Introduction to the CAVIAR Project and Framework

  • Barry Smit
  • Grete K. Hovelsrud
  • Johanna Wandel
  • Mark Andrachuk
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides the research rationale for the CAVIAR case studies presented in this book. The CAVIAR project is a response to the incontrovertible need for analysis of how community vulnerability is shaped by various forces across the Arctic region. The research incorporates multiple sources of knowledge which enhances our understanding of what makes communities vulnerable or resilient to change. The goals of this project are; the application of a common analytical framework to identify the social and environmental factors, processes and interactions that shape the vulnerability of a selection of communities across the Arctic; to compare results across communities in order to identify commonalities and transferable lessons; and to improve our understanding of the relationships between localised vulnerability and multiple scales of decision-making related to adaptation. The theoretical basis and conceptual framework described in this chapter provides a structure for the remainder of chapters in this book.

Keywords

Climate change Arctic Framework Interdisciplinary Community-based 

References

  1. ACIA. 2005. Impacts of a warming arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adger, W.N., and P.M. Kelly. 1999. Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 4: 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AHDR. 2004. Arctic human development report. Stefansson Arctic Institute, Akureyri, Iceland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anisimov, O., and B. Fitzharris. 2001. Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, ed. K.S. White, 801–842. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anisimov, O.A., D.G. Vaughan, T.V. Callaghan, C. Furgal, H. Marchant, T.D. Prowse, H. Vilhjálmsson, and J.E. Walsh. 2007. Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, eds. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson, 653–685. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barber, D.G., J.V. Lukovich, J. Keogak, S. Baryluk, L. Fortier, and G.H.R Henry. 2008. The changing climate of the Arctic. Arctic 61(supplement 1): 7–26.Google Scholar
  7. Berkes, F., and D. Jolly. 2001. Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community. Conservation Ecology 5(2): 18 (online).Google Scholar
  8. Chapin, F.S., G. Peterson, F. Berkes, T.V. Callaghan, P. Anglestam, M. Apps, C. Beier, Y. Bergeron, A.-S. Crépin, K. Danell, T. Elmqvist, C. Folke, B. Forbes, N. Fresco, G. Juday, J. Niemelä, A. Shvidenko, and G. Whiteman. 2004. Resilience and vulnerability of northern regions to social and environmental change. Ambio 33(6): 344–349.Google Scholar
  9. Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projections. In Climate change 2007. The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, eds. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller, 847–940. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Couture, R., S. Robinson, M. Burgess, and S. Solomon. 2002. Climate change, permafrost, and community infrastructure: A compilation of background material from a pilot study of Tuktoyaktuk, North West Territories. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3867.Google Scholar
  11. Derocher, A., N.J. Lunn, and I. Stirling. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrative Comparative Biology 44: 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dessai, S., and M. Hulme. 2004. Does climate adaptation policy need probabilities? Climate Policy 4: 107–128.Google Scholar
  13. Duerden, F. 2004. Translating climate change impacts at the community level. Arctic 57: 204–212.Google Scholar
  14. Fenge, T. 2001. The Inuit and climate change. ISUMA 2: 79–85.Google Scholar
  15. Flax, L.K., R.W. Jackson, and D.N Stein. 2002. Community vulnerability assessment tool methodology. Natural Hazards Review 3(4): 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ford, J., and B. Smit 2004. A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks associated with climate change. Arctic 57: 389–400.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, J., B. Smit, and J. Wandel 2006. Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: A case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change 16(3): 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ford, J., B. Smit, J. Wandel, M. Allurut, K. Shappa, H. Ittusurjuat, and K. Qrunnuts 2008. Climate change in the Arctic: Current and future vulnerability in two Inuit communities in Canada. The Geographical Journal 174(1): 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gearheard, S., W. Matumeak, I. Angutikjuaq, J. Maslanik, H.P. Huntington, J. Leavitt, D. Matumeak Kagak, G. Tigullaraq, and R.G. Barry. 2006. “It’s not that simple”: A collaborative comparison of sea ice environments, their uses, observed changes, and adaptations in Barrow, Alaska, USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada. Ambio 35(4): 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Government of Nunavut. 2003. Nunavut climate change strategy. Iqaluit, Nunavut: Government of Nunavut.Google Scholar
  21. Hovelsrud, G.K., and C. Winsnes, eds. 2006. Conference proceedings: NAMMCO conference on user knowledge and scientific knowledge in management decision making, 95 p. Reykjavik, Iceland. The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission.Google Scholar
  22. Huntington, H.P. 2000. Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: Methods and applications. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1270–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huntington, H., and S. Fox. 2005. The changing Arctic: Indigenous perspectives. In The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Scientific Report. Chapter 3 in ACIA, Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment, 61–98. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Huntington, H., and S. Moore, eds. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change. Ecological Applications (Special Issue Article):166.Google Scholar
  25. Huq, S., and H. Reid. 2004. Mainstreaming adaptation in development. Institute for Development Studies Bulletin 35(3): 15–21.Google Scholar
  26. ICARP. 2005. A research plan for the study of rapid change, resilience and vulnerability in social-ecological systems of the Arctic. Report from working group 10 of the second international conference on arctic research planning (2005).Google Scholar
  27. Johannessen, O.M., L. Bengtsson, M.W. Miles, S.I. Kuzmina, V.A. Semenov, G.V. Alekseev, A.P. Nagurnyi, V.F. Zakharov, L.P. Bobylev, L.H. Pettersson, K. Hasselmann, and H.P. Cattle. 2004. Arctic climate change: Observed and modelled temperature and sea ice variability. Tellus 56A: 328–341.Google Scholar
  28. Kattsov, V.M., and E. Källén. 2005. Future climate change: Modelling and scenarios for the Arctic. Chapter 4 in ACIA, Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment, 99–150. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Keskitalo, E.C.H. 2004. A framework for multi-level stakeholder studies in response to global change. Local Environment 9(5): 425–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keskitalo, E.C.H. 2008. Climate change and globalization in the Arctic. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  31. Kofinas, G. 2005. A research plan for the study of rapid change, resilience and vulnerability in social-ecological systems of the Arctic. The Common Property Resource Digest 73: 1–10.Google Scholar
  32. Kruse, J.A., R.G. White, H.E. Epstein, B. Archie, M. Berman, S.R. Braund, F.S. Chapin, J. Charlie, C.J. Daniel, J. Eamer, N. Flanders, B. Griffith, S. Haley, L. Huskey, B. Joseph, D.R. Klein, G.P. Kofinas, S.M. Martin, S.M. Murphy, W. Nebesky, C. Nicolson, D.E. Russell, J. Tetlichi, A. Tussing, M.D. Walker, and O.R. Young. 2004. Modeling sustainability of Arctic communities: An interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers and local knowledge holders. Ecosystems 7: 815–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Laidler, G.J. 2006. Inuit and scientific perspectives on the relationship between sea ice and climate change: The ideal complement? Climatic Change 78(2–4): 407–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lim, B., E. Spanger-Siegfried, I. Burton, E. Malone, and S. Huq. 2004. Adaptation policy frameworks for climate change: Developing strategies, policies and measures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. McBean, G., G.V. Alekseev, D. Chen, E. Forland, J. Fyfe, P.Y. Groisman, R. King, H. Melling, R. Vose, and P.H. Whitfield. 2005. Chapter 2 in ACIA, Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment, 22–60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. McCarthy, J., and M.L. Martello. 2005. Climate change in the context of multiple stressors and resilience. Chapter 17 in ACIA, Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment, 945–988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Nunavut Research Institute (NRI). 2002. Gap analysis of Nunavut climate change research. Iqaluit, Nunavut: Nunavut Research Institute.Google Scholar
  38. Nuttall, M. 2001. Indigenous peoples and climate change research in the Arctic. Indigenous Affairs 4: 26–35.Google Scholar
  39. Nuttall, M. 2005. Hunting, herding, fishing and gathering: Indigenous peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic. Chapter 12 in ACIA, Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment, 649–690. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pearce, T.D., J.D. Ford, G.J. Laidler, B. Smit, F. Duerden, M. Allarut, M. Andrachuk, S. Baryluk, A. Dialla, P. Elee, A. Goose, T. Ikummaq, E. Joamie, F. Kataoyak, E. Loring, S. Meakin, S. Nickels, K. Shappa, J. Shirley, and J. Wandel. 2009. Community collaboration and climate change research in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Research 28: 10–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Polsky, C., R. Neff, and B. Yarnal. 2007. Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: The vulnerability scoping diagram. Global Environmental Change 17: 472–485.Google Scholar
  42. Post, E., and M.C. Forschhammer. 2008. Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363: 2369–2375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rapley, C., R. Bell, I. Allison, R. Bindschadler, G. Casassa, S. Chown, G. Duhaime, V. Kotlyakov, M. Kuhn, O. Orheim, P.C. Pandey, H.K. Petersen, H. Schalke, W. Janoschek, E. Sarukhanian, and Z. Zhang. 2004. A framework for the International Polar Year 2007–2008. ICSU IPY 2007–2008 Planning Group, International Council for Science.Google Scholar
  44. Rattenbury, K., K. Kielland, G. Finstad, and W. Schneider. 2009. A reindeer herder’s perspective on caribou, weather and socio-economic change on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Polar Research 28: 71–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rudel, T.K. 2008. Meta-analyses of case studies: A method for studying regional and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 18: 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schneider, S.H., S. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C.H.D. Magadza, M. Oppenheimer, A.B. Pittock, A. Rahman, J.B. Smith, A. Suarez, and F. Yamin. 2007. Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change. In Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, eds. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson, 779–810. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Schröter, D., C. Polsky, and A.G. Patt. 2005. Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of global change: An eight step approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10: 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smit, B., and O. Pilifosova. 2001. Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. Chapter 18 in Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability – contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Smit, B., and J. Wandel. 2006. Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16: 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smit, B., G. Hovelsrud, and J. Wandel. 2008. CAVIAR: Community adaptation and vulnerability in Arctic regions. University of Guelph, Department of Geography, Occasional Paper No. 28.Google Scholar
  51. Sou, T., and G. Flato. 2009. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic archipelago: Modeling the past (1950–2004) and the future (2041–2060). Journal of Climate 22: 2181–2198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stephen, L., and T.E. Downing. 2001. Getting the scale right: A comparison of analytical methods for vulnerability assessment and household-level targeting. Disasters 25(2): 113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Turner, B.L., R.E. Kasperson, P.A. Matson, J.J. McCarthy, R.W. Corell, L. Christensen, N. Eckley, J.X. Kasperson, A. Luers, M.L. Martello, C. Polsky, A. Pulsipher, and A. Schiller. 2003. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(14): 8074–8079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tyler, N., J.M. Turi, M.A. Sundset, S.K. Strøm Bull, M.N. Sara, E. Reinert, N. Oskal, C. Nellemann, J.J. McCarthy, S.D. Mathieson, M.L. Martello, O.H. Magga, G.K. Hovelsrud, I. Hanssen-Bauer, N.I. Eira, M.G. Eira, and R.W. Corell. 2007. Sámi reindeer pastoralism under climate change: Applying a generalised framework for vulnerability studies to a sub-Arctic social-ecological system. Global Environmental Change 17: 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wallerstein, N. 1999. Power between evaluator and community: Research relationships within New Mexico’s healthier communities. Social Science and Medicine 49: 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Watt-Cloutier, S., T. Fenge, and P. Crowley. 2005. Responding to Global Climate Change: The Perspective of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference on the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Inuit Circumpolar Conference. Online at http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com/index.php?ID=267&Lang=En
  57. West, J., and G.K. Hovelsrud. 2010. Cross-scale adaptation challenges in the coastal fisheries: findings from Lebesby, Northern Norway. Arctic 63 (3): In press.Google Scholar
  58. Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis. 2004. At risk. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Zhou, F., A. Zhang, R. Li, and R. Hoeve. 2009. Spatio-temporal simulation of permafrost geothermal response to climate change scenarios in a building environment. Cold Regions Science and Technology 56: 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Smit
    • 1
  • Grete K. Hovelsrud
    • 2
  • Johanna Wandel
    • 3
  • Mark Andrachuk
    • 4
  1. 1.Global Environmental Change Group, Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo)OsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Geography and Environmental ManagementUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  4. 4.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations