) Estimating photosynthetic light-use efficiency using the photochemical reflectance index: variations among species. Funct Plant Biol 31:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hall FG, Hilker T, Coops NC et al (2008) Multi-angle remote sensing of forest light use efficiency by observing PRI variation with canopy shadow fraction. Rem Sens Environm 112:3201–3211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacquemoud S, Baret F (1990) PROSPECT – a Model of leaf optical-properties spectra. Rem Sens Environ 34:75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kolber Z, Klimov D, Ananyev G et al (2005) Measuring photosynthetic parameters at a distance: laser induced fluorescence transient (LIFT) method for remote measurements of PSII in terrestrial vegetation. Photosyn Res 84:121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kolber ZS, Prasil O, Falkowski PG (1998) Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols. Biochim Biophys Acta 1367:88–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liang SL (2004) Quantitative remote sensing of land surfaces. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  28. Lichtenthaler HK, Rinderle U (1988) The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in the detection of stress conditions in plants. Crit Rev Anal Chem 19:S29–S85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maier SW, Günther KP, Stellmes M (2003) Sun-induced fluorescence: a new tool for precision farming. In: McDonald M, Schepers J, Tartly L et al (eds) Digital imaging and spectral techniques: applications to precision agriculture and crop physiology, vol 66. ASA Special Publication, Madison, pp 209–222Google Scholar
  30. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence – a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51: 659–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meroni M, Picchi V, Rossini M et al (2008) Leaf level early assessment of ozone injuries by passive fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index. Int J Rem Sens 29:5409–5422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meroni M, Rossini M, Guanter L et al (2009) Remote sensing of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence: review of methods and applications. Rem Sens Environ 113:2037–2051Google Scholar
  33. Monteith JL (1972) Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. J Appl Ecol 9:747–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Monteith JL (1977) Climate and efficiency of crop production in Britain. Phil Trans Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 281:277–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moya I, Camenen L, Evain S et al (2004) A new instrument for passive remote sensing. – 1. Measurements of sunlight-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Rem Sens Environ 91:186–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Müller P, Li XP, Niyogi KK (2001) Non-photochemical quenching. A response to excess light energy. Plant Physiol 125:1558–1566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nichol CJ, Lloyd J, Shibistova O et al (2002) Remote sensing of photosynthetic-light-use efficiency of a Siberian boreal forest. Tellus B 54B:677–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Osmond CB, Ananyev G, Berry J et al (2004) Changing the way we think about global change research: scaling up in experimental ecosystem science. Global Change Biol 10:393–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Otterman J, Brakke T, Smith J (1995) Effects of leaf-transmittance versus leaf-reflectance on bidirectional scattering from canopy soil surface – an analytical study. Rem Sens Environ 54:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Plascyk JA, Gabriel FC (1975) The Fraunhofer line discriminator MKII – an airborne instrument for precise and standardized ecological luminescence measurements. IEEE Trans Instrum Measure 24:306–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rascher U, Bobich EG, Lin GH et al (2004) Functional diversity of photosynthesis during drought in a model tropical rainforest – the contributions of leaf area, photosynthetic electron transport and stomatal conductance to reduction in net ecosystem carbon exchange. Plant Cell Environ 27:1239–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rascher U, Agati G, Alonso L et al (2009) CEFLES2: the remote sensing component to quantify photosynthetic efficiency from the leaf to the region by measuring sun-induced fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands. Biogeosciences 6:1181–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rascher U, Nedbal L (2006) Dynamics of plant photosynthesis under fluctuating natural conditions. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:671–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rascher U, Nichol CL, Small C et al (2007) Monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics of photosynthesis with a portable hyperspectral imaging system. Photogram Eng Rem Sens 73:45–56Google Scholar
  45. Rascher U, Pieruschka R (2008) Spatio-temporal variations of photosynthesis: the potential of optical remote sensing to better understand and scale light use efficiency and stresses of plant ecosystems. Prec Agric 9:355–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruimy A, Saugier B, Dedieu G (1995) Methodology for the estimation of terrestrial net primary production from remotely sensed data. J Geophys Res 99:5263–5283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schreiber U, Bilger W (1993) Progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research: major developments during the past years in retrospect. Proc Bot 53:151–173Google Scholar
  48. Schreiber U, Bilger W, Neubauer C (1995) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. In: Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (1995) Ecological studies. In: Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p 100Google Scholar
  50. Schurr U, Walter A, Rascher U (2006) Functional dynamics of plant growth and photosynthesis – from steady-state to dynamics – from homogeneity to heterogeneity. Plant Cell Environ 29:340–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Turner DP, Urbanski S, Bremer D et al (2003) A cross-biome comparison of daily light use efficiency for gross primary production. Global Change Biol 9:383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van der Tol C, Verhoef W, Rosema A (2009) A model for chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf scale. Agric Forest Meteorol 149:96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weis E, Berry JA (1987) Quantum efficiency of photosystem II in relation to `energy´-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 894:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V.  2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uwe Rascher
    • 1
  • Alexander Damm
    • 2
  • Sebastian van der Linden
    • 3
  • Akpona Okujeni
    • 3
  • Roland Pieruschka
    • 1
  • Anke Schickling
    • 4
  • Patrick Hostert
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, ICG-3: Phytosphere, Forschungszentrum JülichJülichGermany
  2. 2.Remote Sensing LaboratoriesUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Geomatics LabHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Geophysics and MeterologyUniversität KölnKölnGermany

Personalised recommendations