Geographical Relations of the Chilean Flora

  • Andrés Moreira-MuñozEmail author
Part of the Plant and Vegetation book series (PAVE, volume 5)


The chorological approach attempts to classify taxa according to their geographic relationships. The Chilean native genera have been classified in 7 floristic elements and 10 generalized tracks. The origin of major disjunctions in the flora is intensively discussed from the viewpoint of under contrasting biogeographic paradigms like dispersal and vicariance. Attention is also put on the influence of the Andean Dry Diagonal on the evolution of the Chilean flora and its distribution patterns.


Subtropical Forest Disjunct Distribution Generalize Track Vicariance Event Floristic Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abraham E, del Valle HF, Roig F, Torres L, Ares JO, Coronato F, Godagnone R (2009) Overview of the geography of the Monte Desert biome (Argentina). J Arid Environ, 73:144–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson CL, Rova JHE, Andersson L (2001) Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Anthospermeae (Rubiaceae): systematic and biogeographic implications. Aust Syst Bot, 14:231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson CL, Bremer K, Friis EM (2005) Dating phylogenetically basal eudicots using rbcL sequences and multiple fossil reference points. Am J Bot, 92:1737–1748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arroyo MTK, Squeo FA, Armesto JJ, Villagrán C (1988) Effects of aridity on plant diversity in the northern Chilean Andes: results of a natural experiment. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 75:55–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbour M (1969) Patterns of genetic similarity between Larrea divaricata of North and South America. Am Midl Nat, 81:54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker NP, Weston PH, Rutschmann F, Sauquet H (2007) Molecular dating of the “Gondwanan” plant familt Proteaceae is only partially congruent with the timing of the break-up of Gondwana. J Biogeogr, 34:2012–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barlow BA (1981) The Australian flora: its origin and evolution. In: Bureau of Flora and Fauna (ed) Flora of Australia, vol. 1. AGPS, Canberra, pp. 25–75Google Scholar
  8. Beier BA, Nylander JAA, Chase MW, Thulin M (2004) Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the desert plant genus Fagonia (Zygophyllaceae), inferred by parsimony and Bayesian model averaging. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 33:91–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bessega C, Vilardi JC, Saidman BO (2006) Genetic relationships among American species of the genus Prosopis (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae) inferred from ITS sequences: evidence for long-distance dispersal. J Biogeogr, 33:1905–1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bleeker W, Weber-Sparenberg C, Hurka H (2002) Chloroplast DNA variation and biogeography in the genus Rorippa Scop. (Brassicaceae). Plant Biol, 4:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bray WL (1900) The relations of the North American flora to that of South America. Science, 12:709–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brundin L (1966) Transantartic relationships and their significance, as evidenced by chironomid midges. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 11:1–472Google Scholar
  13. Cain SA (1944) Foundations of plant geography. Harper and Brothers, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Calviño CI, Martinez SG, Downie SR (2008) The evolutionary history of Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): Rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridizations. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 46:1129–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlquist S (1983) Intercontinental dispersal. In: Kubitzki K, (ed) Dispersal and distribution: an international symposium. Sonderbände des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, vol 7. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg/Berlin, 37–47Google Scholar
  16. Chacón J, Madriñán S, Chase MW, Bruhl JJ (2006) Molecular phylogenetics of Oreobolus (Cyperaceae) and the origin and diversification of the American species. Taxon, 55:359–36Google Scholar
  17. Christ H (1867) Über die Verbreitung der Pflanzen der alpinen Region der europäischen Alpenkette. Denkschr. Schweiz. Nat. Ges. 22Google Scholar
  18. Chung KF, Peng CI, Downie SR, Spalik K, Schaal BA (2005) Molecular systematics of the trans-Pacific alpine genus Oreomyrrhis (Apiaceae): phylogenetic affinities and biogeographic implications. Am J Bot, 92:2054–2071CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Constance L (1963) Amphitropical relationships in the herbaceous flora of the Pacific Coast of North and South America: a symposium. Introduction and historical review. Q Rev Biol, 38:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox CB (1990) New geological theories and old biogeographical problems. J Biogeogr 17(11): 7–130Google Scholar
  21. Craw RC, Grehan JR, Heads MJ (1999) Panbiogeography: tracking the history of life. Oxford Biogeography Series 11. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  22. Crisp MD, West JG, Linder HP (1999) Biogeography of the terrestrial flora. In: Orchard AE, (ed) Flora of Australia, vol. 1, 2nd edn. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, pp 321–367Google Scholar
  23. Croizat L (1952) Manual of Phytogeography, or an account of plant dispersal throughout the world. Junk, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  24. Croizat L (1958) Panbiogeography or an introductory synthesis of zoogeography, phytogeography, and geology; with notes on evolution, systematics, ecology, anthropology, etc., 3 vol. Published by the author, Caracas, VenezuelaGoogle Scholar
  25. Croizat L (1962) On the age of Fray Jorge and Talinay in Chile. Rev Univ (Chile), 47:57–61Google Scholar
  26. Cruden RW (1966) Birds as agents of long-distance dispersal for disjunct plant groups of the temperate Western Hemisphere. Evolution, 20:517–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species. Oxford World’s Classics (1996). Oxford University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. De Martonne E (1934) The Andes of the North-West Argentine. Geogr J, 84:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Queiroz A (2005) The resurrection of oceanic dispersal in historical biogeography. Trends Ecol Evol, 20:68–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Donato M, Posadas P, Miranda-Esquivel DR, Jaureguizar EO, Cladera G (2003) Historical biogeography of the Andean region: evidence from Listroderina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhytirrhinini) in the context of the South American geobiotic scenario. Biol J Linn Soc, 80:339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Donoghue PCJ, Benton MJ (2007) Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules. Trends Ecol Evol, 22:424–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drummond AJ, Ho SYW, Phillips MJ, Rambaut A (2006) Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biol, 4:e88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Du Rietz GE (1940) Problems of bipolar plant distribution. Acta Phytogeogr Suecica, 13:215–282Google Scholar
  34. Engler A (1882) Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt, insbesondere der Florengebiete seit der Tertiärperiode, Vol. 2. Die Extratropischen Gebiete der Südlichen Hemisphäre und die Tropischen Gebiete. Verlag von W. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  35. Gandolfo MA, Nixon KC, Crepet WL (2008) Selection of fossils for calibration of molecular dating models. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 95:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glasby CJ (2005) Polychaete distribution patterns revisited: an historical explanation. Mar Ecol, 26:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Good R (1947) The geography of the flowering plants. 4th edition 1974. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Hannig E, Winkler H, (eds) (1926–1940) Die Pflanzenareale: Sammlung kartographischer Darstellungen von Verbreitungsbezirken der lebenden und fossilen Pflanzen-Familien, -Gattungen und–Arten. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  39. Heads M (1999) Vicariance biogeography and terrane tectonics in the South Pacific: analysis of the genus Abrotanella (Compositae). Biol J Linn Soc, 67:391–432Google Scholar
  40. Heads M (2002) Birds of paradise, vicariance biogeography and terrane tectonics in New Guinea. J Biogeogr, 29:261–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heads M (2004) What is a node? J Biogeogr, 31:1883–1891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heads M (2005) Dating nodes on molecular phylogenies: a critique of molecular biogeography. Cladistics, 21:62–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heusser CJ (1971) Pollen and Spores of Chile. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  44. Hinojosa LF (2005) Cambios climáticos y vegetacionales inferidos a partir de paleofloras Cenozoicas del sur de Sudamérica. Rev Geol Chil, 32:95–115Google Scholar
  45. Hofsten N (1916) Zur älteren Geschichte des Diskontinuitätsproblems in der Biogeographie. Zoologische Annalen, 7:197–353Google Scholar
  46. Hooghiemstra H, van der Hammen T (1998) Neogene and Quaternary development of the neotropical rain forest: the forest refugia hypothesis, and a literature overview. Earth Sci Rev, 44:147–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Houston J, Hartley AJ (2003) The central Andean west-slope rainshadow and its potential contribution to the origin of hyper-aridity in the Atacama Desert. Int J Climatol, 23:1453–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hovenkamp P (1997) Vicariance events, not areas, should be used in biogeographical analysis. Cladistics, 13:67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hughes C, Eastwood R (2006) Island radiation on a continental scale: exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes. Proc Natl Acad Sci Usa, 103:10334–10339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Humphries CJ (1981) Biogeographic methods and the southern beeches. In: Forey PL, (ed) The evolving biosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 283–297Google Scholar
  51. Humphries CJ, Parenti LR (1999) Cladistic biogeography, 2nd edn. Oxford monographs on biogeography N°2. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  52. Hunziker JH, Palacios RA, de Valesi AG, Poggio L (1972) Species disjunctions in Larrea: evidence from morphology, cytogenetics, phenolic compounds, and seed albumins. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 59:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnston IM (1940) The floristic significance of shrubs common to North and South American deserts. J Arnold Arbor, 21:356–363Google Scholar
  54. Kadereit JW, Repplinger M, Schmalz N, Uhink CH, Worz A (2008) The phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae subf. Saniculoideae tribe Saniculeae: from south to north and south again. Taxon, 57:365–382Google Scholar
  55. Katinas L, Morrone JJ, Crisci JV (1999) Track analysis reveals the composite nature of the Andean biota. Aust J Bot, 47:111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Katinas L, Crisci JV, Wagner W, Hoch PC (2004) Geographical diversification of tribes Epilobieae, Gongylocarpeae, and Onagreae (Onagraceae) in North America, based on parsimony analysis of endemicity and track compatibility analysis. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 91:159–185Google Scholar
  57. Ladiges PY, Kellermann J, Nelson G, Humphries CJ, Udovicic F (2005) Historical biogeography of Australian Rhamnaceae, tribe Pomaderreae. J Biogeogr, 32:1909–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Landrum L (1981) The phylogeny and geography of Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae). Brittonia, 33: 105–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Llorente Bousquets J, Papavero N, Bueno A (2003) Síntesis histórica de la biogeografía. In: Llorente Bousquets J, Morrone JJ, (eds) Introducción a la Biogeografía en Latinoamérica: Teorías, Conceptos, Métodos y Aplicaciones. Las Prensas de Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, México, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  60. Luna Vega I, Alcántara Ayala O, Morrone JJ, Espinosa Organista D (2000) Track analysis and conservation priorities in the cloud forests of Hidalgo (Mexico). Divers Distrib, 6:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. López RP (2003) Phytogeographical relations of the Andean dry valleys of Bolivia. J Biogeogr, 30:1659–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mabberley DJ (1997) The plant-book, 2nd ed. (3rd edn 2008). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  63. Messerli B, Ammann C, Geyh M, Grosjean M, Jenny B, Kammer K, Vuille M (1998) The problem of the “Andean Dry Diagonal”: Current precipitation, late Pleistocene snow line, and lake level changes in the Atacama Altiplano (18ºS–28º/29ºS). Bamberger Geogr Schr, 15:17–34Google Scholar
  64. Meudt HM, Simpson BB (2006) The biogeography of the austral, subalpine genus Ourisia (Plantaginaceae) based on molecular phylogenetic evidence South American origin and dispersal to New Zealand and Tasmania. Biol J Linn Soc, 87:479–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meusel H (1943) Vergleichende Arealkunde. Einführung in die Lehre von der Verbreitung der Gewächse mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der mitteleuropäischen Flora, 2 vols. Verlag Borntraeger, Berlin-Zehlendorf.Google Scholar
  66. Meusel H, Jäger E, (eds) (1992) Vergleichende Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora, vol. 3. Gustav Fischer Verlag, JenaGoogle Scholar
  67. Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E, (eds) (1978) Vergleichende Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora, vol. 2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, JenaGoogle Scholar
  68. Michaux B (2001) Dispersal versus vicariance, artifice rather than contest. In: Metcalfe I, Smith JMB, et al.(eds) Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia-Australasia. AA Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 311–318Google Scholar
  69. Mihoc MAK, Morrone JJ, Negritto M, Cavieres LA (2006) Evolución de la serie Microphyllae (Adesmia, Fabaceae) en la Cordillera de los Andes: una perspectiva biogeográfica. Rev Chil Hist Nat, 79:389–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mitchell AD, Wagstaff SJ (2000) Phylogeny and biogeography of the Chilean Pseudopanax laetevirens. New Zeal J Bot, 38:409–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moreira-Muñoz A (2007) Plant geography of Chile: an essay on postmodern biogeography. Doctoral thesis, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore MJ, Tye A, Jansen RK (2006) Patterns of long-distance dispersal in Tiquilia subg. Tiquilia (Boraginaceae): implications for the origins of amphitropical disjuncts and Galapagos Islands endemics. Am J Bot, 93:1163–1177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mummenhoff K, Bruggemann H, Bowman JL (2001) Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and biogeography of Lepidium (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot, 88:2051–2063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Muñoz J, Felicísimo AM, Cabezas F, Burgaz AR, Martínez I (2004) Wind as a long-distance dispersal vehicle in the Southern Hemisphere. Science, 304:1144–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Muñoz-Schick M, Moreira-Muñoz A, León-Lobos P (2006) Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX. Gayana Bot, 63:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Muñoz Pizarro C, Pisano E (1947) Estudio de la vegetación y flora de los Parques Nacionales Fray Jorge y Talinay. Agric Téc (Chile), 7:71–190Google Scholar
  77. Mutke J, Barthlott W (2005) Patterns of vascular plant diversity at continental to global scales. Biol Skr, 55:521–531Google Scholar
  78. Near TJ, Sanderson MJ (2004) Assessing the quality of molecular divergence time estimates by fossil calibrations and fossil-based model selection. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci, 359:1477–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelson EC (1981) Phytogeography of southern Australia. In: Keast A, (ed) Ecological biogeography of Australia. Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 733–759Google Scholar
  80. Nelson G, Platnick N (1981) Systematics and biogeography: Cladistics and vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  81. Nelson G, Ladiges PY (2001) Gondwana, vicariance biogeography and the New York School revisited. Aust J Bot, 49:389–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nishida M, Nishida H, Ohsawa T (1989) Comparison of the petrified woods from the Cretaceous and Tertiary of Antarctica and Patagonia. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biol, 2:198–212Google Scholar
  83. Núñez-Avila MC, Armesto JJ (2006) Relict islands of the temperate rainforest tree Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae) in semi-arid Chile: genetic diversity and biogeographic history. Aust J Bot, 54:733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parenti LR (2007) Common cause and historical biogeography. In: Ebach MC, Tangney RS, (eds) Biogeography in a changing world. Systematics Association Special Volumes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 61–82Google Scholar
  85. Parenti LR, Ebach MC (2009) Comparative biogeography: discovering and classifying biogeographical patterns of a dynamic earth. University of California Press, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  86. Parker K, Markwith S (2007) Expanding biogeographic horizons with genetic approaches. Geogr Compass, 1:246–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Paull R, Hill RS (2008) Oligocene Austrocedrus from Tasmania (Australia): comparisons with Austrocedrus chilensis. Int J Plant Sci, 169:315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Philippi F (1884) A visit to the northernmost forest of Chile. J Bot, 22:202–211Google Scholar
  89. Pulquério MJF, Nichols RA (2007) Dates from the molecular clock: how wrong can we be? Trends Ecol Evol, 22:180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Qian H (1999) Floristic analysis of vascular plant genera of North America north of Mexico: characteristics of phytogeography. J Biogeogr, 26:1307–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Qian H, Song J-S, Krestov P, Guo Q, Wu Z, Shen X, Guo X (2003) Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients. J Biogeogr, 30:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ratzel F (1901) Der Lebensraum: eine biogeographische Studie. Laupp’sche Buchhandlung, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  93. Raven PH (1963) Amphitropical relationships in the floras of North and South America. Q Rev Biol, 38:151–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Raven PH (1972) Plant species disjunctions: a summary. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 59:234–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Raven PH, Axelrod DI (1974) Angiosperm biogeography and past continental movements. Ann Mo Bot Gard, 61:539–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Reiche C (1905) Monotypische Gattungen der Chilenischen Flora. Verh Dtsch Wiss Vereins Stgo, 5:1–16Google Scholar
  97. Reiche C (1907) Grundzüge der Pflanzenverbreitung in Chile. In: Engler A, Drude O, (eds) Die Vegetation der Erde: Sammlung Pflanzengeographischer Monographien, Vol. VIII. Verlag von V. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  98. Renner SS (2004) Variation in diversity among Laurales, early cretaceous to present. Biol Skr, 55:441–458Google Scholar
  99. Renner SS, Murray D, Foreman D (2000) Timing transantarctic disjunctions in the Atherospermataceae (Laurales): evidence from coding and noncoding chloroplast sequences. Syst Biol, 49:579–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Riccardi AC (1988) The Cretaceous system of southern South America. Geol Soc Am Memoir, 168:1–145Google Scholar
  101. Ridley HN (1930) The dispersal of plants throughout the world. Lovell Reeve & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  102. Ronquist F (1997) Dispersal-vicariance analysis: a new approach to the quantification of historical biogeography. Syst Biol, 46:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rothmaler W (1955) Allgemeine Taxonomie und Chorologie der Pflanzen. Grundzüge der speziellen Botanik. Libri Botanici vol. 3, IHW Verlang. Reprint 1992Google Scholar
  104. Rutschmann F (2006) Molecular dating of phylogenetic trees: a brief review of current methods that estimate divergence times. Divers Distrib, 12:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sanderson MJ (1997) A nonparametric approach to estimating divergence times in the absence of rate constancy. Mol Biol Evol, 14:1218–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanderson MJ, Doyle JA (2001) Sources of error and confidence intervals in estimating the age of angiosperms from rbcL and 18S rDNA data. Am J Bot, 88:1499–1516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sanmartín I, Ronquist F (2004) Southern Hemisphere biogeography inferred by event-based models: plant versus animal patterns. Syst Biol, 53:216–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanmartín I, Wanntorp L, Winkworth RC (2007) West Wind Drift revisited: testing for directional dispersal in the Southern Hemisphere using event-based tree fitting. J Biogeogr, 34: 398–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Scherson RA, Vidal R, Sanderson MJ (2008) Phylogeny, biogeography, and rates of diversification of New World Astragalus (Leguminosae) with an emphasis on South American radiations. Am J Bot, 95:1030–1039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schuettpelz E, Hoot SB (2004) Phylogeny and biogeography of Caltha (Ranunculaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Am J Bot, 91:247–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Simpson BB, Neff JL (1985) Plants, their pollinating bees, and the great American interchange. In: Stehli FG, Webb SD, (eds) The great American biotic interchange. Plenum, New York, NY, pp 427–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Simpson BB, Tate JA, Weeks A (2005) The biogeography of Hoffmannseggia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Caesalpinieae): a tale of many travels. J Biogeogr, 32:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sklenar P, Balslev H (2007) Geographic flora elements in the Ecuadorian superpáramo. Flora, 202:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Skottsberg C (1948) Apuntes sobre la flora y vegetación de Frai Jorge (Coquimbo, Chile). Acta Horti Gotoburgensis, 18:91–184Google Scholar
  115. Sluys R (1994) Explanations for biogeographic tracks across the Pacific Ocean: a challenge for paleogeography and historical biogeography. Prog Phys Geog, 18:42–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Solbrig OT (1972) New approaches to the study of disjunctions with special emphasis on the American amphitropical desert disjunctions. In: Valentine DH, (ed) Taxonomy, phytogeography and evolution. Academic Press, London, pp 85–100Google Scholar
  117. Stuessy TF, Taylor C (1995) Evolución de la Flora Chilena. In: Marticorena C, Rodríguez R, (eds) Flora de Chile, vol. 1. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, pp 85–118Google Scholar
  118. Stuessy TF, Tremetsberger K, Müllner AN, Jankowicz J, Guo Y-P, Baeza CM, Samuel RM (2003) The melding of systematics and biogeography through investigations at the populational level: examples from the genus Hypochaeris (Asteraceae). Basic Appl Ecol, 4:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Takhtajan A (1986) Floristic regions of the world. Translated by Crovello TJ, edited by Cronquist A from the original Russian edition, Leningrad (1978). University of California. Reprint 1988, B. Singh, M. P. Singh, Dehra Dun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  120. Tremetsberger K, Weiss-Schneeweiss H, Stuessy TF, Samuel R, Kadlec G, Ortiz MA, Talavera S (2005) Nuclear ribosomal DNA and karyotypes indicate a NW African origin of South American Hypochaeris (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). Mol Phylogenet Evol, 35:102–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Treviranus GR (1803) Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur. Röwer, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  122. Troncoso A, Villagrán C, Muñoz-Schick M (1980) Una nueva hipótesis acerca del origen y edad del bosque de Fray Jorge (Coquimbo, Chile). Bol Mus Nac Hist Nat (Chile), 37:117–152Google Scholar
  123. Turrill WB (1953) Pioneer plant geography: the Phytogeographical Researches of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. Contributions from the Int. Biohistorical Commission, N°1, The Hague, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  124. van Steenis CGGJ (1962) The theory of land bridges in botany, with particular references to tropical plants. Blumea, 11:235–542Google Scholar
  125. Villagrán C, Hinojosa LF (1997) Historia de los bosques del sur de Sudamérica, II: Análisis fitogeográfico. Rev Chil Hist Nat, 70:241–267Google Scholar
  126. Villagrán C, Armesto JJ, Hinojosa LF, Cuvertino J, Pérez C, Medina C (2004) El enigmático origen del bosque relicto de Fray Jorge. In: Squeo FA, Gutiérrez JR, Hernández IR, (eds) Historia Natural del Parque Nacional Fray Jorge. Ediciones Universidad de La Serena, La Serena, pp 3–43Google Scholar
  127. Vinnersten A, Bremer K (2001) Age and biogeography of major clades in Liliales. Am J Bot, 88:1695–1703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. von Hagen KB, Kadereit JW (2001) The phylogeny of Gentianella (Gentianaceae) and its colonization of the southern hemisphere as revealed by nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence variation. Org Divers Evol, 1:61–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. von Ihering H (1893) Das neotropische Florengebiet und seine Geschichte. Englers Bot Jahrb, 17:1–54Google Scholar
  130. Wagstaff SJ, Martinsson K, Swenson U (2000) Divergence estimates of Tetrachondra hamiltonii and T. patagonica (Tetrachondraceae) and their implications for austral biogeography. New Zeal J Bot, 38:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wangerin W (1932) Florenelemente und Arealtypen. Beiträge zur Arealgeographie der deutschen Flora. Beih. Z. Centralbl. (Drude Festschrift), vol 49Google Scholar
  132. Wanntorp L, Wanntorp H-E (2003) The biogeography of Gunnera L.: Vicariance and dispersal. J Biogeog, 30:979–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wen J, Ickert-Bond SM (2009) Evolution of the Madrean-Tethyan disjunctions and the North and South American amphitropical disjunctions in plants. J Syst Evol, 47:331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wen J, Lowry PP, Walck JL, Yoo K-O (2002) Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification in Osmorhiza (Apiaceae). Ann Mo Bot Gard, 89:414–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Werger M (1973) Las disyunciones anfitrópicas en las floras xerofíticas norte y sudamericanas. Darwiniana, 18:9–18Google Scholar
  136. Wielgorskaya T (1995) Dictionary of generic names of seed plants. Columbia University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  137. Wiley EO (1988) Vicariance biogeography. Ann Rev Ecol Syst, 19:513–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Williams DM (2007) Ernst Haeckel and Louis Agassiz: trees that bite and their geographical dimension. In: Ebach MC, Tangney RS, (eds) Biogeography in a changing world. Systematics Association Special Volumes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 1–59Google Scholar
  139. Williams DM, Ebach MC (2008) Foundations of systematics and biogeography. Springer, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wulff EV (1950) An introduction to historical plant geography. The Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, MAGoogle Scholar
  141. Zunino M, Zullini A (2003) Biogeografía: la dimensión espacial de la evolución. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México. From the 1995 Italian editionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pontificia Universidad Católica de ChileInstituto de GeografiaSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations