The Educational Linguistics of Bilingual Deaf Education

  • Martina L. Carlson
  • Jill P. Morford
  • Barbara Shaffer
  • Phyllis Perrin Wilcox
Part of the Educational Linguistics book series (EDUL, volume 11)


Deaf students today are educated largely in monolingual educational contexts despite the fact that the Deaf community defines itself as bilingual and bicultural. In this chapter, we summarize some of the unique issues and historical contexts that characterize deaf education in the United States. We then describe how current research in three sub-fields of cognitive linguistics can lead to new possibilities for creating socially responsible learning environments for deaf students in bilingual settings.


American Sign Language Deaf Child Bilingual Education False Belief Task Deaf Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Altmann, Gerry. 1997. The ascent of Babel: An exploration of language, mind and understanding. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Basso, Keith H. 1976. “Wise Words” of the Western Apache: Metaphor and semantic theory. In Meaning in anthropology, ed. Keith Basso and Henry A. Selby. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bosworth, Rain, and Karen Emmorey. 1999. Semantic priming in American Sign Language. Unpublished manuscript. La Jolla, CA: The Salk Institute for Biological Studies.Google Scholar
  4. Brennan, Mary. 1999. Challenging linguistic exclusion in deaf education. Deaf Worlds, Deaf People, Community and Society 15(1): 2–10.Google Scholar
  5. Brennan, Mary. 1990. Word formation in British Sign Language. Ph.D. dissertation. Stockholm, Sweden: University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
  6. Carreiras, Manuel, Eva Gutierrez-Sigut, Silvia Baquero, and David Corina. 2008. Lexical processing in Spanish Sign Language (LSE). Journal of Memory and Language 58: 100–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cerney, Janet. 2007. Deaf education in America: Voices from inclusion settings. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chamberlain, Charlene, and Rachel I. Mayberry. 2000. Theorizing about the relationship between ASL and reading. In Language acquisition by eye, ed. Charlene Chamberlain, Jill P. Morford, and Rachel I. Mayberry, 221–260. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Corina, David P., and Karen Emmorey. 1993. Lexical priming in American Sign Language. Poster presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Dye, Matthew W.G., and Shui-I Shih. 2006. Phonological priming in British Sign Language. In Laboratory phonology 8, ed. Louis M. Goldstein, Douglas H. Whalen, and Catherine T. Best, 241–263. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Grutyer.Google Scholar
  11. Emmorey, Karen. 2002. Language, cognition, and the brain: Insights from sign language research. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Emmorey, Karen, and David Corina. 1990. Lexical recognition in sign language: Effects of ­phonetic structure and morphology. Perceptual and Motor Skills 71: 1227–1252.Google Scholar
  13. Emmorey, Karen, David P. Corina, and Ursula Bellugi. 1995. Differential processing of topographic and referential functions of space. In Language, gesture, and space, ed. Karen Emmorey and Judy Reilly, 43–62. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Evans, Charlotte. 2004. Educating deaf children in two languages. In Educating deaf children: Global perspectives, ed. Des Power and Greg Leigh, 139–149. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Evans, Charlotte J., and Kelvin L. Seifert. 2000. Fostering the development of ASL/ESL ­bilinguals. TESL Canada Journal 18(1): 1–16.Google Scholar
  16. Flood, Cecilia M. 2002. How do deaf and hard of hearing students experience learning to write using signwriting, a way to read and write signs? Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
  17. Gallaudet Research Institute. 1996. Stanford achievement test, 9th edition, form S, norms Booklet for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. (Including conversions of raw score to scaled score and grade equivalent and age-based percentile ranks for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.) Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.Google Scholar
  18. Gallaudet Research Institute. 2008. Regional and national summary report of data from the 2007-08 annual survey of deaf and hard of hearing children and youth. Washington, DC: GRI, Gallaudet University.Google Scholar
  19. Grosjean, François. 1981. Sign and word recognition: A first comparison. Sign Language Studies 32: 195–220.Google Scholar
  20. Grushkin, Donald A. 1998. Why shouldn’t Sam read? Toward a new paradigm for literacy and the Deaf. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 3(3): 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hermans, Daan, Harry Knoors, Ellen Ormel, and Ludo Verhoeven. 2008. The relationship between the reading and signing skills of deaf children in bilingual education programs. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 13(4): 518–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalyuga, Mariska, and Slava Kalyuga. 2008. Metaphor awareness in teaching vocabulary. Language Learning Journal 32(2): 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knoors, Harry. 2006. Educational responses to varying objectives of parents of deaf children: A Dutch perspective. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 12(2): 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuntze, Marlon. 1998. Literacy and deaf children: The language question. Topics in Language Disorders 18(4): 1–15.Google Scholar
  25. Kuntze, Marlon. 2004. Literacy acquisition and deaf children: A study of the interaction between ASL and written English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  26. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Lakoff, George, and Mark Turner. 1989. More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. LaSasso, Carol, and Jana Lollis. 2003. Survey of residential and day schools for deaf students in the United States that identify themselves as bilingual-bicultural programs. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 8(1): 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mayberry, Rachel I. 2007. When timing is everything: Age of first-language acquisition effects on second-language learning. Applied Psycholinguistics 28: 537–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayberry, Rachel I., Elizabeth Lock, and Hena Kazmi. 2002. Linguistic ability and early language exposure. Nature 417: 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell, Ross E., and Michael A. Karchmer. 2004. Chasing the mythical 10%: Parental hearing status of deaf and hard of hearing students in the United States. Sign Language Studies 4: 138–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morford, Jill P. 2003. Grammatical development in adolescent first language learners. Linguistics 41(4): 681–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morford, Jill P., Angus B. Grieve-Smith, James MacFarlane, Joshua Staley, and Gabriel S. Waters. 2008. Effects of language experience on the perception of American Sign Language. Cognition 109: 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morford, Jill P., and Martina L. Carlson. Under review. Sign perception and recognition in non-native signers of ASL. Unpublished manuscript. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
  36. Musselman, Carol. 2000. How do children who can’t hear learn to read an alphabetic script? A review of the literature on reading and deafness. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 5: 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Newport, Elissa L. 1990. Maturational constraints on language learning. Cognitive Science 14: 11–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ozcaliskan, Seyda. 2003. Children’s developing understanding of metaphors about the mind. Proceed­ings of the Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development 27: 603–614.Google Scholar
  39. Padden, Carol, and Tom Humphries. 1988. Deaf in America: Voices from a culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Peterson, Candida, and Michael Siegal. 1995. Deafness, Conversation and Theory of Mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36: 459–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peterson, Candida, and Michael Siegal. 1999. Representing inner worlds: Theory of Mind in autistic, deaf, and normal hearing children. Psychological Science 10(2): 126–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sanxay, Olive. 1900. Genius. In Poets and poetry of Indiana: A representative collection of the poetry of Indiana in the first hundred years of its history as territory and state, 1800–1900, ed. Benjamin Stratton Parker and Enos Boyd Heiney, 228–229. New York: Silver, Burdett and Company.Google Scholar
  43. Schick, Brenda, Robert Hoffmeister, Jill deVilliers, and Peter deVilliers. 2000. American Sign Language and theory of mind in deaf children with deaf or hearing parents. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research. July 23rd-27th. Amsterdam 2000. Manuscript.Google Scholar
  44. Shaffer, Barbara. 2006. The acquisition of markers of modality among deaf children. In Advances in the sign language development of deaf children, ed. Marc Marschark, Brenda Schick, and Patricia Spencer, 291–313. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Siltanen, Susan A. 1986. Butterflies are rainbows. A developmental investigation of metaphor comprehension. Communication Editions 35: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spolsky, Bernard. 2008. Introduction: What is educational linguistics? In The handbook of educational linguistics, ed. Bernard Spolsky and Francis M. Hult, 1–9. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sunderman, Gretchen, and Judith F. Kroll. 2006. First language activation during second language lexical processing: An investigation of lexical form meaning and grammatical class. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 28: 387–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Supalla, Samuel J. 1990. Segmentation of manually coded English: Problems in the mapping of English in the visual/gestural mode. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  49. Supalla, Samuel J., and Jody H. Cripps. 2008. Linguistic accessibility and deaf children. In The handbook of educational linguistics, ed. Bernard Spolsky and Francis M. Hult, 174–191. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Supalla, Samuel J., Tina R. Wix, and Cecile McKee. 2001. Print as a primary source of English for deaf learners. In One mind, two languages: Studies in bilingual language processing, ed. Janet Nicol and D. Terence Langendoen, 177–190. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  51. Van Hell, Janet G., and Ton Dijkstra. 2002. Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9: 780–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Verhagen, Arie. 2008. Intersubjectivity in the architecture of language system. In The shared mind: Perspectives on intersubjectivity, ed. Jordan Zlatev, Timothy Racine, Chris Sinha, and Esa Iktonen, 301–331. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  53. Vygotsky, Lev S. 1983. Osnovy defektologii [The Fundamentals of Special Education]. In Sobranie sochinenii [Collected Works], Vol. 5, pp. 166–173. Moscow: Pedagogika.Google Scholar
  54. Wilcox, Phyllis P. 2000. Metaphor in American Sign Language. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Wilcox, Phyllis P. 2007. Constructs of the mind: Cross-linguistic contrast of metaphor in verbal and signed languages. In Verbal and signed languages: Comparing structures, constructs and methodologies, ed. Elena Pizzuto, Paola Pietrandrea, and Raffaele Simone, 252–272. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  56. Woodward, James. 1972. Implications for sociolinguistics research among the deaf. Sign Language Studies 1: 1–7.Google Scholar
  57. Zaitseva, Galina, Michael Pursglove, and Susan Gregory. 1999. Vygotsky, sign language, and the education of deaf pupils. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 4(1): 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zurer Pearson, Barbara. 1990. The comprehension of metaphor by preschool children. Journal of Child Language 17: 187–203.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martina L. Carlson
    • 1
  • Jill P. Morford
    • 2
    • 3
  • Barbara Shaffer
    • 2
  • Phyllis Perrin Wilcox
    • 2
  1. 1.Albuquerque Public SchoolsAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.NSF Science of Learning Center on Visual Language & Visual Learning (VL2)AlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations