Advertisement

“Out of Africa I”: Current Problems and Future Prospects

  • Robin Dennell
Chapter
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)

Abstract

This paper examines current weaknesses in the Out of Africa I model, and indicates why it is less robust than often proposed. It examines the main gaps in our understanding of hominin dispersals and settlement in Asia before 0.5 Ma, and highlights those shortcomings that have a realistic chance of being rectified, and which most impede fruitful discussion of early Asian prehistory. It also proposes that any discussion of early hominin dispersals out of (and possibly into) Africa before 0.5 Ma needs to take much fuller account than has often been the case of recent data on climatic change across southern Asia.

Keywords

Asia Colonization Dispersal Homo erectus Pleistocene Pliocene 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am extremely grateful to the organizers of the “Out of Africa I” workshop at Stony Brook in September 2005 for their invitation to the author to what proved to be an extremely hospitable and stimulating meeting. The British Academy is also thanked for granting the author a Research Professorship for the period 2003–2006 so that he could concentrate on researching early Asian prehistory. The comments and criticisms of two anonymous referees are also gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Makarov, V. I., Molnar, P., Panasyuk, S. V., Prilepin, M. T., Reilinger, R. E., et al. (1996). Relatively recent construction of the Tien Shan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day crustal deformation rates. Nature, 384, 450–453.Google Scholar
  2. Aiello, L. C., & Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive tissue hypothesis. Current Anthropology, 36, 199–222.Google Scholar
  3. Antón, S. C. (2002). Evolutionary significance of cranial variation in Asian Homo erectus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118, 301–323.Google Scholar
  4. Antón, S. C., & Swisher, C. (2004). Early dispersals of Homo from Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 271–296.Google Scholar
  5. Arai, A., & Thibault, C. (1975/1977). Nouvelles précisions à propos de l’outillage paléolithique ancien sur galets du Khorassan (Iran). Paléorient 3, 101–108.Google Scholar
  6. Argue, D., Donlon, D., Groves, C., & Wright, R. (2006). Homo floresiensis: microcephalic, pygmoid, Australopithecus, or Homo? Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 360–374.Google Scholar
  7. Asfaw, B., Gilbert, W. H., Beyenne, Y., Hart, W. K., Renne, P. R., WoldeGabriel, W., et al. (2002). Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 416, 317–319.Google Scholar
  8. Azarello, M., Marcolini, F., Pavia, G., Pavia, M., Petronio, C., Petrucci, M., et al. (2006). Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy). Naturwissenschaften, 94, 107–112.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, G., King, G., & Manighetti, I. (2000). Tectonics, volcanism, landscape structure and human evolution in the African Rift. In G. N. Bailey, R. Charles, & N. Winder (Eds.), Human ecodynamics (pp. 31–46). Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  10. Bar-Yosef, O. (1994). The Lower Palaeolithic of the Near East. Journal of World Prehistory, 8, 211–265.Google Scholar
  11. Bar-Yosef, O. (1998). Early colonizations and cultural continuities in the Lower Palaeolithic of western Eurasia. In M. Petraglia & R. Korisettar (Eds.), Early human behavior in global context: The rise and diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic record (pp. 221–279). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Bar-Yosef, O., & Goren-Inbar, N. (1993). The lithic assemblages of ‘Ubeidiya: A Lower Palaeolithic site in the Jordan Valley. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  13. Bekken, D., Schepartz, L., Miller-Antonio, S., Yamei, H., & Weiwen, H. (2004). Taxonomic abundance at Panxian Dadong, a Middle Pleistocene cave in south China. Asian Perspectives, 43, 333–359.Google Scholar
  14. Belmaker, M. (2002). First evidence of the presence of Theropithecus sp. in the southern Levant. Israel Journal of Zoology, 48, 165.Google Scholar
  15. Belmaker, M., Tchernov, E., Condemi, S., & Bar-Yosef, O. (2002). New evidence for hominid presence in the Lower Pleistocene of the Southern Levant. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 43–56.Google Scholar
  16. Biglari, F., Nokandeh, G., & Heydari, S. (2000). A recent find of a possible Lower Palaeolithic assemblage from the foothills of the Zagros Mountains. Antiquity, 74, 749–750.Google Scholar
  17. Black, D. (1925). Asia and the dispersal of primates. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 4, 133–183.Google Scholar
  18. Blumenschine, R. J., Masao, F. T., Tactikos, J. C., & Ebert, J. I. (2007). Effects of distance from stone source on landscape-scale variation in Oldowan artifact assemblages in the Palaeo-Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Archeological Science, XX, 1–11.Google Scholar
  19. Boaz, N. T., Ciochon, R. L., Qinqi, Xu, & Liu, J. (2004). Mapping and taphonomic analysis of the Homo erectus loci at Locality 1 Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Human Evolution, 46, 516–549.Google Scholar
  20. Bobé, R., & Behrensmeyer, A. K. (2004). The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207, 399–420.Google Scholar
  21. Bocherens, H., & Sen, S. (1998). Pliocene vertebrate locality of Çalta, Ankara, Turkey. 11. Isotopic composition. Geodiversitas, 20, 487–495.Google Scholar
  22. Bonnefille, R. (1995). A re-assessment of the Plio-Pleistocene pollen record of East Africa. In E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, & L. H. Burckle (Eds.), Paleoclimate and human evolution (pp. 299–310). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Boomer, I., Aladin, N., Plotnikov, I., & Whatley, R. (2000). The palaeolimnology of the Aral Sea: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1259–1278.Google Scholar
  24. Bramble, D. M., & Lieberman, D. (2004). Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature, 432, 345–352.Google Scholar
  25. Bräuer, G., & Schultz, M. (1996). The morphological affinities of the Plio-Pleistocene mandible from Dmanisi, Georgia. Journal of Human Evolution, 30, 445–481.Google Scholar
  26. Braun, D., Ron, H., & Marco, S. (1990). Magnetostratigraphy of the hominind tool-bearing Erk el Ahmar Formation in the northern Dead Sea Rift. Israeli Journal of Earth Sciences, 40, 191–197.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, P., Sutkina, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatniko, & Saptomo, E.W. (2004). A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431, 1055–1068.Google Scholar
  28. Carbonell, E., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., Parés, J. M., Pérez-González, A., Cuenca-Bescós, G., Ollé, A., et al. (2008). The first hominin of Europe. Nature, 452, 465–469.Google Scholar
  29. Cerling, T. E. (1992). Development of grasslands and savannahs in East Africa during the Neogene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 97, 241–247.Google Scholar
  30. Ciochon, R. (2009). The mystery ape of Pleistocene Asia. Nature, 459, 910–911.Google Scholar
  31. Ciochon, R. (2010). Divorcing hominins from the Stegodon-Ailuropoda Fauna: New views on the antiquity of hominins in Asia. In: J.G. Fleagle, J. J. Shea, F. E. Grine, A. L. Baden, R. E. Leakey (Eds.), Out of Africa I: the first hominin colonization of Eurasia (pp. 111–126). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Ciochon, R., Long, Vu The, Larick, R., Gonzalez, L., Grün, R., de Vos, J., et al. (1996). Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 3016–3020.Google Scholar
  33. Clemens, S. C., Murray, D. W., & Prell, W. L. (1996). Nonstationary phase of the Plio-Pleistocene Asian monsoon. Science, 274, 943–948.Google Scholar
  34. Conroy, G. C., Anemonec, R. L., van Regenmorterc, J., & Addisond, A. (2008). Google Earth, GIS, and the Great Divide: a new and simple method for sharing paleontological data. Journal of Human Evolution, 55, 751–755.Google Scholar
  35. Corvinus, G. (1983). A survey of the Pravara river system in Western Maharashtra, India. Vol. 2: the excavations of the Acheulean Site of Chirki-on-Pravara, India. In Tübinger Monographien zur Urgeschichte (Vol. 7, pp. 1–466). Tübingen: Institut für Urgeschichte.Google Scholar
  36. Dean, C., Leakey, M. G., Reid, D., Schrenk, F., Schwartz, G. T., Stringer, C., et al. (2001). Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature, 414, 628–631.Google Scholar
  37. Deino, A. L., & Hill, A. (2002). 40Ar/39Ar dating of Chemeron Formation strata encompassing the site of hominid KNM-BC 1, Tugen Hills, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 141–151.Google Scholar
  38. Demeter, F., Bacon, A.-M., Kim Thuy Nguyen, Vu, Long, T., Duringer, P., Rousse, S., et al. (2005). Discovery of a second human molar and cranium fragment in the late Middle to Late Pleistocene cave of Ma U’Oi (Northern Vietnam). Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 393–402.Google Scholar
  39. Dennell, R. W. (1998). Grasslands, tool-making and the earliest colonization of south Asia: a reconsideration. In M. Petraglia & R. Korisettar (Eds.), Early human behavior in global context: The rise and diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic Record (pp. 280–303). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Dennell, R. W. (2001). From Sangiran to Olduvai, 1937–1960: the quest for “centres” of hominid origins in Asia and Africa. In R. Corbey & W. Roebroeks (Eds.), Studying human origins: Disciplinary history and epistemology (pp. 45–66). Amersterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dennell, R. W. (2003). Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa? Journal of Human Evolution, 45, 421–440.Google Scholar
  42. Dennell, R. W. (2004a). Hominid dispersals and Asian biogeography during the Lower and Early Middle Pleistocene, ca. 2.0–0.5 Mya. Asian Perspectives, 43, 205–226.Google Scholar
  43. Dennell, R. W. (2004b). Early hominin landscapes in northern Pakistan: investigations in the Pabbi Hills (with contributions from M. Anwar, M. Beech, R. Coard, L. Hurcombe, H. Rendell, and A. Turner). British Archeological Reports International Series, 1265, 1–454.Google Scholar
  44. Dennell, R. W. (2007). “Resource-rich, stone-poor”: early hominin land use in large river systems of northern India and Pakistan. In M. D. Petraglia & B. Allchin (Eds.), The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary studies in archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistics and genetics (pp. 41–68). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Dennell, R. W. (2009). The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Dennell, R.W. (in press). The colonization of “Savannahstan”: issues of timing(s) and patterns of dispersal across Asia in the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. In C.J. Norton, & D.R. Braun (Eds.), Asian Palaeoanthropology: from Africa to China and beyond. Springer: Vertebrate Paleobiology and Palaeoanthropology Series.Google Scholar
  47. Dennell, R. W., & Roebroeks, W. (2005). An Asian perspective on early human dispersal from Africa. Nature, 438, 1099–1104.Google Scholar
  48. Dennell, R. W., Rendell, H. R., & Hailwood, E. (1988). Early tool-making in Asia: two-million-year-old artefacts in Pakistan. Antiquity, 62, 98–106.Google Scholar
  49. Dennell, R. W., Coard, R., Beech, M., Anwar, M., & Turner, A. (2005a). Locality 642, an Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) fossil accumulation in the Pabbi Hills, Pakistan. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 50, 83–92.Google Scholar
  50. Dennell, R. W., Coard, R., Beech, M., Anwar, M., & Turner, A. (2005b). Two Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) fossil accumulations from ­localities 73 and 362 in the Pabbi Hills, Pakistan. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 50, 101–111.Google Scholar
  51. Dennell, R. W., Coard, R., & Turner, A. (2006). The biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity zonation of the Pabbi Hills, northern Pakistan: an Upper Siwalik (Pinjor Stage) Upper Pliocene – Lower Pleistocene fluvial sequence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 234, 168–185.Google Scholar
  52. Dennell, R. W., Coard, R., & Turner, A. (2008). Predators and scavengers in Early Pleistocene southern Asia. Quaternary International, 192, 78–88.Google Scholar
  53. Ding, Z. L., & Yang, S. L. (2000). C3/C4 vegetation evolution over the last 7.0 Myr in the Chinese Loess Plateau: evidence from pedogenic carbonate δ13C. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 160, 291–299.Google Scholar
  54. Dodonov, A. E. (2002). Quaternary of Middle Asia: Stratigraphy, correlation and paleogeography. Moscow: Geos (in Russian).Google Scholar
  55. Dodonov, A. E., & Baiguzina, L. L. (1995). Loess stratigraphy of Central Asia: palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvionmental aspects. Quaternary Science Reviews, 14, 707–720.Google Scholar
  56. Dodonov, A. E., Ranow, V. A., & Schäfer, J. (1992). Das Lösspalaolithikum am Obi-Mazar (Tadshikistan). Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmueums Mainz, 39, 209–243.Google Scholar
  57. Dowsett, H., Thompson, J., Barron, J., Cronin, T., Fleming, F., Ishman, S., et al. (1994). Joint investigations of the Middle Pliocene climate I: PRISM palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Global and Planetary Change, 9, 169–195.Google Scholar
  58. Esposito, M., Reyss, J.-L., Chainmanee, Y., & Jaeger, J.-J. (2002). U-series dating of fossil teeth and carbonates from Snake Cave, Thailand. Journal of Archeological Science, 29, 341–349.Google Scholar
  59. Féblot-Augustins, J. (1997). La Circulation des Matières Premières au Paléolithique. Liège: Etudes et Recherches Archéologiques de l’Université de Liège.Google Scholar
  60. Fernández, M. H., & Vrba, E. S. (2006). Plio-Pleistocene climatic change in the Turkana Basin (East Africa): Evidence from large mammal faunas. Journal of Human Evolution, 50, 595–626.Google Scholar
  61. Florindo, F., Zhu, R., & Guo, B. (1999). Low-field susceptibility and paleorainfall estimates. New data along a N-S transect of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (A), 24, 817–821.Google Scholar
  62. Gabunia, L., & Vekua, A. (1995). A Plio-Pleistocene hominid from Dmanisi, East Georgia, Caucasus. Nature, 375, 509–512.Google Scholar
  63. Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher, C. C., Ferring, R., Justus, A., et al. (2000a). Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science, 288, 1019–1025.Google Scholar
  64. Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., & Lordkipanidze, D. (2000b). The environmental contexts of early human occupation of Georgia (Transcaucasia). Journal of Human Evolution, 38, 785–802.Google Scholar
  65. Gabounia, L., de Lumley, M.-A., & Berillon, G. (2000c). Morphologie et fonction du troisième métatarsien de Dmanissi, Géorgie Orientale. In D. Lordkipanidze, O. Bar-Yosef, & M. Otte (Eds.), Early humans at the gates of Europe: Les Premiers Hommes aux Portes de l’Europe (pp. 29–42). Liège: Etudes et Recherches Archéologiques de l’Université de Liège.Google Scholar
  66. Gabunia, L., de Lumley, M. A., Vekua, A., Lordkipandize, D., & de Lumley, H. (2002). Découverte d’un nouvel hominide à Dmanissi (Transcauacasie, Georgie). Comptes Rendus Palevol, 1, 243–253.Google Scholar
  67. Gaillard, C., Misra, V. N., Rajaguru, S. N., Raju, D. R., & Raghavan, H. (1985). Acheulean occupation at Singi Talav in the Thar Desert: a preliminary report on 1981 excavation. Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, 44, 141–152.Google Scholar
  68. Gamble, C. (1999). The Palaeolithic societies of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Gardner, E. W., & Bate, D. M. A. (1937). The bone-bearing beds of Bethlehem: their fauna and industry. Nature, 140, 431–433.Google Scholar
  70. Gathogo, P. N., & Brown, F. H. (2006). Revised stratigraphy of Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, and new age estimates of its fossil ­mammals, including hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 471–479.Google Scholar
  71. Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S. (2005). Subsistenzstratagien Frühpleis­tozäner Hominiden in Eurasien: Taphonomische Faunenbe‑trachtungen der Fundstellen der’Ubeidiya Formation (Israel). Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 61, 1–310.Google Scholar
  72. Geraads, D., & Tchernov, E. (1983). Femurs humains de Pleistocene moyen de Gesher Benot Ya’acov (Israel). L’Anthropologie, 87, 138–141.Google Scholar
  73. Ginat, H., Zilberman, E., & Saragusti, I. (2003). Early Pleistocene lake deposits and Lower Palaeolithic finds in Nahal (wadi) Zihor, Southern Negev desert, Israel. Quaternary Research, 59, 445–458.Google Scholar
  74. Goren-Inbar, N., Feibel, C. S., Versoub, K. L., Melamed, Y., Kislev, M. E., Tchernov, E., et al. (2000). Pleistocene milestones on the Out-of-Africa corridor at Gesher Ya’aqov, Israel. Science, 289, 944–947.Google Scholar
  75. Güleç, E., Howell, F.C., & White, T.D. (1999). Dursunlu – a new Lower Pleistocene faunal and artifact-bearing locality in southern Anatolia. Hominid Evolution: Lifestyles and Survival Strategies, Edition Archaea, Gelsenkirchen, 349–364.Google Scholar
  76. Güleç, E., White, T., Kuhn, S., Özer, I., Sagir, M., Yilmaz, H., et al. (2009). The Lower Pleistocene lithic assemblage from Dursunlu (Konya), central Anatolia, Turkey. Antiquity, 83(319), 11–22.Google Scholar
  77. Haeusler, M., & McHenry, H. M. (2004). Body proportions of Homo habilis reviewed. Journal of Human Evolution, 46, 433–465.Google Scholar
  78. Harrison, T., Ji, Xueping, & Su, D. (2002). On the systematic status of the Late Neogene hominoids from Yunnan Province, China. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 207–227.Google Scholar
  79. Head, M.J., & Gibbard, P.L. (2005). Early-Middle Pleistocene transitions: an overview and recommendation for the defining boundary. 1–18. In: M.J. Head & P.L. Gibbard (Eds.), Early-Middle Pleistocene transitions: the land-ocean evidence. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 247.Google Scholar
  80. Hemmer, H., Kahlke, R.-D., & Vekua, A. K. (2004). The Old World puma – Puma pardoides (Owen, 1846) (Carnivora: Felidae) – in the Lower Villafranchian (Upper Pliocene) of Kvabebi (East Georgia, Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and biogeographical significance. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, 233, 197–231.Google Scholar
  81. Hill, A., Ward, S., Deino, A., Curtis, G., & Drake, R. (1992). Earliest Homo. Nature, 355, 719–722.Google Scholar
  82. Hooijer, D. A. (1958). An early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Bethlehem. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology, 3, 267–292.Google Scholar
  83. Hou, Y.M., & Zhao, L.X. (2010). New archeological evidence for the earliest hominid presence in China. In J.G. Fleagle, J.J. Shea, F.E. Grine, A.L. Baden, & R.E. Leakey (Eds.), Out of Africa I: The First Hominin Colonization of Eurasia (pp. 87–95). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Hou, Y., Potts, R., Baoyin, Y., Zhengtang, G., Deino, A., & Wei, W. (2000). Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose Basin, South China. Science, 287, 1622–1626.Google Scholar
  85. Huang, B., Cheng, X., Jian, Z., & Wang, P. (2003). Response of upper ocean structure to the initiation of the North Hemisphere glaciation in the South China Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196, 305–318.Google Scholar
  86. Huffman, O.F., Zaim, Y., Kappelman, J., Ruez, D.R. jnr., de Vos, J., Rizal, Y., et al. (2006). Relocation of the 1936 Mojokerto skull discovery site near Perning, East Java. Journal of Human Evolution 48, 321–363.Google Scholar
  87. Hurcombe, L.M. (2004). The stone artefacts from the Pabbi Hills. In R.W. Dennell (Ed.), Early hominin landscapes in Northern Pakistan: investigations in the Pabbi Hills. British Archeological Reports (International Series) 1265, 222–292.Google Scholar
  88. Hyodo, M., Nakaya, H., Urabe, A., Saegusa, H., Shunrong, X., Jiyun, Y., et al. (2002). Paleomagnetic dates of hominid remains from Yuanmou, China, and other Asian sites. Journal of Human Evolution, 43, 27–41.Google Scholar
  89. Islamov, Y. I. (1990). Sel’oungour, un nouveau site du paléolithique inférieur en Asie centrale. L’Anthropologie, 94, 675–688.Google Scholar
  90. Jablonski, N. (2004). The hippo’s tale: how the anatomy and physiology of Late Neogene Hexaprotodon shed light on Late Neogene environmental change. Quaternary International, 117, 119–123.Google Scholar
  91. Jacobson, J. (1985). Acheulean surface sites in Central India. In V. N. Misra & P. Bellwood (Eds.), Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory (pp. 49–58). New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing.Google Scholar
  92. Ji, J., Balsam, W., & Chen, J. (2001). Mineralogic and climatic interpretations of the Luochuan loess section (China) based on diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Quaternary Research, 56, 23–30.Google Scholar
  93. Kimbel, W. H. (1995). Hominid speciation and Pliocene climatic change. In E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, & L. H. Burckle (Eds.), Paleoclimate and evolution (pp. 425–437). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Kimbel, W. H., Johanson, D. C., & Rak, Y. (1997). Systematic assessment of a maxilla of Homo from Hadar, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103, 235–262.Google Scholar
  95. Korisettar, R. (2007). Toward developing a basin model for Palaeolithic settlement of the Indian subcontinent: Geodynamics, monsoon dynamics, habitat diversity and dispersal routes. In M. D. Petraglia & B. Allchin (Eds.), The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary studies in archaeology, biological anthropology, linguistics and genetics (pp. 69–96). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  96. Kramer, A., Djubiantono, T., Aziz, F., Bogard, J.S., Weeks, R.A., Weinand, D.C., et al. (2005). The first hominid fossil recovered from West Java, Indonesia. Journal of Human Evolution 48, 661–667.Google Scholar
  97. Krantz, G. S. (1994). The palate of skull Sangiran 4 from Java. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 171, 69–74.Google Scholar
  98. Kroon, D., Alexander, I., Little, M., Lourens, L. J., Matthewson, A., Robertson, A. H. F., et al. (1998). Oxygen isotope and sapropel stratigraphy in the eastern Mediterranean during the last 3.2 million years. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, 160, 181–189.Google Scholar
  99. Kuhn, S. L., Arsebük, G., & Howell, F. C. (1996). The Middle Pleistocene lithic assemblage from Yarimburgaz Cave, Turkey. Paléorient, 22, 31–49.Google Scholar
  100. Lanpo, J., & Qi, W. (1987). Artefacts lithiques provenant du site pléistocène ancien de Donggutuo près de Nihewan (Nihowan), province d’Hebei, Chine. L’Anthropologie, 91, 727–732.Google Scholar
  101. Larick, R., Ciochon, R. L., Zaim, Y., Sudijono, S., Rizal, Y., Aziz, F., et al. (2001). Early Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar ages for Bapang Formation hominins, Central Jawa, Indonesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 4866–4871.Google Scholar
  102. Li, Ji-Jun, Fang, X.-M., Van der Voo, R., Zhu, J.-J., Niocaill, C. M., Cao, Ji-Xiu, et al. (1997a). Late Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy (11–0 Ma) of the Donghanding and Wangjiashan sections in the Longzhong Basin, western China. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 76, 121–134.Google Scholar
  103. Li, Ji-Jun, Fang, X.-M., Van der Voo, R., Zhu, J.-J., Niocaill, C. M., Ono, Y., et al. (1997b). Magnetostratigraphic dating of river terraces: rapid and intermittent incision by the Yellow River of the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau during the Quaternary. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 10121–10132.Google Scholar
  104. Li, Y., Yang, J., Xia, Z., & Mo, D. (1998). Tectonic geomorphology in the Shanxi Graben system, northern China. Geomorphology, 23, 77–89.Google Scholar
  105. Lindsay, E. H., Opdyke, N. D., & Johnson, N. M. (1980). Pliocene dispersal of the horse Equus and late Cenozoic mammalian dispersal events. Nature, 287, 135–138.Google Scholar
  106. Liu, T., & Ding, Z. (1998). Chinese loess and the paleomonsoon. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 26, 111–145.Google Scholar
  107. Liu, X., Rolph, T., Bloemendal, J., Shaw, J., & Liu, T. (1995). Quantitative estimates of palaeoprecipitation at Xifeng, in the Loess Plateau of China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology, 113, 243–248.Google Scholar
  108. Liu, T., Ding, Z., & Rutter, N. (1999). Comparison of Milankovitch periods between continental loess and deep sea records over the last 2.5 Ma. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18, 1205–1212.Google Scholar
  109. Liu, Z., Trentesaux, A., Clemens, S., Colin, C., Wang, P., Huang, B., et al. (2003). Clay mineral assemblages in the northern South China Sea: implications for East Asian monsoon evolution over the past 2 million years. Marine Geology, 201, 133–146.Google Scholar
  110. Ljubin, V. P., & Bosinski, G. (1995). The earliest occupation of the Caucasus region. In W. Roebroeks & T. van Kolfschoten (Eds.), The earliest occupation of Europe (pp. 207–253). Leiden: University of Leiden Press.Google Scholar
  111. Lordkipanidze, D., Jashashvili, T., Vekua, A., de León, M. S. P., Zollikofer, C. P. E., Rightmire, G. P., et al. (2007). Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Nature, 449, 305–309.Google Scholar
  112. Louchart, A., Mourer-Chauviré, C., Güleç, E., Howell, F.C., White, T.D. (1998). The avifauna of Dursunlu, Turkey, Lower Pleistocene: climate, environment and biogeography. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Series II (Earth and Planetary Science) 327, 341–346.Google Scholar
  113. Lu, H., Liu, X., Zjhang, F., An, Z., & Dodson, J. (1999). Astronomical calibration of loess-paleosol deposits at Luochuan, central Chinese Loess Plateau. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 154, 237–246.Google Scholar
  114. Lumley, H. de, Nioradzé, M., Barsky, D., Cauche, D., Celiberti, V., Nioradzé, G., et al. (2005). Les industries lithiques préoldowayennes du début du Pléistocène inférieur du site de Dmanissi en Géorgie. L’Anthropologie 109, 1–182.Google Scholar
  115. Maher, B., & Thompson, R. (1995). Paleorainfall reconstructions from pedogenic magnetic susceptibility variations in the Chinese loess and paleosols. Quaternary Research, 44, 383–391.Google Scholar
  116. Maher, B. A., Thompson, R., & Zhou, L. P. (1994). Spatial and temporal reconstructions of changes in the Asian palaeomonsoon: A new mineral magnetic approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 125, 461–471.Google Scholar
  117. Mallol, C. (2006). What’s in a beach? Soil micromorphology of sediments from the Lower Palaeolithic site of ’Ubeidiya, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 185–206.Google Scholar
  118. Marathe, A. R. (1981). Geoarchaeology of the Hiran Valley, Saurashta, India. Pune: Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute.Google Scholar
  119. Martínez-Navarro, B. (2004). Hippos, pigs, bovids, saber-toothed tigers, moneys, and hominids: dispersals through the Levantine Corridor during Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene times. In N. Goren-Inbar & J. D. Speth (Eds.), Human paleoecology in the Levantine Corridor (pp. 37–52). Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  120. Maschenko, E.N. (1994). Papio (Paradolichopithecus) sushkini: a revision of systematics, morphofunctional peculiarities of the skull and mandible (in Russian). Paleoteriologiya, 15–57.Google Scholar
  121. McHenry, H. M., & Coffing, K. (2000). Australopithecus to Homo: transformations in body and mind. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 125–146.Google Scholar
  122. Misra, V. N. (1967). Pre- and proto-history of the Berach Basin, South Rajasthan. Pune: Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute.Google Scholar
  123. Misra, V. N. (1985). The Acheulean succession at Bhimbetka, Central India. In V. N. Misra & P. Bellwood (Eds.), Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory (pp. 35–47). New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing.Google Scholar
  124. Mitchell, J., & Westaway, R. (1999). Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K-Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics, 304, 157–186.Google Scholar
  125. Molleson, T., & Oakley, K. P. (1966). Relative antiquity of the Ubeidiya hominid. Nature, 209, 1268.Google Scholar
  126. Moloney, N., Olsen, S. L., & Voloshin, V. (2001). Lower and Middle Palaeolithic occupation in Central Kazakhstan: the Batpak Valley and environs. In S. Milliken & J. Cook (Eds.), A very remote period indeed: Papers on the Palaeolithic presented to Derek Roe (pp. 138–143). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  127. Morwood, M., Sulluivan, O. P., Susanto, E. E., & Aziz, F. (2003). Revised ages for Mojokerto 1, an early H. erectus cranium from East Java. Australian Archaeology, 57, 1–4.Google Scholar
  128. Nanda, A. C. (2002). Upper Siwalik mammalian faunas of India and associated events. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21, 47–58.Google Scholar
  129. Nishimura, T. D., Takai, M., & Maschenko, E. N. (2007). The maxillary sinus of Paradolichopithecus sushkini (late Pliocene, southern Tajikistan) and its phylectic implications. Journal of Human Evolution, 52, 637–646.Google Scholar
  130. Opdyke, N. M., Lindsay, E., Johnson, G. D., Johnson, N., Tahirkheli, R. A. K., & Mirza, M. A. I. (1979). Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and vertebrate palaeontology of the Upper Siwalik subgroup of northern Pakistan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 27, 1–34.Google Scholar
  131. Otte, N., Yalçinkaya, I., Taskiran, H., Kozlowski, J. K., Bar-Yosef, O., & Noiret, P. (1995). The Anatolian Middle Paleolithic: new research at Karain Cave. Journal of Anthropological Research, 51, 287–299.Google Scholar
  132. Otte, M., Yalçinkaya, Kozlowski, J., Bar-Yosef, O., Lopez Bayon, I., & Taskiran, H. (1998). Long-term technical evolution and human remains in the Anatolian Palaeolithic. Journal of Human Evolution 34, 413–431.Google Scholar
  133. Ozansoy, F. (1969). Pleistocene fossil human footprints in Turkey. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, 72, 146–150.Google Scholar
  134. Paddayya, K. (2001). The Acheulean Culture Project of the Hunsgi and Baichbal Valleys, peninsular India. In L. Barham & K. Robson-Brown (Eds.), Human roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene (pp. 235–258). Bristol: Western Academic and Specialist Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  135. Paddayya, K., Blackwell, B. A. B., Jhaldiyal, R., Petaglia, M. D., Fevrier, S., Chaderton, D. A., et al. (2002). Recent findings on the Acheulean of the Hunsgi and Baichbal valleys, Karnataka, with special reference to the Isampur excavation and its dating. Current Science, 83, 641–647.Google Scholar
  136. Pan, Y., & Zong, G. (1991). Mammalian faunas. In F. Qian & G. Zhou (Eds.), Quaternary geology and palaeoanthropology of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China (pp. 94–102). Science Press: Beijing.Google Scholar
  137. Pant, P. C., & Jayaswal, V. (1991). Paisra: The Stone Age Settlement of Bihar. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan.Google Scholar
  138. Pappu, R. S. (1974). Pleistocene studies in the Upper Krishna Basin. Poona: Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute.Google Scholar
  139. Pappu, S. (2001). A re-examination of the palaeolithic archeological record of Northern Tamil Nadu, South India. British Archeological Reports (International Series), 1003, 1–246.Google Scholar
  140. Pappu, S., Gunnell, Y., Taieb, M., Brugal, J.-P., & Touchard, Y. (2003). Excavations at the Palaeolithic site of Attirampakkam, South India: preliminary findings. Current Anthropology, 44, 591–598.Google Scholar
  141. Parfitt, S. A., Barendregt, R. W., Breda, M., Candy, I., Collins, M. J., Coope, G. R., et al. (2005). The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe. Nature, 438, 1008–1012.Google Scholar
  142. Patnaik, R., Chauhan, P. R., Rao, M. R., Blackwell, B. A. B., Skinner, A. R., Sahni, A., et al. (2009). New geochronological, palaeoclimatological and Palaeolithic data from the Narmada Valley hominin locality, central India. Journal of Human Evolution, 56, 114–133.Google Scholar
  143. Petraglia, M. D. (1998). The Lower Palaeolithic of India and its bearing on the Asian record. In M. Petraglia & R. Korisettar (Eds.), Early human behavior in global context: The rise and diversity of the lower palaeolithic record (pp. 343–390). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  144. Petraglia, M. D. (2003). The Lower Palaeolithic of the Arabian Peninsula: occupations, adaptations, and dispersals. Journal of World Prehistory, 17, 141–179.Google Scholar
  145. Pilgrim, G. E. (1913). The correlation of the Siwaliks with mammal horizons of Europe. Geological Survey Records of India, 43, 264–326.Google Scholar
  146. Pope, G. C., & Keates, S. G. (1994). The evolution of human cognition and cultural capacity. In R. S. Corruccini & R. Ciochon (Eds.), Integrative paths to the past: Paleoanthropological advances in honor of F.Clark Howell (pp. 531–567). Prentice Hall, NJ: Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  147. Potts, R., & Teague, R. (2010). Behavioral and environmental background to ’Out-of-Africa I’ and the arrival of Homo erectus in East Asia. In: J.G. Fleagle, J.J. Shea, F.E. Grine, A.L. Baden, & R.E. Leakey (Eds.), Out of Africa I: the first hominin colonization of Eurasia (pp. 67–85). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  148. Prat, S., Brugal, J.-P., Tiercelin, J-J., Barrat, J.A., Bohn, M., Delagnes, A., Harmand, S., Kimeu, K., Kibunjia, M., Texier, P.-J., Roche, H. (2005). First occurrence of early Homo in the Nachukui Formation (West Turkana, Kenya) at 2.3–2.4 Myr. Journal of Human Evolution 49, 230–240.Google Scholar
  149. Prueher, L. M., & Rea, D. K. (2001). Volcanic triggering of late Pliocene glaciation: evidence from the flux of volcanic glass and ice-rafted debris to the North Pacific Ocean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclima­tology, Palaeoecology, 173, 215–230.Google Scholar
  150. Quade, J., Cerling, T. E., & Bowman, J. R. (1989). Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan. Nature, 342, 163–166.Google Scholar
  151. Quade, J., Cerling, T. E., Bowman, J. R., & Jah, A. (1993). Paleoecologic reconstruction of floodplain environments using palaeosols from Upper Siwalik Group sediments, northern Pakistan. In J. F. Schroder (Ed.), Himalaya to the sea: Geology, geomorphology and the quaternary (pp. 213–226). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  152. Ranov, V. (1995). The ‘Loessic Palaeolithic’ in South Tadjikistan, Central Asia: its industries, chronology and correlation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 14, 731–745.Google Scholar
  153. Ranov, V.A., & Dodonov, A.E. (2003). Small instruments of the Lower Palaeolithic site Kuldara and the geoarcheological meaning. In M. Burdukiewicz, A. Ronen (Eds.), Lower Palaeolithic Small Tools in Europe and the Levant. Oxford, British Archeological Reports (International Series) 1115, pp.133–148.Google Scholar
  154. Rea, D. K., Snoeckx, H., & Joseph, L. H. (1998). Late Cenozoic eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the northern hemisphere. Paleooceanography, 13, 215–224.Google Scholar
  155. Rendell, H. M., & Dennell, R. W. (1985). Dated lower palaeolithic artefacts from northern Pakistan. Current Anthropology, 26, 393.Google Scholar
  156. Rendell, H. M., Dennell, R. W., & Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archeological Reports International Series, 544, 1–346.Google Scholar
  157. Rightmire, G.P., Lordkipanidze (2010). Fossil skulls from Dmanisi: a paleodeme representing earliest Homo in Eurasia. In J.G. Fleagle, J.J. Shea, F.E. Grine, A.L. Baden, & R.E. Leakey (Eds.), Out of Africa I: the first hominin colonization of Eurasia (pp. 225–243). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  158. Rightmire, G. P., Lordkipanidze, D., & Vekua, A. (2006). Anatomical descriptions, comparative studies and evolutionary significance of the hominin skulls from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia. Journal of Human Evolution, 50, 115–141.Google Scholar
  159. Roebroeks, W. (2001). Hominid behaviour and the earliest occupation of Europe: an exploration. Journal of Human Evolution, 41, 437–461.Google Scholar
  160. Roebroeks, W., Kolen, J., & Rensink, E. (1988). Planning depth, anticipation and the organisation of Middle Palaeolithic technology: the “archaic natives” meet Eve’s descendants. Helinium, 28, 17–34.Google Scholar
  161. Ron, H., & Levi, S. (2001). When did hominids first leave Africa? New high-resolution paleomagnetic evidence from the Erk-El-Ahmar formation, Israel. Geology, 29, 887–890.Google Scholar
  162. Ronen, A. (1991). The Yiron-gravel lithic assemblage: artefacts older than 2.4 My in Israel. Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt 21, 159–164.Google Scholar
  163. Ruddiman, W. F., Sarnthein, M., Backman, J., Baldauf, J. G., Curry, W., Dupont, L. M., et al. (1989). Late Miocene to Pleistocene evolution of climate in Africa and the low-latitude Atlantic: overview to Leg 108 results. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 108, 463–484.Google Scholar
  164. Ruff, C. (2002). Variation in human body size and shape. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 211–232.Google Scholar
  165. Rust, A. (1950). Die Höhlenfunde von Jabrud (Syrien). Karl Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster.Google Scholar
  166. Schrenk, F., Bromage, T. G., Bernier, C. G., Ring, U., & Juwayeyi, Y. M. (1993). Oldest Homo and Pliocene biogeography of the Malawi Rift. Nature, 365, 833–36.Google Scholar
  167. Schwartz, J. H. (2000). Taxonomy of the Dmanisi cranium. Science, 289, 5776.Google Scholar
  168. Schwartz, J. H., & Tattersall, I. (1996). Whose teeth? Nature, 381, 201–202.Google Scholar
  169. Schwartz, J. H., & Tattersall, I. (2000). What constitutes Homo erectus? Acta Anthropologica Sinica Supplement, 19, 18–22.Google Scholar
  170. Schwartz, J. H., & Tattersall, I. (2003). The Human Fossil Record. Volume two: Craniodental morphology of Genus Homo (Africa and Asia). New York: Wiley-Liss.Google Scholar
  171. Schwartz, J. H., Long, V. T., Cuong, N., Kha, L. T., & Tattersall, I. (1994). A diverse hominoid fauna from the late Middle Pleistocene breccia cave of Tham Khuyen, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 73, 1–11.Google Scholar
  172. Schwartz, J. H., Long, V. T., Cuong, N. L., Kha, L. T., & Tattersall, I. (1995). A review of the Pleistocene hominoid fauna of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (excluding Hylobatidae). Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 76, 1–24.Google Scholar
  173. Semaw, S., Rogers, M. J., Quade, J., Renne, P. R., Butler, R. F., Dominguez-Rodrigo, M., et al. (2003). 2.6-million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution, 45, 169–177.Google Scholar
  174. Shackleton, N. J., Backman, J., Zimmerman, H., Kent, D. V., Hall, M. A., Robert, D. G., et al. (1984). Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature, 307, 620–623.Google Scholar
  175. Sharma, A. K. (1993). Prehistoric Delhi and its neighbourhood. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.Google Scholar
  176. Sherwood, R. J., Ward, S. C., & Hill, A. (2002). The taxonomic status of the Chemeron temporal (KNM-BC-1). Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 153–184.Google Scholar
  177. Slimak, L., Roche, H., Mouralis, D., Buitenhuis, H., Balkan-Atlı, N., Binder, D., et al. (2004). Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turquie), aspects archéologiques, chronologiques et paléontologiques d’une sequence pleistocène en Anatole centrale. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3, 411–420.Google Scholar
  178. Smith, P. E. L. (1986). Palaeolithic archaeology in Iran. Philadelphia: University Museum.Google Scholar
  179. Sotnikova, M. V., Dodonov, A. E., & Pen’kov, A. V. (1997). Upper Cenozoic bio-magnetic stratigraphy of Central Asian mammalian localities. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 133, 243–258.Google Scholar
  180. Stringer, C. (2006). Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  181. Sun, J., & Liu, T. (2000). Stratigraphic evidence for the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau between 1.1 and 0.9 myr ago. Quaternary Research, 54, 309–320.Google Scholar
  182. Sun, Z., Feng, X., Li, D., Yang, F., Yonghong, Qu, & Wang, H. (1999). Cenozoic ostracoda and palaeoenvironments of the northeastern Tarim Basin, western China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 148, 37–50.Google Scholar
  183. Suwa, G., White, T. D., & Howell, F. C. (1996). Mandibular postcanine dentition from the Shungura Formation, Ethiopia: crown morphology, taxonomic allocations, and Plio-Pleistocene hominid evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101, 247–282.Google Scholar
  184. Swisher III, C.C., Curtis, G.H., Jacob, T., Getty, A.G., & Suprijo, A., & Widiasmoro (1994). Age of the earliest known hominids in Java Indonesia. Science 263, 1118–1121.Google Scholar
  185. Takai, M., Maschenko, E. N., Nishimura, T. D., Anezaki, T., & Suzuki, T. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of Paradolichopithecus sushkini Trofimov 1977, a large-bodied ­cercopithecine monkey from the Pliocene of Eurasia. Quaternary International, 179, 108–119.Google Scholar
  186. Tapponnier, P., Zhiqin, Xu, Roger, F., Meyer, B., Arnaud, N., Wittlinger, G., et al. (2001). Oblique stepwise rise and growth of the Tibet Plateau. Science, 294, 1671–1677.Google Scholar
  187. Tattersall, I. (1997). Out of Africa again… and again? Scientific American, 276, 46–53.Google Scholar
  188. Tchernov, E. (1987). The age of the Ubeidiya Formation, an Early Pleistocene hominid site in the Jordan Valley, Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 36, 3–30.Google Scholar
  189. Thomas, H., Geraads, D., Janjou, D., Vaslet, D., Memseh, A., Billiou, D., et al. (1998). Découverte des premieres faunes pleistocène de la peninsule Arabique dans le desert du Nafoud (Arabie Saoudite). Compte Rendu de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris 326, 145–152.Google Scholar
  190. Tian, J., Wang, P., & Cheng, X. (2004). Development of the East Asian monsoon and Northern Hemisphere glaciation: oxygen isotope records from the South China Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23, 2007–2016.Google Scholar
  191. Tobias, P. V. (1966). Fossil hominid remains from Ubeidiya, Israel. Nature, 211, 130–133.Google Scholar
  192. Tougard, C. (2001). Biogeography and migration routes of large mammals in South-East Asia during the Late Middle Pleistocene: focus on the fossil and extant faunas from Thailand. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 168, 337–358.Google Scholar
  193. Tougard, C., & Montuire, S. (2006). Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 126–141.Google Scholar
  194. Tougard, C., Jaeger, J.-J., Chaimanee, Y., Suteethorn, V., & Triamwichanon, S. (1998). Discovery of a Homo sp. tooth associated with a mammalian cave fauna of Late Middle Pleistocene age, Northern Thailand. Journal of Human Evolution, 35, 47–54.Google Scholar
  195. Tyler, D. E. (1992). A taxonomy of Javan hominid mandibles. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 11, 292–299.Google Scholar
  196. Tyron, C. A., Logan, M. A. V., Mouralis, D., Kuhn, S., Slimak, L., & Balkan-Atlı, N. (2009). Building a tephrostratigraphic framework for the Paleolithic of Central Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Archeological Science, 36, 637–652.Google Scholar
  197. Urabe, A., Nakaya, H., Muto, T., Katoh, S., Hyodo, M., & Shunrong, X. (2001). Lithostratigraphy and depositional history of the Late Cenozoic hominid-bearing successions in the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20, 1671–1681.Google Scholar
  198. van den Bergh, G. D., de Vos, J., & Sondaar, P. Y. (2001). The Late Quaternary palaeogeography of mammal evolution in the Indonesian Archipelago. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 171, 385–408.Google Scholar
  199. Vekua, A. (1995). Die Wirbeltierfauna des Villafranchium vom Dmanisi und ihre biostratigraphische Bedeutung. Jahrbuch des Römisch Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Mainz, 42, 77–180.Google Scholar
  200. Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Rightmire, G. P., Agusti, J., Ferring, R., Maisuradze, G., et al. (2002). A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Science, 297, 85–89.Google Scholar
  201. Verosub, K. L., & Tchernov, E. (1991). Résultats préliminaries de l’étude magnétostratigraphie d’une séquence sédimentaire a industrie humanie en Israël. In E. Bonifay & B. Vandermeersch (Eds.), Les Premiers Peuplements Humains de l’Europe (pp. 237–242). Paris: CRNS.Google Scholar
  202. Vishnyatsky, L. B. (1999). The paleolithic of Central Asia. Journal of World Prehistory, 13, 69–122.Google Scholar
  203. Vos, J.de., Sondaar, P.Y., Bergh, G.D. van den., Aziz, F. (1994). The Homo bearing deposits of Java and its ecological context. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 171, 129–140.Google Scholar
  204. Vrba, E. S. (1995). The fossil record of African antelopes (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate. In E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, & L. H. Burckle (Eds.), Paleoclimate and evolution (pp. 385–424). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  205. Walker, A., & Leakey, R. (Eds.). (1993). The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  206. Walker, A., & Shipman, P. (1996). The wisdom of bones: In search of human origins. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.Google Scholar
  207. Wanpo, H., Ciochon, R., Yumin, G., Larick, R., Qiren, F., Schwarcz, H., et al. (1995). Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature, 378, 275–278.Google Scholar
  208. Weinstein-Evron, M., Bar-Oz, G., Zaidner, Y., Tsatskin, A., Druck, D., Porat, N., et al. (2003). Introducing Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel: a new continuous Lower/Middle Paleolithic sequence in the Levant. Eurasian Prehistory, 1, 31–55.Google Scholar
  209. Wheeler, P. E. (1991). The thermoregulatory advantages of hominid bipedalism in open equatorial environments: the contribution of increased convective heat loss and cutaneous evaporative cooling. Journal of Human Evolution, 21, 107–115.Google Scholar
  210. Wheeler, P. E. (1992). The thermoregulatory advantages of large body size for hominids foraging in savannah environments. Journal of Human Evolution, 23, 351–362.Google Scholar
  211. White, T. D. (1995). African omnivores: global climatic change and Plio-Pleistocene hominids and suids. In E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, & L. H. Burckle (Eds.), Paleoclimate and evolution (pp. 369–385). New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  212. Williams, M.A.J., Clarke, M.F. (1995). Quaternary geology and prehistoric environments in the Son and Belan Valleys, North Central India. In S. Wadia, R. Korisettar, & V.S. Kale (Eds.), Quaternary environments and geoarchaeology of India. Geological society of India memoir 32, Bangalore, pp. 282–308.Google Scholar
  213. Williams, D. F., Peck, J., Karabanov, E. B., Prokopenko, A. A., Kravchinsky, V., King, J., et al. (1997). Lake Baikal record of continental climate response to orbital insolation during the past 5 million years. Science, 278, 1114–1117.Google Scholar
  214. Wood, B. (1984). The origin of Homo erectus. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 69, 99–111.Google Scholar
  215. Wood, B., & Collard, M. (1999). The human genus. Science, 284, 65–71.Google Scholar
  216. Wu, X., & Poirier, F. E. (1995). Human evolution in China: A metric description of the fossils and a review of the sites. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  217. Wu, Y., Cui, Z., Liu, G., Ge, D., Yin, J., Qinghai, Xu, et al. (2001). Quaternary geomorphological evolution of the Kunlun Pass area and uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. Geomorphology, 36, 203–216.Google Scholar
  218. Xinxhi Wu, X. (2000). Longgupo hominoid mandible belongs to ape. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 19, 1–10.Google Scholar
  219. Yang, S., & Ding, Z. (2006). Winter-spring precipitation as the principal control on predominance of C3 plants in Central Asia over the last 1.77 Myr: evidence from δ13C of loess organic matter in Tajikistan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 235, 330–339.Google Scholar
  220. Zaim, Y. (2010). Geological evidence for the earliest appearance of hominins in Indonesia. In: J.G. Fleagle, J.J. Shea, F.E. Grine, A.L. Baden, & R.E. Leakey (Eds.), Out of Africa I: the first hominin colonization of Eurasia (pp. 97–110). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  221. Zheng, H., Powell, C. M., An, Z., Zhou, J., & Dong, G. (2000). Pliocene uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Geology, 28, 715–718.Google Scholar
  222. Zhu, R., An, Z., Potts, R., & Hoffman, K. A. (2003). Magnetostratigraphy of early humans in China. Earth-Science Reviews, 61, 341–359.Google Scholar
  223. Zhu, R. X., Hoffman, K. A., Potts, R., Deng, C. L., Pan, Y. X., Guo, B., et al. (2001). Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia. Nature, 413, 413–417.Google Scholar
  224. Zhu, R. X., Potts, R., Xie, F., Hoffman, K. A., Deng, C. L., Shi, C. D., et al. (2004). New evidence on the earliest human presence at high northern latitudes in northeast Asia. Nature, 431, 559–562.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchaeologyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations