Amazonian Floodplain Forests pp 61-102

Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 210) | Cite as

Phytogeography, Species Diversity, Community Structure and Dynamics of Central Amazonian Floodplain Forests

  • Florian Wittmann
  • Jochen Schöngart
  • Wolfgang J. Junk
Chapter

Abstract

Amazonian floodplain forests are classified into nutrient-rich white-water floodplains (várzea) and nutrient-poor black-water and clear-water floodplains (igapó). Tree species distribution depends on sediment- and nutrient-loads of river waters, on flood regimes and hydro-geomorphic disturbance. The distribution of the different floodplain forest types is determined by adaptations of tree species to different levels and periods of flooding, and most habitats and species are strongly zoned along the flooding gradient. This leads to characteristic successional stages with distinct species composition, diversity, and forest structure. Amazonian floodplains and especially the várzea is covered by the most-species rich floodplain forest worldwide. Low flooded forests are floristically distinct from highly-flooded forests, and characterized by intense species exchange with the surrounding uplands. Highly-flooded forests are characterized by elevated degrees of endemic tree species. This indicates comparatively stable environmental conditions over large part of the Amazon basin since at least the early Palaeocene. It is likely that the Amazonian floodplains represented linear refuges for moist-sensitive tree species from the Amazonian uplands during periods with dryer climatic conditions.

References

  1. Anhuf D, Ledru MP, Behling H, Da Cruz Jr FW, Cordeiro RC, Van der Hammen T, Karmann I, Marengo JA, de Oliveira PE, Pessenda L, Siffedine A, Albuquerque AL, da Silva Dias PL (2006) Paleo-environmental change in Amazonian and African rainforest during the LGM. Palaeogeograph Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 239:510–527Google Scholar
  2. Ayres JM (1993) As matas de várzea do Mamirauá. In: Sociedade civil Mamirauá (ed) Estudos de Mamirauá, vol.1. Sociedade civil Mamirauá, Mamirauá, pp 1–123Google Scholar
  3. Balslev H, Lutteyn J, Yllgaard B, Holm-Nielsen L (1987) Composition and structure of adjacent unflooded and floodplain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Opera Botanica 92:37–57Google Scholar
  4. Bazzaz FA (1991) Regeneration of tropical forests: physiological responses of pioneer and secondary species. In: Gomez-Pompa A, Whitmore TC, Hadley M (eds) Rain forest regeneration and management. The Parthenon Publishing Group, London, pp 91–118Google Scholar
  5. Bazzaz FA, Pickett STA (1980) Physiological ecology of tropical succession: a comparative review. Annu Rev Ecol System 11:287–310Google Scholar
  6. Beerling DJ, Woodward FI (2001) Vegetation and the terrestrial carbon cycle: modeling the first 400 million years. University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Breen CM, Rogers KH, Ashton PJ (1988) Vegetation processes in swamps and flooded plains. In: Symoens JJ (ed) Vegetation of inland waters. Handbook of vegetation science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 223–247Google Scholar
  8. Budowski G (1965) Distribution of tropical American rain forest species in the light of successional processes. Turrialba 15:40–42Google Scholar
  9. Burnham RJ, Graham A (1999) The history of neotropical vegetation: new developments and status. Ann Miss Bot Gard 86:546–589Google Scholar
  10. Burnham RJ, Johnson KR (2004) South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 359:1595–1610Google Scholar
  11. Burrows CJ (1990) Processes of vegetation change. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Bush MB, Colinvaux PA, Wiemann MC, Piperno DR, Liu K (1990) Late Pleistocene temperature depression and vegetation change in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Quatern Res 34:330–345Google Scholar
  13. Campbell DG, Daly DC, Prance GT, Maciel UN (1986) Quantitative ecological inventory of terra firme and várzea tropical forest on the Rio Xingu, Brazilian Amazon. Brittoniana 38:369–393Google Scholar
  14. Campbell DG, Stone JL, Rosas A (1992) A comparison of the phytosociology and dynamics of three floodplain (Várzea) forests of known ages, Rio Juruá, western Brazilian Amazon. Bot J Linn Soc 108:213–237Google Scholar
  15. Campbell IC, Poole C, Giesen W, Valbo-Jorgensen J (2006) Comparative biodiversity value of large wetlands: tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia. Aquat Sci 68:355–373Google Scholar
  16. Cattanio JH, Anderson AB, Carvalho MS (2002) Floristic composition and topographic variation in a tidal floodplain forest in the Amazon Estuary. Revista Brasileira de Botanica 25(4):419–430Google Scholar
  17. Clark DA, Clark DB, Sandoval MR, Castro CMV (1995) Edaphic and human effects on landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest palms. Ecology 76:2581–2594Google Scholar
  18. Clark JR, Benforado J (1981) Wetlands of bottomland hardwood forests. Developments in agricultural managed-forest ecology, vol. 11. Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Colinvaux PA, de Oliveira PE, Bush MB (2000) Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: the failure of the aridity and refuge hypothesis. Quatern Sci Rev 19:141–169Google Scholar
  20. Colmenares OA, Teran L (1993) A biostratigraphic study of Paleogene sequences in southwestern Venezuela. Palynology 17:67–89Google Scholar
  21. Condit R, Ashton PS, Baker P, Bunyavejchewin S, Gunatilleke S, Gunatilleke N, Hubbell SP, Foster RB, Itoh A, LaFrankie JV, Lee HS, Losos E, Manokaran N, Sukumar R, Yamakura T (2000) Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science 288:1414–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities in their role in community stability and organization. Am Nat 111:1119–1144Google Scholar
  23. Curtis JT, McIntosh RP (1951) An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32(3):476–496Google Scholar
  24. Dallmeier F, Kabel M, Foster RB (1996) Floristic composition, diversity, mortality and recruitment on different substrates: lowland tropical forest, Pakitza, Río Manu, Peru. In: Wilson DE, Sandoval A (eds) Manu – the Biodiversity of Southern Peru. Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  25. Denslow JS (1980) Gap partitioning among tropical rain forest trees. Biotropica 12:47–55Google Scholar
  26. Denslow JS (1987) Tropical rain forest gaps and tree species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol System 18:431–451Google Scholar
  27. Ducke A, Black GA (1953) Phytogeographical notes on the Brazilian Amazon. Anais Acad Brasil Ciênc 25:1–46Google Scholar
  28. Duque A, Sanchéz M, Cavelier J, Duivenvoorden JF (2002) Different floristic patterns of woody understorey and canopy plants in Colombian Amazonia. J Trop Ecol 18:499–525Google Scholar
  29. Ebdon D (1998) Statistics in geography. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Eiten G (1970) A vegetação do Estado de São Paulo. Bol Inst Botânica 7:1–147Google Scholar
  31. Ferreira LV (1997) Effects of the duration of flooding on species richness and floristic composition in three hectares in the Jaú National Park in floodplain forests in central Amazonia. Biodivers Conserv 6:1353–1363Google Scholar
  32. Ferreira LV (1991) O efeito do periodo de inundação na zonação de comunidades, fenologia e regeneração em uma floresta de igapó na Amazonia Central. Master Thesis, INPA, Manaus, p 161Google Scholar
  33. Ferreira CS, Piedade MTF, Parolin P, Barbosa KM (2005a) Tolerância da espécie Himatanthus sucuuba Wood. (Apocynaceae) ao alagamento na Amazônia Central. Acta Botanica Brasilica 19:425–429Google Scholar
  34. Ferreira LV (2000) Effect of flooding duration on species richness, floristic composition and forest structure in river margin habitats in Amazonian blackwater floodplain forests: implications for future design of protected areas. Biodivers Conserv 9:1–14Google Scholar
  35. Ferreira LV, Prance GT (1998) Structure and species richness of low-diversity floodplain forest on the Rio Tapajós, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 7:585–596Google Scholar
  36. Ferreira LV, Almeida SS (2005) Relação entre altura de inundação, riqueza específica de plantas e o tamanho de clareiras naturais em uma floresta inundável de igapó na Amazônia central. Revista Árvore 29(3):445–453Google Scholar
  37. Fisher AA, Corbet AS, Williams CB (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 12:42–58Google Scholar
  38. Frailey CD, Rancy Lavina A, Souza Filho JP (1988) A proposed Pleistocene/Holocene lake in the Amazon basin and its significance to Amazonian geology and biogeography. Acta Amazonica 18(3–4):119–143Google Scholar
  39. Frakes LA, Francis JE, Syktus JI (1992) Climate models of the Phanerozoic. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. Furch K, Junk WJ (1997a) Physicochemical conditions in floodplains. In: Junk WJ (ed) The Central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsing system. Ecolog Stud 126:69–108. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Gama JRV, Bentes-Gama MM, Scolforo JRS (2005a) Manejo sustentado para floresta de várzea na Amazônia Oriental. Revista Árvore 29(5):719–729Google Scholar
  42. Gentry AH (1986) Endemism in tropical versus temperate plant communities. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  43. Gentry AH (1987) Tree species richness in upper Amazonian forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, vol 85, pp 156–159Google Scholar
  44. Gentry AH (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Ann Mo Botan Gard 75:1–34Google Scholar
  45. Gentry AH (1992) Tropical forest biodiversity: distributional patterns and their conservational significance. Oikos 63:19–28Google Scholar
  46. Godoy JR, Petts G, Salo J (1999) Riparian flooded forests of the Orinoco and Amazon basin: a comparative review. Biodivers Conserv 8:551–586Google Scholar
  47. Gottsberger G (1978) Seed dispersal by fish in inundated regions of Humaitá, (Amazonas). Biotropica 10:170–83Google Scholar
  48. Goulding M (1983) The role of fishes in seed dispersal and plant distribution in Amazonian floodplain ecosystems. Sonderbd Naturwiss Ver Hamburg 7:271–283Google Scholar
  49. Haeupler H (1983) Die Mikroarealophyten der Balearen. Ein Beitrag zum Endemismus-Begriff und zur Inselbiogeographie. Tuexenia 3:271–288Google Scholar
  50. Haugaasen T, Peres CA (2006) Floristic, edaphic, and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil. Acta Amazonica 36(1):25–36Google Scholar
  51. Hubbell SP (1995) Towards a theory of biodiversity and biogeography of continuous landscapes. In: Carmichael GR, Folk GE, Schnoor JL (eds) Preparing for global change: a midwestern perpspective. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 171–199Google Scholar
  52. Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1986) Biology, chance, and history and the structure of tropical rain forest tree communities. In: Diamond J, Case DJ (eds) Community ecology. Harper & Row, New York, pp 314–330Google Scholar
  53. Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1992) Short-term dynamics of a neotropical forest: why ecological reserach matters to tropical conservation and management. Oikos 63:48–61Google Scholar
  54. Huber J (1910) Matas e madeiras amazônicas. Boletim do Museo Goeldi Belém 6:91–203Google Scholar
  55. Hueck K (1966) Die Wälder Südamerikas. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp 422Google Scholar
  56. Hutyra LR, Munger JW, Nobre CA, Saleska SR, Vieira SA, Wofsy SC (2005) Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazonia. Geophys Res Lett 32:1–4Google Scholar
  57. Inuma JJ (2006) Comparação na diversidade e estrutura das comunidades de plantas lenhosas da terra firme, várzea e igapó do Amaná, Amazônia Central. Ph.d.-Thesys, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, ManausGoogle Scholar
  58. Irion G (1984b) Sedimentation and sediments of Amazon rivers and evolution of the Amazon landscape since Pliocene times. In: Sioli H (ed) The Amazon – limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its Basin, pp 201–214. The Hague, Boston, Lancaster (Dr. W. Junk)Google Scholar
  59. Irion G, Müller J, Nunes de Mello J, Junk WJ (1995) Quarternary geology of the Amazonian lowland. Geo-Mar Lett 15:172–178Google Scholar
  60. Irion G, Junk WJ, Mello JASN (1997) The large Central Amazonian river floodplains near Manaus: geological, climatological, hydrological, and geomorphological aspects. In: Junk WJ (ed) The Central Amazon floodplains. Ecology of a pulsing system. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 23–46Google Scholar
  61. Irion G, de Mello JASN, Morais J, Piedade MTF, Junk WJ, Garming L (2010) Development of the Amazon valley during the middle to late quaternary: sedimentological and climatological observations. In: Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F, Schöngart J, Parolin P (eds) Central Amazonian floodplain forests: ecophysiology, biodiversity and sustainable management. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Jaramillo CA, Dilcher DL (2000) Microfloral diversity patterns of the late Paleocene-Eocene interval in Colombia, northern South America. Geology 28:815–818Google Scholar
  63. Johnson KR, Ellis B (2002) A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-tertiary boundary. Science 296:2379–2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson RL, Little EL (1967) Trees, shrubs and woody vines of the Bluff experimental forest, Warren County, Mississippi. US Forest Service research paper 26, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  65. Junk WJ (1983) Ecology of swamps in the Middle Amazon. In: Gore AJP (ed) Ecosystems of the world. Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor, B. Regional Studies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 269–294Google Scholar
  66. Junk WJ (1989) Flood tolerance and tree distribution in central Amazonian floodplains. In: Holm-Nielsen LB, Nielsen IC, Balslev H (eds) Tropical forests: botanical dynamics, speciation and diversity. Academic Press, New York, pp 47–64Google Scholar
  67. Junk WJ, Barley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood-pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 106:110–127Google Scholar
  68. Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (1993) Herbaceous plants in the floodplain near Manaus: species diversity and adaptations to the flood pulse. Amazoniana 12:467–484Google Scholar
  69. Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (1997) Plant life in the floodplain with special reference to herbaceous plants. In: Junk WJ (ed) The central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsating system. Ecolog Stud 126:147–186. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Junk WJ, Nunes da Cunha C, Wantzen KM, Petermann P, Strüssmann C, Marques MI, Adis J (2006) Comparative biodiversity value of large wetlands: the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Aquat Sci 68:278–309Google Scholar
  71. Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (2010) An introduction to SouthAmerican wetland forests: distribution, definitions and general characterization. In: Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F, Schöngart J, Parolin P (eds) Central Amazonian floodplain forests: ecophysiology, biodiversity and sustainable management. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Kalliola R, Salo J, Puhakka M, Rajasilta M (1991) New site formation and colonizing vegetation in primary succession on the western Amazon floodplains. J Ecol 79:877–901Google Scholar
  73. Keel SHK, Prance GT (1979) Studies of the vegetation of a white-sand black-water igapó (Rio Negro, Brazil). Acta Amazonica 9:645–655Google Scholar
  74. Klinge H, Adis J, Worbes M (1996) The vegetation of a seasonal várzea forest in the lower Solimões River, Amazon region of Brazil. Acta Amazonica 25(3–4):201–220Google Scholar
  75. Kubitzki K (1989a) The ecogeographical differentiation of Amazonian inundation forests. Plant Syst Evol 162:285–304Google Scholar
  76. Kubitzki K (1989b) Amazonas-Tiefland und Guayana-Hochland – historische und ökologische Aspekte der Florenentwicklung. Amazoniana 11:1–12Google Scholar
  77. Kubitzki K, Ziburski A (1994) Seed dispersal in floodplain forest of Amazonia. Biotropica 26(1):30–43Google Scholar
  78. Lamotte S (1990) Fluvial dynamics and succession in the lower Ucayali River basin, Peruvian Amazonia. Forest Ecol Manage 33(34):141–156Google Scholar
  79. Lamprecht H (1986) Waldbau in den Tropen: Die tropischen Waldökosysteme und ihre Baumarten – Möglichkeiten und Methoden zu ihrer nachhaltigen Nutzung. Paul Parey, Hamburg, p 318Google Scholar
  80. Larcher W (1994) Ökophysiologie der Pflanzen: Leben, Leistung und Streßbewältigung der Pflanzen in ihrer Umwelt. 5 Aufl Ulmer Stuttgart, UTB für Wissenschaft 394 SGoogle Scholar
  81. Lopez OR (2001) Seed flotation and postflooding germination in tropical terra firme and seasonally flooded forest species. Funct Ecol 15(6):763–771Google Scholar
  82. Maas PJM, Vestra LY (1993) Neotropical plant families. Koeltz Scientific Books, KönigsteinGoogle Scholar
  83. Mannheimer S, Bevilacqua G, Caramaschi EP, Scarano FR (2003) Evidence for seed dispersal by the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus in an Amazonian lake. J Trop Ecol 19:215–218Google Scholar
  84. Mertes LAK, Daniel DL, Melack JM, Nelson B, Martinelli A, Forsberg BR (1995) Spatial patterns of hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation on the floodplain of the Amazon River in Brazil from a remote sensing perspective. Geomorphology 13:215–232Google Scholar
  85. Metzger JP, Bernacci LC, Goldenberg R (1997) Pattern of tree species diversity in riparian forest fragments of different widths. Plant Ecol 133:135–152Google Scholar
  86. Moegenburg SM (2002) Spatial and temporal variation in hydrochory in Amazonian floodplain forest. Biotropica 34:606–612Google Scholar
  87. Nebel G, Dragsted J, Salazar Vega A (2001a) Litter fall, biomass and net primary production in flood plain forests in the Peruvian Amazon. Forest Ecol Manag 150:93–102Google Scholar
  88. Oliveira AA, Mori SA (1999) A central Amazonian terra firme forest. I. High tree species richness on poor soils. Biodiversity and conservation 8:1219–1244Google Scholar
  89. Oliveira AA, Nelson BW (2001) Floristic relationships of terra firme forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecol Manag 146:169–179Google Scholar
  90. Oliveira AC (1998) Aspectos da dinâmica populacional de Salix martiana Leyb (Salicaceae), em áreas de várzea da Amazônia Central. Master Thesis INPA/FUA, pp 83Google Scholar
  91. Oliveira-Filho AT, Vilela EA, Gavilanes ML, Carvalho DA (1994) Effect of flooding regime and understorey bamboos on the physiognomy and tree species composition of a tropical semi deciduous forest in South-eastern Brazil. Vegetatio 113:99–124Google Scholar
  92. Oyama MD, Nobre CA (2004) A simple potential vegetation model for coupling with the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB). Rev Bras Meteorol 19:203–216Google Scholar
  93. Parolin P, Armbrüster N, Junk WJ (2002a) Seasonal changes of leaf nitrogen content in trees of Amazonian floodplains. Acta Amazonica 32(2):231–240Google Scholar
  94. Parolin P, Adis J, Rodrigues WA, Amaral I, Piedade MTF (2004a) Floristic study of an igapó floodplain forest in Central Amazonia, Brazil (Tarumã-Mirim, Rio Negro). Amazoniana 18(1/2):29–47Google Scholar
  95. Piedade MTF (1985) Ecologia e biologia reprodutiva de Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Palmae) como exemplo de populaçao adaptada as áreas inundáveis do rio Negro. Unpublished Master thesis INPA, ManausGoogle Scholar
  96. Piedade MTF, Junk WJ, Long SP (1991) The productivity of the C4 grass Echinochloa polystachia on the Amazon Floodplain. Ecology 72(4):1456–1463Google Scholar
  97. Pires JM, Koury HM (1959) Estudo de um trecho de mata de várzea próximo a Belém. Boletim Técnico IAN 36:3–44Google Scholar
  98. Pires JM (1984) The Amazonian forest. In: Sioli H (ed) The Amazon – limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its basin. Junk, Dordrecht, pp 581–602Google Scholar
  99. Pires JM, Prance GT (1985) The vegetation types of the Brazilian Amazon. In: Prance GT, Lovejoy TE (eds) Key environments: Amazonia. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 109–145Google Scholar
  100. Pitman NCA, Terborgh J, Silman MR, Núñez PV, Neill DA, Cerón CE, Palacios WA, Aulestia M (2001) Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology 82:2101–2117Google Scholar
  101. Pitman NCA, Terborgh J, Silman MR, Nuñez PV, Neill DA, Cerón CE, Palacios WA, Aulestia M (2002) A comparison of tree species diversity in two upper Amazonian forests. Ecology 83(11):3210–3224Google Scholar
  102. Prance GT (1979) Notes on the vegetation of Amazonia. 3. The terminology of Amazonian forest types subject to inundation. Brittonia 31:26–38Google Scholar
  103. Puhakka M, Kalliola R (1993) La vegetación en áreas de inundación en la selva baja de la Amazonia Peruana. In: Kalliola R, Puhakka M, Danjoy W (eds) Amazonia Peruana: Vegetación húmeda tropical en el llano subandino. Proyecto Amazonia, Turku, pp 113–138Google Scholar
  104. Revilla JDC (1981) Aspectos Florísticos e Fitossociológicos da Floresta Inundável (igapó). Praia Grande, Tio Negro, Amazonas. Master thesis, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, ManausGoogle Scholar
  105. Ribeiro JE, Hopkins M, Vicentini A, Sothers CA, Costa MA, Brito JM, Souza MA, Martins LH, Lohmann LG, Assunção PA, Pereira E, Silva CF, Mesquita MR, Procópio LC (1999) Flora da Reserva Ducke Guia de identificacão das plantas vasculares de uma floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central. INPA-DFID, ManausGoogle Scholar
  106. Ricklefs RE (1990) Ecology. WH Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Rizzini CT (1997) Tratado de fitogeografia do Brasil, aspectos ecológicos, sociológicos e florísticos. EDUSP, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  108. Rodrigues WA (1961) Estudo preliminar de mata de várzea alta de uma ilha do baixo Rio Negro de solo argiloso e umido. Publicação número 10 do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, ManausGoogle Scholar
  109. Rull V (1999) Palaeofloristic and palaeovegetational changes across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in northern South America. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 107:83–95Google Scholar
  110. Salo J, Kalliola R, Häkkinen L, Mäkinen Y, Niemelä P, Puhakka M, Coley PD (1986) River dynamics and the diversity of Amazon lowland forest. Nature 322:254–258Google Scholar
  111. Scarano FR, Pereira TS, Rocas G (2003) Seed germination during floatation and seedling growth of Carapa guianensis, a tree from flood-prone forests of the Amazon. Plant Ecol 168(2):291–296Google Scholar
  112. Schnitzler A, Hale BW, Alsum E (2005) Biodiversity of floodplain forests in Europe and eastern North America: a comparative study of the Rhine and Mississippi valleys. Biodivers Conserv 14:97–117Google Scholar
  113. Schöngart J, Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Ayres JM, Hüttermann A, Worbes M (2004) Teleconnection between tree growth in the Amazonian floodplains and the El Niño-Southern oscillation effect. Global Change Biol 10:683–692Google Scholar
  114. Schöngart J, Piedade MTF, Wittmann F, Junk WJ, Worbes M (2005) Wood growth patterns of Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Amazonian black-water and white-water floodplain forests. Oecologia 145:654–661Google Scholar
  115. Schroeder FG (1998) Lehrbuch der Pflanzengeographie. UTB, Wiesbaden, p 457Google Scholar
  116. Sioli H (1954a) Beiträge zur regionalen Limnologie des Amazonasgebietes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 45:267–283Google Scholar
  117. Sioli H (1984b) The Amazon and its main affluents: hydrography, morphology of the river courses and river types. In: Sioli H (ed) The Amazon. Limnology and landscape ecology of a mighty tropical river and its basin. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 127–165Google Scholar
  118. Takeuchi M (1962) The structure of the Amazonian vegetation. 6. Igapó. J Fac Sci Univ Tokyo Sect Bot 3:297–304Google Scholar
  119. Tansley AG (1929) Succession: the concept and its values. Proceedings of the 4th international congress plant science, Ithaca, 1926, pp 677–686Google Scholar
  120. Ter Steege H, Sabatier D, Castellanos H, Van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, de Oliveira AA, Ek R, Lilwah R, Maas P, Mori S (2000) An analysis of the floristic composition and diversity of Amazonian forests including those of the Guiana shield. J Trop Ecol 16:801–828Google Scholar
  121. Ter Steege H, Pitman N, Sabatier D, Castellanos H, Van der Hout P, Daly DC, Silveira M, Phillips OL, Vasquez R, Van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, de Oliveira AA, Ek R, Lilwah R, Thomas R, Van Essen J, Baider C, Maas P, Mori S, Terborgh J, Núñez PV, Mogollón H, Morawetz W (2003) A spatial model of tree α-diversity and -density for the Amazon Region. Biodivers Conserv 12(11):2255–2277Google Scholar
  122. Terborgh J, Petren K (1991) Development of habitat structure through succession in an Amazonian floodplain forest. In: Bell SS (ed) Habitat Structure. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 28–46Google Scholar
  123. Terborgh J, Andresen E (1998) The composition of Amazonian forests: patterns at local and regional scales. J Trop Ecol 14:645–664Google Scholar
  124. Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K, Salo J (1992) Lago Amazonas: fact or fancy? Acta Amazonica 22(3):353–361Google Scholar
  125. Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K, Kalliola R, Linna A, Danjoy W, Rodriguez Z (1995) Dissecting Amazonian biodiversity. Science 269:63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Valencia R, Balslev H, Paz y Mino CG (1994) High tree alpha diversity in Amazonian Ecuador. Biodivers Conserv 3:21–28Google Scholar
  127. Van der Hammen T (1974) The Pleistocene changes of vegetation and climate in tropical South America. J Biogeogr 1:3–26Google Scholar
  128. Van der Hammen T, Wymstra TA (1964) A palynological study on the tertiary and upper cretaceous of British Guyana. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen 30:183–241Google Scholar
  129. Van der Hammen T, Garcia M (1966) The paleocene pollen flora of Colombia. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen 35:105–166Google Scholar
  130. Van der Hammen T, Hooghiemstra H (2000) Neogene and quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia. Quatern Sci Rev 19:725–742Google Scholar
  131. Vuilleumier BS (1971) Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South America. Science 1973:771–779Google Scholar
  132. Whitmore TC (1989) Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70:536–537Google Scholar
  133. Wittmann F (2001) Artenverbreitung und Bestandesstruktur in amazonischen Várzea-Wäldern und Möglichkeiten der Erfassung von Waldtypen mittels fernerkundlichen Methoden. Ph.D. thesis, Universität Mannheim, Fachbereich GeographieGoogle Scholar
  134. Wittmann F, Anhuf D, Junk WJ (2002a) Detection of different forest types in Central Amazonian Várzea by remote sensing techniques – preliminary results. In: Lieberei R, Bianchi H-K, Boehm V, Reisdorff C (eds) Neotropical ecosystems. Proceedings of the German-Brazilian Workshop, Hamburg 2000, GKSS-Geesthacht, Germany, pp 607–661Google Scholar
  135. Wittmann F, Anhuf D, Junk WJ (2002b) Tree species distribution and community structure of central Amazonian várzea forests by remote-sensing techniques. J Trop Ecol 18: 805–820Google Scholar
  136. Wittmann F, Junk WJ (2003) Sapling communities in Amazonian white-water forests. J Biogeogr 30:1533–1544Google Scholar
  137. Wittmann F, Junk WJ, Piedade MTF (2004) The várzea forests in Amazonia: flooding and the highly dynamic geomorphology interact with natural forest succession. Forest Ecol Management 196:199–212Google Scholar
  138. Wittmann F, Parolin P (2005) Aboveground roots in Amazonian white-water forests. Biotropica 37:609–619Google Scholar
  139. Wittmann F, Schöngart J, Montero JC, Motzer M, Junk WJ, Piedade MTF, Queiroz HL, Worbes M (2006) Tree species composition and diversity gradients in white-water forests across the Amazon Basin. J Biogeogr 33:1334–1347Google Scholar
  140. Worbes M (1986) Lebensbedingungen und Holzwachstum in zentralamazonischen Überschwemmungswäldern. Erich Goltze, Göttingen. Scripta Geobotanica 17:1–112Google Scholar
  141. Worbes M (1997) The forest ecosystem of the floodplains. In: Junk WJ (ed) The central Amazon floodplain: ecology of a pulsating system. Ecolog Stud 126:223–265. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Worbes M, Klinge H, Revilla JD, Martius C (1992) On the dynamics, floristic subdivision and geographical distribution of várzea forests in Central Amazonia. J Vegetat Sci 3:553–564Google Scholar
  143. Ziburski A (1991) Dissemination, Keimung und Etablierung einiger Baumarten der Überschwemmungswälder Amazoniens. In: Rauh W (ed) Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur 77:1–96Google Scholar
  144. Ziegler AM, Eshel G, McAllister Rees P, Rothfus TA, Rowley DB, Sunderlin D (2003) Tracing the tropics across land and sea: permian to present. Lethaia 36:227–254Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Wittmann
    • 1
  • Jochen Schöngart
    • 2
  • Wolfgang J. Junk
    • 3
  1. 1.Biogeochemistry DepartmentMax Planck Institute for ChemistryMainzGermany
  2. 2.State University of Amazonas (UEA), National Institute of Amazon Research (INPA)ManausBrazil
  3. 3.Working Group of Tropical EcologyMax-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary BiologyPlönGermany

Personalised recommendations