Understanding and Managing Wildlife in Hudson Bay Under a Changing Climate: Some Recent Contributions From Inuit and Cree Ecological Knowledge

  • D. Henri
  • H. G. Gilchrist
  • E. Peacock

Abstract

In the last few decades, traditional and local ecological knowledge (TEK/LEK) have contributed information to understanding and managing wildlife. In the Hudson Bay region of the Canadian Arctic, there have been numerous initiatives to document Inuit and Cree knowledge regarding animal ecology, and this information has occasionally complemented ongoing scientific research. This chapter presents an overview of the existing TEK/LEK literature concerning two animal species of cultural significance in the Hudson Bay marine region, namely the common eider (Somateria mollissima sedentaria and Somateria mollissima borealis) and the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). For each of these species, some key insights offered by TEK/LEK are reviewed. Examples include population size and trends, animal health and behaviour, as well as the perceived effects of changing climate and ice conditions on animal populations. In addition, the following discussion compares and contrasts available TEK/LEK information on common eiders and polar bears with existing scientific knowledge in the same geographic region. In doing so, it identifies some of the challenges and opportunities generated by applying both local knowledge and western scientific information in wildlife management. Finally, potential areas of convergence between scientific expertise and TEK/LEK for understanding climate change and its impacts on marine mammals and marine birds in the Hudson Bay region are discussed.

Keywords

Traditional/local ecological knowledge Inuit Cree Common eider Polar bear Climate change Hudson Bay 

References

  1. Aars, J., Lunn, N.J., and Derocher, A.E. 2006. Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SCC Polar Bear Specialist Group, 20-24 June 2005, Seattle, Washington, DC, USA. Gland and Cambridge: IUCN.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham, K.F. and Finney, G.H. 1986. Eiders of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. In: Reed, A. (ed.) Eider Ducks in Canada. Report Series No. 47. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, pp. 55–73.Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal, A. 1995. Dismantling the Divide Between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge. Development and Change 26(3): 413–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aporta, C. 2004. Routes, Trails and Tracks: Trail Breaking Among the Inuit of Igloolik. Études/Inuit/Studies 28(2): 9–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). 2005. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  7. Berkes, F. and Folke, C. (eds.). 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berkes, F. and Henley, T. 1997. Usefulness of Traditional Knowledge: Myth or Reality? Policy Options 18 (3): 55–56.Google Scholar
  9. Bielawski, E. 1995. Inuit Indigenous Knowledge and Science in the Arctic. In: Johnson, D.R. and Peterson, D. L. (eds.). Human Ecology and Climate Change: People and Resources in the Far North. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, pp. 219–228.Google Scholar
  10. Bielawski, E. 2005. Indigenous Knowledge. In: Nuttal, M. (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Arctic. New York: Routledge, pp. 950–955.Google Scholar
  11. Collings, P., Wenzel, G. and Condon, R. 1998. Modern Food Sharing Networks and Community Integration in the Central Canadian Arctic. Arctic 51(4): 301–314.Google Scholar
  12. Condon, R., Collings, P. and Wenzel, G. 1995. The Best Part of Life: Subsistence Hunting, Ethnicity and Economic Adaptation among Young Adult Inuit Males. Arctic 48(1): 31–46.Google Scholar
  13. Damas, D. 2002. Arctic Migrants/Arctic Villagers. The Transformation of Inuit Settlement in the Central Arctic. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, Native and Northern Series 32.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, A. and Wagner, J.R. 2003. Who Knows? On the Importance of Identifying “Experts” When Researching Local Ecological Knowledge. Human Ecology 31: 463–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Derocher, A., Lunn, N. and Stirling, I. 2004. Polar Bears in a Warming Climate. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44: 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dowsley, M. 2009. Community Clusters in Wildlife and Environmental Management: Using TEK and Community Involvement to Improve Management in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change. Polar Research 28: 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dowsley, M. 2007. Inuit Perspectives on Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) and Climate Change in Baffin Bay, Nunavut, Canada. Research and Practice in the Social Sciences 2(2): 53–74.Google Scholar
  18. Dowsley, M. and Taylor, M.K. 2006. Management Consultations for the Western Hudson Bay (WH) Polar Bear Population (01-02 December 2005). Final Wildlife Report. Iqaluit: Government of Nunavut, Department of Environment.Google Scholar
  19. Dowsley, M. and Wenzel, G. 2008. “The Time of Most Polar Bears”: A Co-management Conflict in Nunavut. Arctic 61(2): 177–189.Google Scholar
  20. Duerden, F. and Kuhn R.G. 1998. Scale, Context, and Application of Traditional Knowledge of the Canadian North. Polar Record 34: 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dyck, M.G., Soon, W., Baydack, R.K., Legates, D.R., Baliunas, S., Ball, T.F., Hancock, L.O. 2007. Polar Bears of Western Hudson Bay and Climate Change: Are Warming Spring Air Temperatures the ‘Ultimate’ Survival Control Factor? Ecological Complexity 4(3): 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis, S.C. 2005. Meaningful Consideration? A Review of Traditional Knowledge in Environmental Decision Making. Arctic 58(1): 66–77.Google Scholar
  23. Ford, J. and Furgal, C. 2009. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability in the Arctic. Polar Research 28(1): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford, J., Pearce, T., Smit, B., Wandel, J., Allurut, M., Shappa, K., Ittusujurat, H. and Qrunnut, K. 2007. Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Arctic: The Case of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 60(2): 150–166.Google Scholar
  25. Ford, J., Smit, B. and Wandel, J. 2006. Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: A case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change 16: 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fraser, D.J., Coon, T., Prince, M.R., Dion, R. and Bernatchez, L. 2006. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: A Population Level Case Study. Ecology and Society 11(2): 4.Google Scholar
  27. Friend, M. 1999. Avian Cholera. In: Friend, M. and Franson, J.C. (eds.) Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Disease of Birds. Reston: US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Information and Technology Report 1999–2001, pp. 75–92.Google Scholar
  28. Furgal, C. 2006. Ways of Knowing and Understanding: Towards the Convergence of Traditional and Scientific Knowledge of Climate Change in the Canadian North. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Gearheard, S. and Shirley, J. 2007. Challenges in Community-Research Relationships: Learning from Natural Science in Nunavut. Arctic 60(1): 62–74.Google Scholar
  30. George, J. 2009. “Baffin hunters threaten revolt over Nunavut government polar bear quotas”. Nunatsiaq News, September 30, 2009.Google Scholar
  31. Gilchrist, H.G. and Mallory, M.L. 2007. Comparing Expert-Based Science With Local Ecological Knowledge: What Are We Afraid of? Ecology and Society 12(1):r1. [online] URL: http://www.ecology-andsociety.org/vol12/iss1/resp1 (consulted on 16/03/10).Google Scholar
  32. Gilchrist, H.G. and Robertson, G.J. 2000. Observations of Marine Birds and Mammals Wintering at Polynyas and Ice Edges in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 53: 61–68.Google Scholar
  33. Gilchrist, H.G., Mallory, M. and Merkel, F. 2005. Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds. Ecology and Society 10(1): 20.Google Scholar
  34. Gilchrist, H.G., Heath, J., Arragutainaq, L., Robertson, G., Allard, K., Gilliland, S. and Mallory, M.L. 2006a. Combining Science and Local Knowledge to Study Common Eider Ducks Wintering in Hudson Bay. In: Riewe, R. and Oakes, J. (eds.). Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Winnipeg, MB: Aboriginal Issues Press, pp. 284–303.Google Scholar
  35. Gilchrist, H.G., Robertson, M., Dallaire, A., Gaston, T. and Butler, I. 2006b. Avian Cholera Confirmed Among Northern Common Eider Ducks Nesting in Northern Hudson Bay, Nunavut 2004–2005. Information Leaflet. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  36. Goudie, R.I., Robertson, G.J. and Reed, A. 2000. Common Eider (Somateria mollissima). In: Poole, A. and Gill, F. (eds.) The Birds of North America. No. 546. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.Google Scholar
  37. Gough, W.A., Cornwell, A.R., Tsuji, L.J.S. 2004. Trends in Seasonal Sea Ice Duration in Southwestern Hudson Bay. Arctic 57: 299–305.Google Scholar
  38. Government of Nunavut. 2005. Polar Bear Management Memorandum of Understanding Between Arviat HTO, Baker Lake HTO, Aqigiq HTO (Chesterfield Inlet), Aqiggiaq HTO (Rankin Inlet), Issatik HTO (Whale Cove), Kivalliq Wildlife Board and the Department of Environment for the Management of the “Western Hudson” Polar Bear Population. March 9. Iqaluit: Government of Nunavut.Google Scholar
  39. Hallowell, I. 1926. Bear Ceremonialism in the Northern Hemisphere. American Anthropologist 28(1): 1–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Henri, D. 2007. The Integration of Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western Science in Wildlife Management in Nunavut, Canada: The Case of Avian Cholera Outbreaks Among Common Eider Ducks in the West Hudson Strait and North James Bay Area. Masters’ thesis. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Huntington, H. and Fox, S. 2005. The Changing Arctic: Indigenous Perspectives. In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–98.Google Scholar
  42. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. 2009. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Resolution: Polar Bear Research Methods. Resolution passed on June 10th during the Annual General Meeting held in Nain, Nunatsiavut.Google Scholar
  43. International Panel on Climate Change. 2007a. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. International Panel on Climate Change. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Irving, W.N. 1986. The Barren Grounds. In: C.S. Beals (ed.). Science, History and Hudson Bay. Volume 1. Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, pp. 26–54.Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, M. 1992. Research on Traditional Environmental Knowledge: Its Development and its Role. In: Johnson, M. (ed.). Lore: Capturing Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Hay River, NWT: Dene Cultural Institute and the International Development Research Centre, pp. 3–22.Google Scholar
  47. Kral, M. 2003. Unikkaartuit: Meaning of Well-Being, Sadness, Suicide and Change in Two Inuit Communities. Final Report to the National Health Research and Development Programs. Ottawa: Health Canada Project #6606-6213-002.Google Scholar
  48. Krupnik I. and Jolly, D. (eds.). 2002. The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Fairbanks, AK: Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  49. Laidler, G. 2006. Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship between Sea Ice and Climatic Change: The Ideal Complement? Climatic Change 78(2–4): 407–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lentfer, J. 1974. Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears. Polar Record 17(108): 327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lytwyn, V.P. 2002. Muskekowuck Athinuwick: Original People of the Great Swampy Land. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  52. Mailhot, J. 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge. The Diversity of Knowledge Systems and Their Study. Great Whale Environmental Assessment, Background Paper No. 4. Montreal: Great Whale Public Review Support Office.Google Scholar
  53. Mallory, M.L., Gilchrist, H.G. and Akearok, J. 2006. Can We Establish Baseline Local Ecological Knowledge on Wildlife Populations? In: Riewe, R. and Oakes, J. (eds.). Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Winnipeg, MB: Aboriginal Issues Press, pp. 24–33.Google Scholar
  54. McDonald, M., Arragutainaq, L. and Novalinga, Z. 1997. Voices from the Bay: Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay Bioregion. Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee.Google Scholar
  55. McGhee, R. 1990. The Peopling of the Arctic Islands. In: Harington, C. R. (ed.). Canada’s Missing Dimension. Science and history in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Volumes 1–2. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature, pp. 666–676.Google Scholar
  56. Moller, H., Berkes, F., Liver, P.O. and Kislalioglu, M. 2004. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-management. Ecology and Society 9(3): 2–17.Google Scholar
  57. Nadasdy, P. 2003. Hunters and Bureaucrats. Power, Knowledge and Aboriginal-State Relations in the Southwest Yukon. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  58. Nadasdy, P. 1999. The Politics of TEK: Power and the Integration of Knowledge. Arctic Anthropology 36: 1–18.Google Scholar
  59. Nakashima, D. J. 1991. The Ecological Knowledge of Belcher Island Inuit. Ph.D. thesis. Montreal: McGill University.Google Scholar
  60. Newton, J. 1995. An Assessment of Coping with Environmental Hazards in Northern Aboriginal Communities. The Canadian Geographer 39(2): 112–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nickels, S., Furgal, C., Buell, M. and Moquin, H. 2006. Unikkaaqatigiit – Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit in Canada. Ottawa: A joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization.Google Scholar
  62. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated. 2007a. NTI Demands Intrusive Scientific Wildlife Research be Halted. NTI News Release, December 5, 2007.Google Scholar
  63. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated. 2007b. West Hudson Bay Polar Bear. Wildlife Briefing Note Submitted to the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, April 24–26, 2007.Google Scholar
  64. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board. 2007. West Hudson Bay Polar Bear Population: Total Allowable Harvest. Record of Decision, July 2007.Google Scholar
  65. Oakes, J. 1990. Eider Coats. Winnipeg, MB: Aboriginal Issues Press.Google Scholar
  66. Oakes, J. and Riewe, R. (eds.). 2006. Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Winnipeg, MB: Aboriginal Issues Press.Google Scholar
  67. Ohmagari, K. and Berkes, F. 1997. Transmission of Indigenous Knowledge and Bush Skills among the Western James Bay Cree Women of Subarctic Canada. Human Ecology 25: 197–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peacock, E., Orlando, A., Sahanatien, V., Stapleton, S., Derocher, A.E. and Garshelis, D.L. 2008. Foxe Basin Polar Bear Project. Interim Report. Iqaluit: Government of Nunavut, Department of Environment.Google Scholar
  69. Pierotti, R. and Wildcat, D. 2000. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: The Third Alternative. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1333–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Polar Bear Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC. 2009. Resolution #1-2009: Effects of Global Warming on Polar Bears. Resolution from the 15th Meeting of the PBSG in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 29–July 3, 2009.Google Scholar
  71. Popper, K. 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Randa, V. 1993. Des Offrandes au Système de Quotas: Changements de Statut du Gibier chez les Iglulingmiut de l’Arctique Oriental Canadien. Communication at a Conference Titled “Peuples des Grands Nords (Sibérie-Amérique-Europe). Traditions et Transitions”, INALCO/Université de Paris III/Sorbonne Nouvelle, 25–27 March 1993. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  73. Randa, V. 1986a. L’Ours Polaire et les Inuit. Paris: SELAF.Google Scholar
  74. Randa, V. 1986b. Au Croisement des Espaces et des Destins: Nanuq, «Marginal Exemplaire». Un Cas de Médiation Animale Dans l’Arctique Central Canadien. Études/Inuit/Studies 10(1): 159–169.Google Scholar
  75. Rasing, W. 1999. Hunting for Identity: Thoughts on the Practice of Hunting and its Significance for Iglulingmiut Identity. In: Oosten, J. and Remie, C. (eds.). Arctic Identities: Continuity and Change in Arctic and Saami Societies. Leiden, The Netherlands: University of Leiden, pp. 79–108.Google Scholar
  76. Reed, A. and Erskine, A.J. 1986. Populations of the Common Eider in Eastern North America. In: Reed, A. (ed.). Eider Ducks in Canada. Report Series No. 47. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, pp. 156–169.Google Scholar
  77. Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J., Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2007. Effects of Earlier Sea Ice Breakup On Survival and Population Size of Polar Bears in Western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2673–2683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Riedlinger, D. and Berkes, F. 2001. Contributions of Traditional Knowledge to Understanding Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 37: 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Robertson, G.J. and Gilchrist, H.G. 1998. Evidence of Population Declines among Common Eiders Breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories. Arctic 51: 378–385.Google Scholar
  80. Saladin d’Anglure, B. 1990. Nanook, Super-mâle: The Polar Bear in the Imaginary Space and Social Time of the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic. In: Willis, R. (ed.). Signifying Animals: Human Meaning in the Natural World. London: Routledge, pp. 178–195.Google Scholar
  81. Statistics Canada Census 2006. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/rt-td/ap-pa-eng.cfm (consulted on 28/08/09).
  82. Stevenson, M.G. 2004. Decolonizing Co-management in Northern Canada. Cultural Survival Spring: 68.Google Scholar
  83. Stevenson, M.G. 1996. Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Assessment. Arctic 49(3): 278–291.Google Scholar
  84. Stirling, I. and Derocher, A. 1993. Possible Impacts of Climatic Warming on Polar Bears. Arctic 46(3): 240–245.Google Scholar
  85. Stirling, I. and Parkinson, C. 2006. Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Selected Populations of Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59(3): 261–275.Google Scholar
  86. Stirling, I., Derocher, A.E., Gough, W.A. and Rode, K. 2008. Response to Dyck et al. (2007) on Polar Bears and Climate Change in Western Hudson Bay. Ecological Complexity 5: 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stirling, I., Lunn, N.J., Iacozza, J., Elliott, C. and Obbard, M. 2004. Polar Bear Distribution and Abundance on the Southwestern Hudson Bay Coast During Open Water Season, in Relation to Population Trends and Annual Ice Patterns. Arctic 57: 15–26.Google Scholar
  88. Stirling, I., Lunn, N. and Iacozza, J. 1999. Long-term Trends in the Population Ecology of Polar Bears in Western Hudson Bay in Relation to Climatic Change. Arctic 52(3): 294–306.Google Scholar
  89. Takano, T. 2004. Bonding with the Land: Outdoor Environmental Education Programmes and Their Cultural Contexts. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  90. Taylor, M. and Lee, J. 1995. Distribution and Abundance of Canadian Polar Bear Populations: A Management Perspective. Arctic 48(2): 147–154.Google Scholar
  91. Taylor, M.K., Aeeaguk, S., Andriashek, D., Barbour, W., Born, E.W., Calvert, W., Cluff, H.D., Ferguson, S., Laake, J., Rosing-Asvid, A., Stirling, I. and Messier, F. 2001. Delineating Canadian and Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Populations by Cluster Analysis of Movements. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 690–709.Google Scholar
  92. Taylor, W.R. 1968. Eskimo Prehistory of the North and East Shores. In: Beals, C.S. (ed.). Science, History and Hudson Bay. Volume 1. Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  93. Trott, C.G. 2006. The Gender of the Bear. Études/Inuit/Studies 30(1): 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tyrell, M. 2009. West Hudson Bay Polar Bears: The Inuit Perspective. In: Freeman, M.M.R. and Foote, L. (eds.) Inuit, Polar Bears and Sustainable Use: Local, National and International Perspectives. Edmonton, AB: CCI Press, pp. 95–110.Google Scholar
  95. Tyrell, M. 2006. More Bears, Less Bears: Inuit and Scientific Perceptions of Polar Bear Populations on the West Coast of Hudson Bay. Études/Inuit/Studies 30(2): 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Usher, P.J. 2000. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Assessment and Management. Arctic 53(2): 183–193.Google Scholar
  97. Wenzel, G.W. 2005. Nunavut Inuit and Polar Bears: The Cultural Politics of the Sport Hunt. Senri Ethnological Series 67: 363–388.Google Scholar
  98. Wenzel, G. and Dowsley, M. 2005. Economic and Cultural Aspects of Polar Bear Sport Hunting in Nunavut, Canada. In: Freeman, M.M.R., Hudson, R.J. and Foote, L. (eds.). Conservation Hunting: People and Wildlife in Canada’s North. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, pp. 37–45.Google Scholar
  99. White, G. 2008. “Not the Almighty”: Evaluating Aboriginal Influence in Northern Land-Claim Boards. Arctic 61(1): 71–85.Google Scholar
  100. White, G. 2006. Cultures in Collision: Traditional and Euro-Canadian Governance Processes in Northern Land-Claim Boards. Arctic 59(4): 401–414.Google Scholar
  101. Wright, J.V. 1968. The Boreal Forest. In: Beals, C. S. (ed.). Science, History and Hudson Bay. Volume I. Ottawa: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, pp. 55–68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Henri
    • 1
  • H. G. Gilchrist
  • E. Peacock
  1. 1.School of Geography and the EnvironmentOxford University Centre for the EnvironmentOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations