Advertisement

Abstract

WordNet is a large electronic lexical database for English (Miller 1995, Fellbaum 1998a). It originated in 1986 at Princeton University where it continues to be developed and maintained. George A. Miller, a psycholinguist, was inspired by experiments in Artificial Intelligence that tried to understand human semantic memory (e.g., Collins and Quillian 1969). Given the fact that speakers possess knowledge about tens of thousands of words and the concepts expressed by these words, it seemed reasonable to assume efficient and economic storage and access mechanisms for words and concepts. The Collins and Quillian model proposed a hierarchical structure of concepts, where more specific concepts inherit information from their superordinate, more general concepts; only knowledge particular to more specific concepts needs to be stored with such concepts. Thus, it took subjects longer to confirm a statement like “canaries have feathers” than the statement “birds have feathers” since, presumably, the property “has-feathers” is stored with the concept bird and not redundantly with the concept for each kind of bird.

Keywords

Word Form Semantic Network Domain Ontology Semantic Distance Formal Ontology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Work partially supported by contracts from The Disruptive Technology Office, REFLEX, and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

References

  1. Agirre E., O. Ansa, X. Arregi, J.M. Arriola, A. Diaz de Ilarraza, E. Pociello, and L. Uria. 2002. Methodological issues in the building of the Basque Word-Net: Quantitative and qualitative analysis. In: Proceedings of the First International WordNet Conference, Mysore, India: CIIL.Google Scholar
  2. Bilgin, O., O. Cetimo, and K. Oflaver. 2004. Building a word-net for Turkish. Romanian Journal of Information Science and Technology 7:1–2, 163–172.Google Scholar
  3. Black, W., S. Elkateb, H. Rodriguez, M. Alkhalifa, P. Vossen, A. Pease, M. Bertran, and C. Fellbaum. 2006. The Arabic WordNet project. Proceedings of the Conference on Lexical Resources in the European Community, Genoa, Italy.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, C., C.J. Fillmore, and J. B. Lowe. 1998. The Berkeley FrameNet project. Proceedings of the COLING-ACL Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  5. Chaffin, R. 1992. The concept of a semantic relation. In Frames, fields, and contrasts: New essays in semantic and lexical organization, eds. A. Lehrer and E.F. Kittay, 253–288. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Collins, A. M., and M. R. Quillian. 1969. Retrieval time from semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8:240–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cruse, A. 1986. Lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Fellbaum, C. ed. 1998a. WordNet: An electronic lexical database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Fellbaum, C. 1998b. A semantic network of english verbs. In ed. C. Fellbaum, 69–104.Google Scholar
  10. Fellbaum, C. 2000. Autotroponymy. In Polysemy, eds. Y. Ravin, and C. Leacock, 52–67. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fellbaum, C., and J. Kegl. 1989. Taxonomic structure and object deletion in the english verbal system. In Proceedings of the 6th Eastern States Conference on Linguistics, eds. K. deJong, and Y. No, 94–103. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  12. Fellbaum, C., and G. A. Miller. 2003. Morphosemantic links in Word-Net. Traitement Automatique des Langues 44(2):69–80.Google Scholar
  13. Fellbaum, C. and P. Vossen. 2007. Connecting the universal to the specific: Towards the global grid. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Intercultural Communication, Kyoto University, Japan. Reprinted in Intercultural Collaboration: First International Workshop. LNCS 4568, eds. T. Ishida, S.R. Fussell, and P.T. J. M. Vossen, 1–16. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Gangemi, A., N. Guarino, C. Masolo, A. Oltramari, and L. Schneider. 2002a. Sweetening ontologies with DOLCE. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW02), 166, LNCS 2473.Google Scholar
  15. Gangemi, A., N. Guarino, A. Oltramari, and S. Borgo. 2002b. Cleaning-up WordNet’s top-level. In Proceedings of the First International WordNet Conference, Mysore, India: CIIL.Google Scholar
  16. Gross, D., U. Fischer, and G.A. Miller. 1989. The organization of adjectival meanings. Journal of Memory and Language 28:92–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kahusk, N., and K. Vider. 2002. EstonianWordNet benefits from word sense disambiguation. In Proceedings of the First Global WordNet Conference, 26–31. Mysore, India: CentralInstitute of Indian Languages.Google Scholar
  18. Kilgarriff, A. 2000. Review of WordNet. Language 76:706–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lin, D. 1999. Review of WordNet: An electronic lexical database. Computational Linguistics 25:2.Google Scholar
  20. Miller, G.A. 1995. WordNet: A lexical database for english. Communications of the ACM 38:39–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller, G.A. 1998. Nouns in WordNet. In Word-Net: An electronic lexical database, ed. C. Fellbaum, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Miller, G. A., and C. Fellbaum. 1991. Semantic networks of english. Cognition, special issue, eds. B. Levin, and S. Pinker, 197–229. Reprinted in Lexical and Conceptual Semantics, eds. B. Levin, and S. Pinker, 197–229. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, G.A., and F. Hristea. 2004. WordNet nouns: Classes and instances. Computational Linguistics 32:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller G., C. Leacock, T. Randee, R. Bunker. 1993. A semantic concordance. In Proceedings of the 3rd DARPAWorkshop on Human Language Technology, Plainsboro, NJ, 303–308.Google Scholar
  25. Miller, K. 1998. Modifiers in WordNet. In Word-net: An electronic lexical database. ed. C. Fellbaum, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Niles, I., and A. Pease. 2001. Towards a standard upper ontology. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Ogunquit, Maine.Google Scholar
  27. Niles, I., and A. Pease. 2003. Linking lexicons and ontologies: Mapping WordNet to the suggested upper merged ontology. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering, 412–416.Google Scholar
  28. Niles, I. and A. Terry. 2004. The MILO: A general-purpose, mid-level ontology. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering, Las Vegas, Nevada.Google Scholar
  29. Oltramari, A., A. Gangemi, N. Guarino, and C. Masolo. 2002. RestructuringWordNet’s top-level: The ontoclean approach. In Proceedings of LREC, Las Palmas, Spain.Google Scholar
  30. Pease, A. 2003. The sigma ontology development environment. Working Notes of the IJCAI-2003 Workshop on Ontology and Distributed Systems. Proceedings of CEUR 71.Google Scholar
  31. Pease, A., and C. Fellbaum. 2009. Formal ontology as interlingua: The SUMO and WordNet Linking Project. In Ontologies and the Lexicon, eds. C.-R. Huang, N. Calzolari, A. Gangemi, A. Lenci, A. Oltramari, and L. Prévot, 29–43. Cambridge Studies in Natural Language Processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Sojka, P., K. Pala, P. Smrz, C. Fellbaum, and P. Vossen, eds. 2004. Proceedings of the Second International WordNet Conference. Brno, Czech Republic: Masaryk University.Google Scholar
  33. Sojka, P., K.-S. Choi, C. Fellbaum, and P. Vossen. 2006. Proceedings of the third global WordNet conference. Brno, Czech Republic: Masaryk University.Google Scholar
  34. Thiyagarajan, S., S. Arulmozi, S. Rajendran. 2002. Tamil WordNet. In Proceedings of the First Global WordNet Conference, Mysore, India: CIIL.Google Scholar
  35. Vossen, P. 1998. ed. EuroWordNet. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  36. Vossen, P. 2004. EuroWordNet: A multilingual database of autonomous and language-specific wordnets connected via an interlingual index. International Journal of Lexicography 17(2):161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vossen, P., and C. Fellbaum. 2009. Universals and idiosyncracies in multilingual wordnets. In Multilingual lexical resource, ed. H. Boas, Hans, 319–345. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  38. Wong, S.H.S., and K. Pala. 2004. Chinese characters and top ontology in EuroWordNet. In Proceedings of the First Global WordNet Conference, ed. U.N. Singh, 224–233. Mysore, India: CIIL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer SciencePrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations