Advertisement

Managerial Coaching as a Workplace Learning Strategy

  • Andrea D. EllingerEmail author
  • Robert G. Hamlin
  • Rona S. Beattie
  • Yu-Lin Wang
  • Orla McVicar
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 5)

Abstract

The workplace represents a large and significant arena for employee learning to occur. The scholarly literature has recognized that coaching and mentoring are often activities that can be used to facilitate such learning and that managers are increasingly being encouraged to serve as coaches for their employees. This chapter integrates conceptual and empirical research on managerial coaching to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how managers as coaches can engage with their employees and facilitate their learning. Attention to factors that promote or may inhibit such coaching practice is given so that frontline supervisors, managers, and leaders can absorb this increasingly important role willingly and effectively.

Keywords

Coaching Managerial coaching Mentoring Workplace learning Informal workplace learning Learning at work Facilitating learning at work 

References

  1. Amy, A. H. (2005). Leaders as facilitators of organizational learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. (2001). Mentoring and coaching help employees grow. HR Focus, 78(9), 1–5.Google Scholar
  3. Antonacopoulou, E. P. (2006). The relationship between individual and organizational learning: New evidence from managerial learning practices. Management Learning, 37(4), 455–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonioni, D. (2000). Leading, managing and coaching. Industrial Management, 4(5), 27–34.Google Scholar
  5. Armentrout, B. W. (1995). Making coaching your management metaphor. HR Focus, 72(6), 3.Google Scholar
  6. Ashton, D. N. (2004). The impact of organizational structure and practices on learning in the workplace. International Journal of Training and Development, 8(1), 43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett, C. A., & Goshal, S. (1997). The myth of the generic managers: New personal competencies for new management roles. California Management Review, 40(1), 92–116.Google Scholar
  8. Bauer, J., Festner, D., Gruber, H., Harteis, C., & Reid, H. (2004). The effects of epistemological beliefs on workplace learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(5), 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beattie, R. S. (2002). Developmental managers: Line managers as facilitators of workplace learning in voluntary organisations. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  10. Beattie, R. S. (2006). Line managers and workplace learning: Learning from the voluntary sector. Human Resource Development International, 9(1), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beattie, R. S. (2007). Environmental, organizational and individual influences on managers’ roles as developers. In S. Sambrook & J. D. Stewart (Eds.), Human resource development in the health and social care context. (pp. 159–186) London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Beattie, R. S., Hamlin, R. G., Ellinger, A. D., & Sage, L. (2009). Leadership and management: Mentoring and coaching, confusion, conflict, clarity….Does it matter? In T. J. Chermack, J. Storberg-Walker., & C. M. Graham (Eds.), Proceedings of the academy of human resource development conference, (CD-ROM). Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  13. Bianco-Mathis, V. E., Nabors, L. K., & Roman, C. H. (2002). Leading from the inside out: A coaching model. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Billett, S. (2004). Workplace participatory practices: Conceptualising workplaces as learning environments. The Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(6), 312–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Billett, S., Hernon-Tinning, B., & Ehrich, L. (2003). Small business pedagogic practices. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 55(2), 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boud, D., & Middleton, H. (2003). Learning from others at work: Communities of practice and informal learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(5), 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burdett, J. O. (1998). Forty things every manager should know about coaching. Journal of Management Development, 17(2), 142–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CIPD (2003). Focus on the learner: The change agenda. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  19. CIPD (2006). Learning and development survey. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  20. CIPD (2007). Learning and development survey. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  21. Coetzer, A. (2007). Employee perceptions of their workplaces as learning environments. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19(2), 417–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clutterbuck, D. (2004a). Making coaching work: Creating a coaching culture. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  23. Clutterbuck, D. (2004b). Everyone needs a mentor (4th ed.). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  24. Dechant, K. (1989). Managerial change in the workplace: Learning strategies of managers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, New York.Google Scholar
  25. de Jong, J. A., Leenders, F. J., & Thisjssen, J. G. I. (1999). HRD tasks of first-level managers. Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(5), 176–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dirkx, J. (1999). Invited reaction: Managers as facilitators of learning in learning organizations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(2), 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doornbos, A. J., Bolhuis, S., & Denessen, E. (2004). Exploring the relation between work domains and work-related learning: The case of the Dutch police force. International Journal of Training and Development, 8(3), 174–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellinger, A. D. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of coaching behavior. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16(1), 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ellinger, A. D. (2005). Contextual factors influencing informal learning in a workplace setting: The case of ‘reinventing itself company.’ Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(3), 389–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellinger, A. D., Beattie, R. S., & Hamlin, R. G. (2009). The manager as coach. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova, & D. Clutterbuck (Eds.), Sage handbook of coaching. London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Ellinger, A. D., & Bostrom, R. P. (1999). Managerial coaching behaviors in learning organizations. The Journal of Management Development, 18(9), 752–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellinger, A. D., & Bostrom, R. P. (2002). An examination of managers’ beliefs about their roles as facilitators of learning. Management Learning, 33(2), 147–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellinger, A. D., & Cseh, M. (2007). Contextual factors influencing the facilitation of others’ learning through everyday work experiences. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19, 435–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellinger, A. D., Beattie, R. S., & Hamlin, R. G. (2010). The manager as coach. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova, & D. Clutterbuck (Eds.), The complete handbook of coaching (pp. 257–270). London, England: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Ellinger, A. D., Ellinger, A. E., Hamlin, R. G., & Beattie, R. S. (2010). Achieving improved performance through managerial coaching. In R. Watkins & D. Leigh (Eds.), Handbook for the selection and implementation of human performance interventions. Silver Spring, MD: International Society for Performance Improvement.Google Scholar
  36. Ellinger, A. D., Ellinger, A. E., & Keller, S. B. (2003). Supervisory coaching behavior, employee satisfaction, and warehouse employee performance: A dyadic perspective in the distribution industry. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(4), 435–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ellinger, A. D., Hamlin, R. G., & Beattie, R. S. (2008). Behavioural indicators of ineffective managerial coaching: A cross-national study. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32(4), 240–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ellinger, A. M. (1997). Managers as facilitators of learning in learning organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
  39. Elmadag, A. B., Ellinger, A. E., & Franke, G. R. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of frontline service employee commitment to service quality. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(2), 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eraut, M., Alderton, J., Cole, G., & Senker, P. (2002). Learning from other people at work. In R. Harrison, F. Reeve, A. Hanson, & J. Clarke (Eds.), Supporting lifelong learning: Perspectives on learning (Vol. 1) (pp. 127–145). London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  41. Evered, R. D., & Selman, J. C. (1989). Coaching and the art of management. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 16–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flaherty, J. (1999). Coaching: Evoking excellence in others. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  43. Fournies, F. F. (1987). Coaching for improved work performance. New York: Liberty Hall Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gilley, J. W. (2000). Manager as learning champion. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 13(4), 106–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78(2), 78–90.Google Scholar
  46. Graham, S., Wedman, J. F., & Garvin-Kester, B. (1993). Manager coaching skills: Development and application. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(1), 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Graham, S., Wedman, J. F., & Garvin-Kester, B. (1994). Manager coaching skills: What makes a good coach? Performance Improvement Quarterly, 7(2), 81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamlin, R. G. (2004). In support of models of universalistic and leadership effectiveness. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(2), 189–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamlin, R. G. (2005) Toward universalistic models of managerial leader effectiveness: A comparative study of recent British and American derived models of leadership. Human Resource Development International, 8(5), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamlin, R. G., Ellinger, A. D., & Beattie, R. S. (2006). Coaching at the heart of managerial effectiveness: A cross-cultural study of managerial behaviours. Human Resource Development International, 9(3), 305–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamlin, R. G., Ellinger, A. D., & Beattie, R. S. (2008). The emergent coaching industry: A wake-up call for HRD professionals. Human Resource Development International, 11(3), 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamlin, R. G., Ellinger, A. D., & Beattie, R. S. (2009). Towards a profession of coaching? A definitional examination of ‘coaching,’ ‘organization development,’ and ‘human resource development.’ International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7(1), 13–38.Google Scholar
  53. Hankins, C., & Kleiner, B. H. (1995). New developments in supervisor training. Industrial and Commercial Training, 27(1), 26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hannah, C. (2004). Improving intermediate skills through workplace coaching: A case study within the UK rail industry. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 2(1), 17–45.Google Scholar
  55. Hargrove, R. (1995). Masterful coaching. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company.Google Scholar
  56. Hunt, J. M., & Weintraub, J. R. (2002). The coaching manager: Developing top talent in business. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  57. Hutchinson, S., & Purcell, J. (2007). Learning and the line: The role of line managers in training, learning and development. London: CIPD.Google Scholar
  58. King, P., & Eaton, J. (1999). Coaching for results. Industrial and Commercial Training, 31(4), 145–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirk, J., Howard, S., Ketting, I., & Little, C. (1999). Type C workplace interventions. Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(3), 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koopmans, H., Doornbos, A. J., & van Eekelen, I. M. (2006). Learning in interactive work situations: It takes two to tango: Why not invited both partners to dance? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17(2), 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kraines, G. A. (2001). Are you L.E.A.D.ing your troops? Strategy and Leadership, 29(2), 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Larsen, H. H. (1997). Do high-flyer programmes facilitate organizational learning? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12(1), 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leitch, R. (2006). Prosperity for all in the global economy – World class skills. Norwich: TSO.Google Scholar
  64. Longenecker, C. O., & Neubert, M. J. (2005). The practices of effective managerial coaches. Business Horizons, 48, 493–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marquardt, M. J., & Loan, P. (2006). The manager as mentor. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  66. Marsh, L. (1992). Good manager: Good coach? What is needed for effective coaching? Industrial and Commercial Training, 24(9), 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McGill, M. E., & Slocum, Jr., J. W. (1998). A little leadership please? Organizational Dynamics, 39–49.Google Scholar
  68. McGovern, P., Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Stiles, P., & Truss, C. (1997). Human resource management on the line? Human Resource Management Journal, 7(4), 12–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McLean, G. N., & Kuo, M. (2000). Coaching in organizations: Self-assessment of competence. In K. P. Kuchinke (Ed.), Proceedings of the academy of human resource development conference (pp. 638–645). Raleigh-Durham, NC: Academy of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  70. McLean, G. N., Yang, B., Kuo, M. C., Tolbert, A. S., & Larkin, C. (2005). Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skill. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McNutt, R., & Wright, P. C. (1995). Coaching your employees: Applying sports analogies to business. Executive Development, 8(1), 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mills, J. (1986). Subordinate perceptions of managerial coaching practices. Academy of Management Proceedings, 113–116.Google Scholar
  73. Mindell, N. (1995). Devolving training and development to line managers. Management Development Review, 8(2), 16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mink, O. G., Owen, K. Q., & Mink, B. P. (1993). Developing high-performance people: The art of coaching. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  75. Minter, R. L., & Thomas, E. G. (2000). Employee development through coaching, mentoring and counseling: A multidimensional approach. Review of Business, 21(1/2), 43–47.Google Scholar
  76. Mumford, A. (1993). How managers can develop managers. Aldershot, England: Gower Press.Google Scholar
  77. Neilsen, K., & Kvale, S. (2006). The workplace: A landscape of learning. In E. Antonacopoulou, P. Jarvis, V. Andersen, B. Elkjaer, & S. Hoyrup (Eds.), Learning, working and living: Mapping the terrain of working life learning. (pp. 119–135) Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  78. Noer, D. (2005). Behaviorally based coaching: A cross-cultural case study. International Journal of Coaching in Organizations, 3, 14–23.Google Scholar
  79. Noer, D. M., Leupold, C. R., & Valle, M. (2007). An analysis of Saudi Arabian and U.S. managerial coaching behaviors. Journal of Managerial Issues, 19(2), p. 271–287.Google Scholar
  80. Orth, C. D., Wilkinson, H. E., & Benfari, R. C. (1987). The manager’s role as coach and mentor. Organizational Dynamics, (Spring), 66–74.Google Scholar
  81. Park, S., McLean, G. N., & Yang, B. (2008). Revision and validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skills in organizations. In T. J. Chermack, J. Storberg-Walker, & C. M. Graham (Eds.), Proceedings of the academy of human resource development (CD-ROM). Panama City Beach, FL AHRD, 83–90.Google Scholar
  82. Peterson, D. B., & Little, B. (2005). Invited reaction: Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skill. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Piasecka, A. (2000). Not ‘leadership’ but ‘leadership.’ Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(7), 253–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Poell, R. F., Van der Krogt, F. J., Vermulst, A. A., Harris R., & Simons, M. (2006). Roles of informal workplace trainers in different organizational contexts: Empirical evidence from Australian companies. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17(2), 175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Popper, M., & Lipshitz, R. (1992). Coaching on leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 13(7), 15–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Powell, T., & Doran, M. (2003). Managers’ perceptions of their role in facilitating employee learning. Proceedings of 2003 international academy of human resource development conference, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  87. Ragsdale, S. (2000). Finding a high speed button: New management paradigm. Triangle Business Journal, 16(7), 23.Google Scholar
  88. Redshaw, B. (2000). Do we really understand coaching? How can we make it work better? Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(3), 106–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rogoff, B. (1995). Observing sociocultural activities on three planes: Participatory appropriation, guided appropriation, and apprenticeship. In J. V. Wertsch, P. Del Rio, & A. Alvarez (Eds.), Sociocultural studies of the mind (pp. 139–164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1998). Individual and social aspects of learning. Review of Research in Education, 23, 1–24.Google Scholar
  91. Sambrook, S. (2005). Factors influencing the context and process of work-related learning: Synthesizing findings from two research projects. Human Resource Development International, 8(1), 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sambrook, S., & Stewart, J. (2000). Factors influencing learning in European learning-oriented organizations: Issues for management. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(2), 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schuler, R. S. (1990). Repositioning the human resource function: Transformation or demise? Academy of Management Executive, 4(3), 49–60.Google Scholar
  94. Shaw, S., & Knights, J. (2005). Coaching in an SME: an investigation into the impact of a managerial coaching style on employees within a small firm. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on HRD research and practice across Europe. Leeds, UK.Google Scholar
  95. Skule, S. (2004). Learning conditions at work: A framework to understand and assess informal learning in the workplace. International Journal of Training and Development, 24(2), 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1994a). Market oriented isn’t enough: Build a learning organization. Marketing Science Institute Report, Report No. 94–103, 1–30.Google Scholar
  97. Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1995). Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 63.Google Scholar
  98. Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (1995). Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing, 59(3), 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Talarico, M. (2002). Manager as coach in a pharmacy benefit management organization: A critical incidents analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  100. Thornhill, A., & Saunders, M. N. K. (1998). What if line managers don’t realize they’re responsible for HR? Lessons from an organization experiencing rapid change. Personnel Review, 27(6), 460–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Winkler, V. (2007). Line managers fail to support staff development. Impact Quarterly Update on CIPD Policy and Research, 19.Google Scholar
  103. Yarnall, J. (1998). Line managers as career developers: Rhetoric or reality? Personnel Review, 27(5), 378–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V.  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea D. Ellinger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert G. Hamlin
    • 2
  • Rona S. Beattie
    • 3
  • Yu-Lin Wang
    • 4
  • Orla McVicar
    • 3
  1. 1.University of TexasTylerUSA
  2. 2.University of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK
  3. 3.Glasgow Caledonian UniversityGlasgowUK
  4. 4.National Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations