The Demography of Race and Ethnicity of Mexico

Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 4)

Abstract

Mexico is a country in North America with a rich social, cultural, economic, and political history that is comprised of thirty one states and one Federal District. Racially and culturally, Mexico is the product of advanced Pre-Columbian civilizations (the Aztec, the Maya, the Olmec, the Teotihuacan, and the Zapotec), as well as Spaniard and African immigrations, and more recently, Asian, Caribbean, and European. Unfortunately, even when the complex socio-cultural history of Mexico is subject of admiration, because of Mestizaje, the richness of its racial and ethnic demography is often unacknowledged. Specifically, the demographic dynamics are determined by the characteristics of the Mexican population, including its racial and ethnic characteristics. Regrettably, because Mexico’s racial and ethnic diversity has been reduced to ethnicity alone, the critical study of the demography of race and ethnicity in Mexico encounters some conceptual and methodological limitations. In this chapter, the conceptual and methodological shortcomings are overcome by presenting a historical analysis of Mexico, by engaging in the social deconstruction of mestizo—which may be considered the foundation of Mexican nationalism, as well as by addressing the importance of the validation of non-mestizo identities to develop effective public policy.

Keywords

Ethnic Identity International Migration Indian Population Mexican Population Mortality Decline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Argyriadis, K., & Capone, S. (2004). Cubanía et santería. Les enjeux politique de la transnationalisation religiieuse (La Havane-Miami)”. Civilisations, 51(1–2), 81–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blau, P. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity. Glencoe: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Brysk, A. (2000). From tribal villages to global village: Indian rights and international relations in Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Burke, P. J. (2004). Identities and social structure: The 2003 Cooley-Mead award address. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(1), 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (1999). Trust and commitment through self-verification. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(4), 347–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burkholder, M., & Hiles, S. (2000). An Empire beyond compare. In M. C. Meyer & W. H. Beezley (Eds.), The Oxford history of Mexico. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Caldwell, L. D., & Kamau, O. S. (2003). Promoting academic persistence in African American and Latino high school students: The educational navigation skills seminar in an upward bound program. The High School Journal, 87(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll, P. J., & Lamb, J. N. (1995). Los Mexicanos negros, el mestizaje y los fundamentos olvidados de la “Raza Cósmica”: una perspectiva regional. Historia Mexicana, 44(3), 403–438.Google Scholar
  9. Caso, A. (1948). Definición del indio y lo indio. America Indigena, 8(4), 239–247.Google Scholar
  10. Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. (2006). Indicadores Sociodemográficos de la Población Indígena 2000–2005. http://www.google.com/search?q=indicadores+sociodemograficos+de+la+poblacion+indigena+2000-2005%2C+septiembre+2006&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&startIndex=&startPage=1. Accessed on 1 Feb 2010.
  11. Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. (2009a). Los Indígenas en los censos: el criterio lingüístico. http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id=208&option=com_content&task=view. Accessed 1 Feb 2010.
  12. Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. (2009b). Las estimaciones de la población Indígena. http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id=209&option=com_content&task=view. Accessed on 1 Feb 2010.
  13. Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. (2010). Los Pueblos indígenas de México. http://www.cdi.gob.mx/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1387&Itemid=24. Accessed on 2 Jan 2012.
  14. Cruz-Carretero, S. (2005). Yanga and the black origins of México special symposium. The Review of Black Political Economy, 33(1), 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Darity, W. (2005). Afro-Mexicano symposium: An introduction. The Review of Black Political Economy, 33(1), 47–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, D. J. (1994). Introduction: The African experience in Latin America –resistance and accommodation. In D. J. Davis (Ed.), Slavery and beyond, the African impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Wilmington: Jaguar Books on Latin America, Scholarly Resources.Google Scholar
  17. Doremus, A. (2001). Mestizaje, and National Identity in Mexico during the 1940s and the 1950s. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 17(2), 375–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisenstadt, T. A. (2006). Attitudes and ethnic identity construction in Mexico. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 22(1), 107–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elu, M. d. C., & Santos, E. (2005). Migración interna en Mexico y Salud Reproductiva. Mexico: UNFPA-CONAPO.Google Scholar
  20. Feliciano, C. (2009). Education and ethnic identity formation among children of Latin American and Caribbean immigrants. Sociological Perspectives, 52(2), 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernández, H. P., & Serrano, E. (2002). La población indígena en los recuentos censales de 1990 y 1995. In A. M. Chávez Galindo (Ed.), Análisis del conteo de población y vivienda de 1995 (pp. 197–221). México: Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Colección Multidisciplinaria).Google Scholar
  22. Frank, R., & Heuveline, P. (2005). A crossover in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox. Demographic Research, 12(4). Available at http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol12/4/12-4.pdf. Accessed on 04/2005.
  23. Gall, O. (2004). Identidad, exclusión y racismo: reflexiones teóricas sobre México (Identity, Exclusion and Racism: Theoretical Considerations). Revista Mexicana de Sociología, 66(2), 221–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. González Navarro, M. (1968). El mestizaje Mexicano en el periodo nacional. Revista Mexicana de Sociología, 30(1), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenhalgh, S. (1990). Toward a political economy of fertility: Anthropological contributions. Population and Development Review, 16(1), 85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harris, M. (1964). Patterns of race in the Americans. New York: Walker and Company.Google Scholar
  27. Hawkins, J. P. (1990). Reflexiones sobre la autonomía cultural indígena: imágenes inversas en Chamula y Santiago Chimaltenango. Mesoamérica, 19, 83–95.Google Scholar
  28. Hoffman, O., & Pascal, C. (2006). Negros y Afromestizos en México: Viejas y nuevas lecturas de un mundo olvidado/Blacks and Afromestizos in Mexico: New and Old Readings of a Forgotten World. Revista Mexicana de la Sociología, 68(1), 103–135.Google Scholar
  29. Instituto Nacional de Geografía e Historia. (2010). Población, Hogares y Vivienda. http://www.inegi.org.mx/inegi/default.aspx. Accessed 1 Feb 2010.
  30. Instituto Nacional de Geografía e Historia. (2012). Población, Hogares y Viviendas. http://www.inegi.org.mx/Sistemas/temasV2/Default.aspx?s=est&c=17484. Accessed 2 Jan 2012.
  31. Inter-American Development Bank. (2010). Remittances to Latin America stabilizing after 15 % drop last year – FOMIN. http://www.iadb.org/news-releases/2010-03/english/remittances-to-latin-america-stabilizing-after-15-drop-last-year-fomin-6671.html. Accessed 3 Mar 2010.
  32. Jackson, J. (1995). Culture, genuine and spurious: The politics of Indianness in the Vaupés, Colombia. American Ethnologist, 22(1), 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohler, H. P., Billari, F. C., & Ortega, J. A. (2002). The emergence of lowest-low fertility in Europe during the 1990s. Population and Development Review, 28, 641–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Levitt, P. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. International Migration Review, 32(4), 926–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewis, L. A. (2000). Blacks, Black Indians, Afromexicans: The dynamics of race, nation, and identity in a Mexican “Moreno” community (Guerrero). American Ethnologist, 27(4), 898–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mac-Lean y Estenos, R. (1960). Status Socio-Cultural de los Indios de México (Exegesis Histórica). Revista Mexicana de Sociología, 22(1), 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Massey, D. S., & Espinosa, K. E. (1997). What’s driving Mexico-U.S. migration? A theoretical, empirical, and policy analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 102(4), 939–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Massey, D. S., Durand, J., & Malone, N. J. (2002). Beyond smoke and mirrors: Mexican immigration in an era of economic integration. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Montalvo, F. F. (2004). Surviving race. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 13(3), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Notestein, F. W. (1945). Population—the long view. In T. W. Schultz (Ed.), Food for the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  41. Nutini, H. G. (1997). Class and ethnicity in Mexico: Somatic and racial considerations. Ethnology, 36(3), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Omran, A. R. (1971). The epidemiological transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 49, 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Palmer, C. (1976). Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico 1570–1650. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paris Pombo, M. D. (2000). Identidades Excluyentes en San Cristóbal de las casas. Revista Nueva Antropología, 17(58), 89–100.Google Scholar
  45. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The New second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 530(Nov.), 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Poston, D. L., Jr. (2000). Social and economic development and the fertility transition in mainland China and Taiwan. Population and Development Review, 26(Supplement), 40–60.Google Scholar
  47. Poynton, P. (1997). Mexico: Indians uprisings: never more a Mexico without us. Race and Class, 39(2), 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rabell Romero, C. (1993). El descenso de la población indígena durante el siglo XVI y las cuentas del gran capitán. In Conapo (Ed.), El poblamiento de México. Una visión histórico-demográfica (pp. 18–35 t. II). Mexico: Secretaría de Gobernación.Google Scholar
  49. Ramírez, F. (1971). Leyes Fundamentales de México, 1808–1971. Mexico: Editorial Porrúa, S.A.Google Scholar
  50. Serrano Carreto, E., Osorio, A. E., & Fernández Ham, P. (2002). Indicadores socioeconómicos de los pueblos indígenas de México, 2002. Mexico: Instituto Nacional Indigenista.Google Scholar
  51. Stephan, N. L. (1991). The hour of eugenics: Race, gender, and nation in Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of identity theory. Social Psychological Quarterly, 63(4), 284–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson, W. S. (1929). Population. American Journal of Sociology, 34(6), 959–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Torres, A., & Whitten, N. (1998). General introduction: To forge the future in the fires of the past: an interpretative essay on racism, domination, resistance, and liberation. In A. Torres & N. E. Whitten Jr. (Eds.), Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean (pp. 3–33). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Valencia Valencia, E. (1993). Prólogo. In M. C. Díaz Pérez, F. A. Prudente, & A. García Casarrubias (Eds.), Jamás fandango al cielo: Narrativa afromestiza (pp. 3–33). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Vasconcelos, J. (1925). La raza cósmica: Misión de la raza Iberoamericana. Paris: Agencia Mundial de Librería.Google Scholar
  58. Vaughn, B. (2005). The African Diaspora through Ojos Mexicanos: Blackness and Mexicanidad in Southern Mexico. The Review of Black Political Economy, 33(1), 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vinson, B. (2005). Fading from memory: historiographical reflections on the Afro-Mexican presence. Special symposium. The Review of Black Political Economy, 33(1), 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wade, P. (1997). Race and ethnicity in Latin America. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  61. Walsh, C. (2004). Eugenic acculturation: Manuel gamio, migration studies, and the anthropology of development in Mexico, 1910–1940. Latin American Perspectives, 31(5), 118–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Waters, M. C. (2001). Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Wolfgang, G. (2001). Social categories, ethnicity and the state in Yucatan, Mexico. Journal of Latin American Studies, 33(3), 459–484.Google Scholar
  64. World Factbook. (2012). MEXICO. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html. Accessed 2 Jan 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and the Chicano/Latino Studies ProgramMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations