Advertisement

Earth and Life pp 983-1078 | Cite as

The Rise of Australian Marsupials: A Synopsis of Biostratigraphic, Phylogenetic, Palaeoecologic and Palaeobiogeographic Understanding

  • Karen H. BlackEmail author
  • Michael Archer
  • Suzanne J. Hand
  • Henk Godthelp
Part of the International Year of Planet Earth book series (IYPE)

Abstract

The origins, evolution and palaeodiversity of Australia’s unique marsupial fauna are reviewed. Australia’s marsupial fauna is both taxonomically and ecologically diverse comprising four extant orders (Dasyuromorphia, Peramelemorphia, Notoryctemorphia and Diprotodontia) and one extinct order (Yalkaparidontia). Molecular divergence dates estimate a Palaeocene origin for the Australian marsupial orders yet ordinal differentiation is obscured by significant gaps in the fossil record with a single terrestrial mammal-bearing deposit known between the late Cretaceous and the late Oligocene. This deposit, the 55 million-year-old early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna of southeastern Queensland, contains Australia’s oldest marsupial (Superorder Australidelphia) as well as taxa tentatively interpreted to represent South American groups (Order Polydolopimorphia). Palaeobiogeographic hypotheses regarding the distribution and interordinal relationships of Australian and South American marsupials are discussed. Dasyuromorphia and Peramelemorphia were possibly also present in the early Eocene, Diprotodontia in at least the late Oligocene and Notoryctemorphia and Yalkaparidontia in the early Miocene. Palaeobiodiversity was highest during the early to middle Miocene as evidenced by a spectacular array of marsupial groups in the rainforest assemblages of the Riversleigh World Heritage Area. The onset of icehouse conditions during the middle Miocene saw significant faunal turnover with loss of many archaic groups and the emergence of a range of modern lineages. Few deposits of late Miocene age are known. Development of Australia’s first grasslands and arid habitats occurred in the Pliocene, accompanied by an explosive radiation of grazing kangaroos. The Pleistocene was characterised by severe and unpredictable climatic conditions and the extinction of the Australian megafauna. Lowered sea levels allowed faunal interchange between mainland Australia and neighbouring New Guinea as well as the arrival of the first humans. Resolution of the role of humans and/or climate change in megafaunal extinction requires more precise dating of late Pleistocene deposits. We reflect on the predictive power of the fossil record to enhance understanding of the effects of climate change and humans on the future of the Australian marsupial fauna.

Keywords

Australia Endemic marsupials Metatherians Phylogenetic affinities Molecular divergence dating ‘Icehouse’ (late Oligocene) ‘Greenhouse’ (early Miocene) Riversleigh faunas Megafaunal extinction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We first thank John Talent for inviting us to compile this overview for the volume. We thank the ARC and other funding bodies that have contributed over the years to enable us and our colleagues to explore Australia’s unique fossil record to develop an understanding of palaeobiodiversity, trends through time and how these have led to the situation all of us are trying to conserve for the future. Phil Creaser has helped immeasurably by establishing the CREATE Funds to assist palaeoscience research projects conducted at UNSW. We also thank Queensland National Parks, the World Heritage Unit in Canberra, Xstrata Community Partnership Program North Queensland, Mount Isa City Council, Lawn Hill Riversleigh Pastoral Holding Company, Riversleigh Interpretive Centre, Adele’s Grove and the Waanyi People for permission to investigate the rocks at Riversleigh. Colleagues who have assisted with information, ideas, access to work in progress and helped us obtain the materials that resulted in our current understanding include Ken Aplin, Rick Arena, Mina Bassarova, Alan Bartholomai, Hayley Bates, Bob Beale, Robin Beck, Jan Bimrose, Steve Bourne, Jenni Brammall, Pip Brewer, Linda Broome, Lizard Cannell, Bill Clemens, Bernie Cooke, Phil Creaser, Kirsten Crosby, Judith Field, Gillian Garvey, Anna Gillespie, Francisco Goin, Glen Graham, Ian Graham, Yamila Gurovich, Bob Jones, Scott Hocknull, Christine Janis, Jenny Jones, John Kirsch, Chris Larkin, Julien Louys, Rod and Michelle Low Mow, Dirk Megirian, Alexis Meyer, Jeanette Muirhead, Peter Murray, Frank Nissen, Rosendo Pascual, Neville Pledge, Elizabeth Price, Gilbert Price, Gavin Prideaux, Alan Rackham, Liz Reed, Tom Rich, David Ride, Karen Roberts, John Scanlon, Bernard Sigé, Dick Tedford, Kenny Travouillon, Steve Van Dyck, Rod Wells, Arthur White, Karen White, Steph Williams, Paul Willis, Vera Weisbecker, Mike Woodburne, Jon Woodhead, Trevor Worthy, Steve Wroe and Jian-xin Zhao.

References

  1. Amrine-Madsen H, Scally M, Westerman M, Stanhope MJ, Krajewski C, Springer MS (2003) Nuclear gene sequences provide evidence for the monophyly of australidelphian marsupials. Mol Phylogen Evol 28:186–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson C (1937) Palaeontological notes. No. IV. Fossil marsupials from New Guinea. Rec Aust Mus 20:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aplin KP (1987) Basicranial anatomy of the early Miocene Diprotodontian Wynyardia bassiana (Marsupialia: Wynyardiidae) and its implications for wynyardiid phylogeny and classification. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 369–39Google Scholar
  4. Aplin KP (2006) Ten million years of rodent evolution in Australasia: phylogenetic evidence and a speculative historical biogeography. In: Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickey GM, Lee MSY (eds) Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp 707–744Google Scholar
  5. Aplin KP, Archer M (1987) Recent advances in marsupial systematics with a new syncretic classification. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp xv–lxxiiGoogle Scholar
  6. Archer M (1976a) Miocene marsupicarnivores (Marsupialia) from central south Australia, Ankotarinja tirarensis gen. et sp. nov., Keeuna woodnei gen. et sp. nov., and their significance in terms of early marsupial radiations. Trans R Soc South Aust 100:53–73Google Scholar
  7. Archer M (1976b) The dasyurid dentition and its relationships to that of didelphids, thylacinids, borhyaenids (Marsupicarnivora) and peramelids (Peramelina: Marsupialia). Aust J Zool Suppl Ser 39:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Archer M (1976c) The basicranial region of marsupicarnivores (Marsupialia), inter-relationships of the carnivorous marsupials, and affinities of the insectivorous marsupial peramelids. Zool J Linn Soc 59:217–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Archer M (1976d) Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions, Part 1. The Allingham formation and a new Pliocene vertebrate fauna from northern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 17:379–397Google Scholar
  10. Archer M (1979) Wabularoo naughtoni gen. et sp. nov., an enigmatic kangaroo (Marsupialia) from the middle Tertiary Carl Creek Limestone of northwestern Queensland. Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions, part 4. Mem Queensland Mus 19:299–307Google Scholar
  11. Archer M (1981) A review of the origins and radiations of Australian mammals. In: Keast A (ed) Ecological biogeography of Australia. Junk, The Hague, pp 1437–1488.Google Scholar
  12. Archer M (1982a) Review of the dasyurid (Marsupialia) fossil record, integration of data bearing on phylogenetic interpretation, and suprageneric classification. In: Archer M (ed) Carnivorous marsupials, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, vol 2, pp 397–443Google Scholar
  13. Archer M (1982b) A review of Miocene thylacinids (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia), the phylogenetic position of the Thylacinidae and the problem of apriorisms in character analysis. In: Archer M (ed) Carnivorous marsupials, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, vol 2, pp 445–476Google Scholar
  14. Archer M (1984) The Australian marsupial radiation. In: Archer M, Clayton G (eds) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (Animals in space and time). Hesperian Press, Carlisle, WA, pp 633–808Google Scholar
  15. Archer M (1989) The science of being wrong. Aust Nat Hist 23:170–171Google Scholar
  16. Archer M (1992) Ringtail possums (Pseudocheiridae, Marsupialia) from the Tertiary deposits of Riversleigh. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 9:257–258Google Scholar
  17. Archer M, Bartholomai A (1978) Tertiary mammals of Australia: a synoptic review. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 2:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Archer M, Beal B (2004) Going native. Hodder and Headline, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  19. Archer M, Flannery TF (1985) Revision of the extinct gigantic rat kangaroos (Potoroidae: Marsupialia) with a description of a new Miocene genus and species and a new Pleistocene species of Propleopus. J Paleontol 59:1331–1349Google Scholar
  20. Archer M, Hand SJ (1987) Evolutionary considerations. In: Cronin L (ed) Koala: Australia’s endearing marsupial. Reed Books, Sydney, pp 79–106Google Scholar
  21. Archer M, Hand SJ (2006) The Australian marsupial radiation. In: Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickey GM, Lee MSY (eds) Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp 575–646Google Scholar
  22. Archer M, Rich TH (1982) Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions. Wakaleo alcootaensis n. sp. (Thylacoleonidae, Marsupialia), a new marsupial lion from the Miocene of the Northern Territory with a consideration of early radiation in the family. In: Archer M (ed) Carnivorous marsupials. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, vol 2, pp 495–502Google Scholar
  23. Archer M, Bartholomai A, Marshall LG (1978) Propleopus chillagoensis, a new north Queensland species of extinct giant rat-kangaroo (Macropodidae: Potoroinae). Mem Natl Mus Victoria 39:55–60Google Scholar
  24. Archer M, Crawford IM, Merrilees D (1980) Incisions, breakages and charring, some probably man-made, in fossil bones from Mammoth Cave, Western Australia. Alcheringa 4:115–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Archer M, Clayton G, Hand SJ (1984) A checklist of Australasian fossil mammals. In: Archer, M, Clayton G (eds) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (Animals in space and time). Hesperian Press, Carlisle, WA, pp 1027–1087Google Scholar
  26. Archer M, Tedford RH, Rich TH (1987) The Pilkipildridae, a new family and four new species of ?Petauroid possums (Marsupialia: Phalangerida) from the Australian Miocene. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 607–627Google Scholar
  27. Archer M, Hand S, Godthelp H (1988) A new order of Tertiary zalambdodont marsupials. Science 239:1528–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Archer M, Godthelp HJ, Hand SJ, Megirian D (1989) Fossil mammals of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland: preliminary overview of biostratigraphy, correlation and environmental change. Australian Zool 25:29–65Google Scholar
  29. Archer M, Every RG, Godthelp HJ, Hand SJ, Scally KB (1990) Yingabalanaridae, a new family of enigmatic marsupials from Tertiary deposits of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 28:193–202Google Scholar
  30. Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp HJ (1991) Riversleigh: the story of animals in ancient rainforests of inland Australia, 1st edn. Reed Books, Balgowlah, NSW, pp 1–264Google Scholar
  31. Archer M, Godthelp H, Hand SJ (1993) Early Eocene marsupial from Australia. In: Schrenk F, Ernst K (eds) Kaupia: Darmstadter beitrage zur naturgeschichte monument grube messel-perspectives and relationships part 2. Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, pp 193–200Google Scholar
  32. Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp HJ (1994) Riversleigh: the story of animals in ancient rainforests of inland Australia. Reprint with revisions, Reed Books, Chatswood, NSW, pp 1–264Google Scholar
  33. Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp HJ (1995) Tertiary environmental and biotic change in Australia. In: Vrba E, Denton GH, Partridge TC, Burckle LH (eds) Palaeoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 77–90Google Scholar
  34. Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H, Creaser P (1997) Correlation of the Cainozoic sediments of the Riversleigh World Heritage fossil property, Queensland, Australia. In: Aguilar J–P, Legendre S, Michaux J (eds) Actes du Congrès BiochroM’97, Mémoires et Travaux de l’E.P.H.E., Institut de Montpellier, vol 21, pp 131–152Google Scholar
  35. Archer M, Burnley, I, Dodson J, Harding R, Head L, Murphy A (1998) From plesiosaurs to people: 100 million years of Australian environmental history. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Portrait of Australia), Department of the Environment, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  36. Archer M, Arena DA, Bassarova M, Black K, Brammall J, Cooke BN, Creaser P, Crosby K, Gillespie A, Godthelp H, Gott M, Hand SJ, Kear BP, Krikmann A, Mackness B, Muirhead J, Musser A, Myers T, Pledge NS, Wang Y, Wroe S (1999) The evolutionary history and diversity of Australian mammals. Aust Mammal 21:1–45Google Scholar
  37. Archer M, Arena DA, Bassarova M, Beck RMD, Black K, Boles WE, Brewer P, Cooke BN, Crosby K, Gillespie A, Godthelp H, Hand SJ, Kear BP, Louys J, Morrell A, Muirhead J, Roberts KK, Scanlon JD, Travouillon KJ, Wroe S (2006) Current status of species-level representation in faunas from selected fossil localities in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 30:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Archer M, Beck RMD, Gott M, Hand SJ, Black KH (2011) Australia’s first fossil marsupial mole (Notoryctemorphia) resolves controversy about the evolution of zalambdodonty in marsupials. Proc R Soc B 278:1498–1506Google Scholar
  39. Arena DA (1997) The palaeontology and geology of Dunsinane Site, Riversleigh. Mem Queensland Mus 41:171–179Google Scholar
  40. Arena R, Wroe S, Archer M (1998) Additional Riversleigh material referred to the dasyurid Ganbulanyi djadjinguli: phylogenetic and palaeobiological implications. Riversleigh Symposium 1998 Abstracts. The University of New South Wales, Sydney, December 3–4, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  41. Asher RJ, Horovitz I, Sánchez-Villagra MR (2004) First combined cladistic analysis of marsupial mammal interrelationships. Mol Phylogen Evol 33:240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Averianov AO, Archibald JD, Ekdale EG (2010) New material of the Late Cretaceous deltatheroidan mammal Sulestes from Uzbekistan and phylogenetic reassessment of the metatherian-eutherian dichotomy. J Syst Palaeontol 8:301–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ayliffe LK, Marianelli PC, Moriarty KC, Wells RT, McCulloch MT, Mortimer GE, Hellstrom JC (1998) 500 ka precipitation record from southeastern Australia: evidence for inter-glacial relative aridity. Geology 26:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Balme JM, Merrilees D, Porter JK (1978) Late Quaternary mammal remains, spanning about 30 000 years, from excavations in Devil’s Lair, Western Australia. J R Soc West Aust 61:33–65Google Scholar
  45. Barnosky AD, Koch PL, Feranec RS, Wing SL, Shabel AB (2004) Assessing the causes of Late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bartholomai A (1962) A new species of Thylacoleo and notes on some caudal vertebrae of Palorchestes azael. Mem Queensland Mus 14:33–40Google Scholar
  47. Bartholomai A (1963) Revision of the extinct macropodid genus Sthenurus Owen in Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 16:19–26Google Scholar
  48. Bartholomai A (1967) Troposodon, a new genus of fossil Macropodinae (Marsupialia). Mem Queensland Mus 15:21–33Google Scholar
  49. Bartholomai A (1968) A new fossil koala from Queensland and a reassessment of the taxonomic position of the problematic species, Koalemus ingens DeVis. Mem Queensland Mus 15:65–71Google Scholar
  50. Bartholomai A (1971) Dasyurus dunmalli, a new species of fossil marsupial (Dasyuridae) in the upper Cainozoic deposits of Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 16:19–26Google Scholar
  51. Bartholomai A (1978a) The rostrum in Palorchestes Owen (Marsupialia: Diprotodontidae). Results of the Ray E. Lemley expedition, part 3. Mem Queensland Mus 18:145–149Google Scholar
  52. Bartholomai A (1978b) The Macropodidae (Marsupialia) from the Allingham Formation, northern Queensland. Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions, part 2. Mem Queensland Mus 18:127–142Google Scholar
  53. Bassarova M, Archer M (1999) Living and extinct pseudocheirids (Marsupialia, Pseudocheiridae): phylogenetic relationships and changes in diversity through time. Aust Mammal 21:25–27Google Scholar
  54. Bassarova M, Archer M, Hand S (2001) New Oligo-Miocene pseudocheirids (Marsupialia) of the genus Paljara from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Assoc Australas Palaeontol 25:61–76Google Scholar
  55. Beck R (2008a) A dated phylogeny of marsupials using a molecular supermatrix and multiple fossil constraints. J Mammal 89:175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Beck RMD (2008b) Form, function, phylogeny and biogeography of enigmatic Australian metatherians. University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSWGoogle Scholar
  57. Beck RMD (2009) Was the Oligo-Miocene Australian metatherian Yalkaparidon a ‘mammalian woodpecker’? Biol J Linnean Soc 97:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Beck R, Archer M, Godthelp H, Mackness B, Hand S, Muirhead J (2008a) A bizarre new family of Marsupialia (incertae sedis) from the early Pliocene of northeastern Australia: implications for the phylogeny of bunodont marsupials. J Paleontol 82:749–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Beck RMD, Godthelp H, Weisbecker V, Archer M, Hand SJ (2008b) Australia’s oldest marsupial fossils and their biogeographical implications. PLoS One 3(3):e1858. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Bensley BA (1903) On the evolution of the Australian Marsupialia; with remarks on the relationships of the marsupials in general. Trans Linnean Soc London, Zool 9:83–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Berger A, Loutre MF, Laskar J (1992) Stability of the astronomical frequencies over the Earth’s History for paleoclimate studies. Science 255:560–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Biknevicius AR (1983) Dental function and diet in the Carpolestidae (primates, Plesiadapiformes). Am J Phys Anthropol 71:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Black K (1997a) A new species of Palorchestidae (Marsupialia) from the late middle to early late Miocene Encore Local Fauna, Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:181–186Google Scholar
  64. Black K (1997b) Diversity and biostratigraphy of the Diprotodontoidea of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:187–192Google Scholar
  65. Black K (1999) Diversity and relationships of living and extinct koalas (Phascolarctidae, Marsupialia). Aust Mammal 21:16–17, 34–45Google Scholar
  66. Black K (2006) Description of new material for Propalorchestes novaculacephalus (Marsupialia: Palorchestidae) from the mid Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 30:351–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Black K (2007) Maradidae: a new family of vombatomorphian marsupial from the late Oligocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 31:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Black K (2008) Diversity, phylogeny and biostratigraphy of diprotodontoids (Marsupialia: Diprotodontidae, Palorchestidae) from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area. Doctor of Philosophy, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSWGoogle Scholar
  69. Black KH (2010) Ngapakaldia bonythoni (Marsupialia, Diprotodontidae): new material from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, and a reassessment of the genus Bematherium. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 34:471–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Black K, Archer M (1997a) Silvabestius, a new genus and two new species of primitive zygomaturines (Marsupialia, Diprotodontidae) from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:181–208Google Scholar
  71. Black K, Archer M (1997b) Nimiokoala gen. nov. (Marsupialia, Phascolarctidae) from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, with a revision of Litokoala. Mem Queensland Mus 41:209–228Google Scholar
  72. Black KH, Hand SJ (2010) First crania and assessment of species boundaries in Nimbadon (Marsupialia: Diprotodontidae) from the middle Miocene of Australia. Am Mus Novitates 3678:1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Black KH, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp HJ (2010) First comprehensive analysis of cranial ontogeny in a fossil marsupial-from a 15-million-year-old cave deposit in northern Australia. J Vertebrate Paleontol 30:993–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Black KH, Archer M, Hand SJ (in press) New Tertiary koala (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) from Riversleigh, Australia with a revisionof phascolarctid phylogenetics, paleoecology and paleobiodiversity. J Vertebrate PaleontolGoogle Scholar
  75. Black MP, Mooney SD, Haberle SG (2007) The fire, human and climate nexus in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The Holocene 17:465–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Boles WE (1999) Early Eocene shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) from the Tingamarra Local Fauna, Murgon, Queensland, Australia. Rec West Aust Mus, Suppl 57:229–238Google Scholar
  77. Bonaparte JF (1990) New Late Cretaceous mammals from the Los Alamitos Formation, northern Patagonia. Natl Geogr Res 6:63–93Google Scholar
  78. Bowler JM (1981) Australian salt lakes: a palaeohydrological approach. Hydrobiologia 82:431–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Bowler JM, Wyrwoll KH, Lu Y (2001) Variations of the northwest Australian summer monsoon over the last 300,000 years: the paleohydrological record of the Gregory (Mulan) lakes system. Quaternary Int 83–85:63–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG, Shawcross W, Spooner NA (2003) New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421:837–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Bowman DMJS, Choquenot D (1999) The operational details of marsupial megafaunal overkill. Australian Biol 12:1–5Google Scholar
  82. Bradstock RA, Williams JE, Gill AM (eds) (2002) Flammable Australia: the fire regimes and biodiversity of a continent. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  83. Brammall JR (1998) A new petauroid possum from the Oligo-Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 23:31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Brammall J, Archer M (1997) A new Oligocene–Miocene species of Burramys (Marsupialia. Burramyidae) from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:247–268Google Scholar
  85. Brammall J, Archer M (1999) Living and extinct petaurids, acrobatids, tarsipedids and Burramyids (Marsupialia): relationships and diversity through time. Australian Mammal 21:24–25Google Scholar
  86. Brewer P, Archer M, Hand S, Godthelp H (2007) A new species of the wombat Warendja from late Miocene deposits at Riversleigh, northwest Queensland, Australia. Palaeontology 50:811–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Brewer P, Archer M, Hand S (2008) Additional specimens of the oldest wombat Rhizophascolonus crowcrofti (Vombatidae; Marsupialia) from the Wipajiri Formation, South Australia: an intermediate morphology? J Vertebrate Paleontol 28:1144–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Brook BW, Bowman DMJS (2004) The uncertain blitzkrieg of Pleistocene megafauna. J Biogeogr 31:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Brown B, Gaina C, Müller RD (2006) Circum-Antarctic palaeobathymetry: illustrated examples from Cenozoic to recent times. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 231:158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Burk A, Westerman M, Springer M (1998) The phylogenetic position of the musky rat-kangaroo and the evolution of bipedal hopping in kangaroos (Macropodidae: Diprotodontia). Syst Biol 47:457–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Burk A, Westerman M, Kao DJ, Kavanagh JR, Springer MS (1999) An analysis of marsupial interordinal relationships based on 12S rRNA, tRNA Valine, 16S rRNA, and Cytochrome b sequences. J Mammalian Evol 6:317–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Burney DA, Flannery TF (2005) Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact. Trends Ecol Evol 20:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Camens AB, Wells RT (2010) Palaeobiology of Euowenia grata (Marsupialia: Diprotodontinae) and it’s presence in Northern South Australia. J Mammal Evol 17:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Campbell CR (1973) A new species of Troposodon Bartholomai; from the early Pleistocene Kanunka Fauna, South Australia (Macropodinae: Marsupialia). Rec South Aust Mus 16:1–18Google Scholar
  95. Campbell C (1976) Tertiary Dasyuridae and Peramelidae from the Tirari Desert, South Australia. Dissertation Abstr Int B Sci Eng 37:4375Google Scholar
  96. Cardillo M, Bininda-Emonds O, Boakes E, Purvis A (2004) A species-level phylogenetic supertree of marsupials. J Zool 264:11–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Cardillo M, Mace GM, Jones KE, Bielby J, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Sechrest W, Orme CDL, Purvis A (2005) Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Science 309:1239–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Cartmill M (1974) Daubentonia, Dactylopsila, woodpeckers, and klinorhynchy. In: Martin RD, Doyle GA, Walker AC (eds) Prosimian biology. Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd, London, pp 655–670Google Scholar
  99. Case JA (1984) A new genus of Potoroinae (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from the Miocene Ngapakaldi Local Fauna, South Australia, and a definition of the Potoroinae. J Paleontol 58:1074–1086Google Scholar
  100. Case JA (1989) Antarctica: the effect of high latitude heterochroneity on the origin of the Australian marsupials. In: Crame JA (ed) Origins and evolution of the Antarctic Biota, vol 47. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 217–226Google Scholar
  101. Chen XY, Barton CE (1991) Onset of aridity and dune-building in Central Australia: sedimentological and magnetostratigraphic evidence from Lake Amadeus. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 84:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Choquenot D, Bowman DMJS (1998) Marsupial Megafauna, Aborigines and the overkill hypothesis: application of predator-prey models to the question of Pleistocene extinction in Australia. Global Ecol Biogeogr Lett 7:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Clemens WA, Plane MD (1974) Mid-Tertiary Thylacoleonidae (Marsupialia, Mammalia). J Paleontol 48:652–660Google Scholar
  104. Cloos M, Sapiie B, van Ufford AQ, Weiland RJ, Warren PQ, McMahon TP (2005) Collisional delamination in New Guinea: the geotectonics of subducting slab breakoff. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 400:1–51Google Scholar
  105. Cooke B (1992) Primitive macropodids from Riversleigh, north-western Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australasian J Palaeontol 16:201–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Cooke BN (1997a) Two new balbarine kangaroos and lower molar evolution within the subfamily. Mem Queensland Mus 41:269–280Google Scholar
  107. Cooke B (1997b) New Miocene bulungamayine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Potoroidae) from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:281–294Google Scholar
  108. Cooke B (1997c) Biostratigraphic implications of fossil kangaroos at Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:295–302Google Scholar
  109. Cooke B (1999) Wanburoo hilarus gen. et. Sp. nov., a lophodont bulungamayine kangaroo (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea: Bulungamayinae) from the Miocene deposits of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Rec West Aust Mus Suppl 57:239–253Google Scholar
  110. Cooke BN (2000) Cranial remains of a new species of balbarine kangaroo (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) from the Oligo-Miocene freshwater limestone deposits of Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northern Australia. J Paleontol 74:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Cooke BN (2006) Kangaroos. In: Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickey GM, Lee MSY (eds) Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp 647–672Google Scholar
  112. Cooke BN, Kear BP (1999) Evolution and diversity of kangaroos (Macropodoidea: Marsupialia). Aust Mammal 21:27–29, 34–45Google Scholar
  113. Cosgrove R, Allen J (2001) Prey choice and hunting strategies in the Late Pleistocene: evidence from Southwest Tasmania. In: Anderson A, O’Connor S, Lilley I (eds) Histories of old ages: essays in honour of Rhys Jones. Coombs Academic Publishing, Australian National University, Canberra, pp 397–429Google Scholar
  114. Cosgrove R, Field J, Garvey J, Brenner-Coltrain J, Goede A, Charles B, Wroe S, Pike-Tay A, Grün R, Aubert M, Lees W, O’Connell J (2010) Overdone overkill – the archaeological perspective on Tasmanian megafaunal extinctions. J Archaeol Sci 37:2486–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Crabb PL (1982) Pleistocene dasyurids (Marsupialia) from southwestern New South Wales. In: Archer M (ed) Carnivorous marsupials, vol 2. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, pp 511–516Google Scholar
  116. Cramb J, Hocknull S (2010) Two new species of Antechinus Macleay (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia) from mid-Pleistocene cave deposits in eastern central Queensland. Aust Mammal 32:127–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Creaser P (1997) Oligocene–Miocene sediments of Riversleigh: the potential significance of topography. Mem Queensland Mus 41:303–314Google Scholar
  118. Crochet J-Y, Sigé B (1993) Les mammiferes de Chulpas (Formation Umayo, transition Crétacé–Tertiaire, Pérou): Données préliminaires. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de Lyon 125:97–107Google Scholar
  119. Crosby K (2002) A second species of the possum Durudawiri (Marsupialia: Miralinidae) from the early Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 26:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Crosby K (2007) Rediagnosis of the fossil species assigned to Strigocuscus (Marsupialia, Phalangeridae), with description of a new genus and three new species. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 31:33–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Crosby K, Archer M (2000) Durudawirines, a new group of phalangeroid marsupials from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. J Paleontol 74:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Crosby K, Norris CA (2003) Periotic morphology in the trichosurin possums Strigocuscus celebensis and Wyulda squamicaudata (Diprotodontia, Phalangeridae) and a revised diagnosis of the tribe Trichosurini. Am Mus Novitates 3414:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Crosby K, Bassarova M, Archer M, Carbery K (2004) Fossil possums in Australasia discovery, diversity and evolution. In: Goldingay RL, Jackson SM (eds) The biology of Australian possums and gliders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, pp 161–176Google Scholar
  124. Crosby K, Nagy M, Archer M (2001) Wyulda asherjoeli, a new phalangerid (Diprotodontia: Marsupialia) from the early Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Assoc Australas Palaeontol 25:77–82Google Scholar
  125. Davis AC, Archer M (1997) Palorchestes azael (Mammalia, Palorchestidae) from the late Pleistocene Terrace Site Local Fauna, Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:315–320Google Scholar
  126. Dawson L, Muirhead J, Wroe S (1999) The Big Sink Local Fauna: a lower Pliocene mammalian fauna from the Wellington Caves complex, Wellington, New South Wales. Rec West Aust Mus Suppl 57:265–290Google Scholar
  127. de Muizon C (ed) (1991) La fauna de mamíferos de Tiupampa (Paleoceno inferior, Formación Santa Lucia), Bolivia. Fósiles y facies de Bolivia. 1 Vertebrados. Revista Técnica de Yacimientos Petroleros Fiscales de Bolivia, Santa Cruz, BoliviaGoogle Scholar
  128. de Muizon C (1998) Mayulestes ferox, a borhyaenoid (Metatheria, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Bolivia. Phylogenetic and paleobiologic implications. Geodiversitas 20:19–142Google Scholar
  129. de Muizon C, Cifelli RL (2001) A new basal “didelphoid” (Marsupialia, Mammalia) from the early Paleocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia). J Vertebrate Paleontol 21:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. de Paula Couto C (1962) Didelfídeos fósiles del Paleoceno de Brasil. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “B Rivadavia”, Zoologìa 112:135–166Google Scholar
  131. De Vis CW (ed) (1887) Anonymous. The Brisbane Courier No. 9224:6Google Scholar
  132. De Vis CW (ed) (1888a) Anonymous. On a supposed new species of Nototherium. Abstract of the Proceedings on the Linnean Society of New South Wales for December 28th 1887:vGoogle Scholar
  133. De Vis CW (1888b) On an extinct genus of the marsupials allied to Hypsiprymnodon. Proc Linnean Soc New South Wales 3:5–8Google Scholar
  134. De Vis CW (1895) A review of the fossil jaws of the Macropodidae in the Queensland museum. Proc Linnean Soc New South Wales 10:75–133Google Scholar
  135. Dickinson JA, Wallace MW, Holdgate GR, Gallagher SJ, Thomas L (2002) Origin and timing of the Miocene–Pliocene unconformity in southeast Australia. J Sedimentary Res 72:288–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Dodson JR, Fullagar R, Furby JH, Prosser IP (1993) Humans and megafauna in a late Pleistocene environment at Cuddie Springs, northwestern New South Wales. Archaeol Oceania 28:93–99Google Scholar
  137. Drummond AJ, Ho SYW, Phillips MJ, Rambaut A (2006) Relaxed Phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biol 4(5):e88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Every RG (1970) Sharpness of teeth in man and other primates. Postilla 143:1–30Google Scholar
  139. Exon NF, Kennett JP, Malone MJ (2004) Leg 189 synthesis: Cretaceous–Holocene history of the Tasmanian Gateway. In: Exon NF, Kennett JP, Malone MJ (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results, vol 189. Ocean Drilling Program, Texas, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  140. Field J (2004) The archaeology of Late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Australia: a view from Cuddie Springs. In: Murray T (ed) Archaeology from Australia. Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne, pp 18–35Google Scholar
  141. Field J, Fullagar R, Lord J (2001) A large area archaeological excavation at Cuddie Springs. Antiquity 75:695–702Google Scholar
  142. Finlayson C (2005) Biogeography and evolution of the genus Homo. Trends Ecol Evol 20:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Fitzsimons J, Legge S, Traill B, Woinarski J (2010) Into oblivion? The disappearing native mammals of northern Australia. Report Prepared for the Nature Conservancy, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  144. Flannery TF (1983) Revision in the macropodids subfamily Sthenurinae (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) and the relationships of the species of Troposodon and Lagostrophus. Aust Mammal 6:15–28Google Scholar
  145. Flannery TF (1988) Origins of the Australo–Pacific land mammal fauna. Aust Zool Rev 1:15–24Google Scholar
  146. Flannery TF (1989) Phylogeny of the Macropodoidea; a study in convergence. In: Grigg GJ, Jarman PJ, Hume ID (eds) Kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos, vol 1. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  147. Flannery TF (1990) Pleistocene faunal loss: implications of the aftershock for Australia’s past and future. Archaeol Oceania 25:45–67Google Scholar
  148. Flannery TF (1991) The mystery of the meganesian meat-eaters. Aust Nat Hist 3:722–729Google Scholar
  149. Flannery TF (1992) New Pleistocene marsupials (Macropodidae, Diprotodontidae) from subalpine habitats in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Alcheringa 16:321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Flannery TF (1994) The future eaters. An ecological history of the Australasian lands and people. Reed Books, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  151. Flannery TF, Archer M (1983) Revision of the genus Troposodon Bartholomai (Macropodidae: Marsupialia). Alcheringa 7:263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Flannery TF, Archer M (1984) The macropodoids (Marsupialia) of the early Pliocene Bow Local Fauna, central eastern New South Wales. Aust Zool 21:357–383Google Scholar
  153. Flannery TF, Archer M (1985) Palorchestes Owen, 1874. Large and small palorchestids. In: Rich PV, van Tets GF (eds) Kadimakara. Extinct vertebrates of Australia. Pioneer Design Studio, Lilydale, pp 234–239Google Scholar
  154. Flannery TF, Archer M (1987a) Strigocuscus reidi and Trichosurus dicksoni, two new fossil phalangerids (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae) from the Miocene of northwestern Queensland. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 527–536Google Scholar
  155. Flannery TF, Archer M (1987b) Hypsiprymnodon bartholomaii (Potoroidae: Marsupialia), a new species from the Miocene Dwornamor Local Fauna and a reassessment of the phylogenetic position of H. moschatus. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 749–758Google Scholar
  156. Flannery TF, Archer M (1987c) Bettongia moyesi, a new and plesiomorphic kangaroo (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from Miocene sediments of northwestern Queensland. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 759–767Google Scholar
  157. Flannery TF, Hann LM (1984). A new macropodine genus and species (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from the early Pleistocene of southwestern Victoria. Australian Mammal 7:193–204Google Scholar
  158. Flannery TF, Plane MD (1986) A new late Pleistocene diprotodontid (Marsupialia) from Pureni, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Bur Miner Resour J Aust, Geol Geophys 10:65–76Google Scholar
  159. Flannery TF, Rich TH (1986) Macropodoids from the middle Miocene Namba Formation, South Australia, and the homology of some dental structures in kangaroos. J Paleontol 60:418–447Google Scholar
  160. Flannery TF, Szalay FS (1982) Bohra paulae, a new giant fossil tree kangaroo (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from New South Wales, Australia. Aust Mammal 5:83–94Google Scholar
  161. Flannery TF, Archer M, Plane MD (1983) Middle Miocene kangaroos (Macropodoidea: Marsupialia) from three localities in northern Australia, with a description of two new subfamilies. Bur Miner Res J Aust, Geol Geophys 7:287–302Google Scholar
  162. Flannery TF, Turnbull WD, Rich TH, Lundelius EL Jr (1987) The phalangerids (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae) of the early Pliocene Hamilton Local Fauna, southwestern Victoria. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 537–546Google Scholar
  163. Flannery TF, Hoch E, Aplin KP (1989) Macropodines from the Pliocene Otibanda Formation, Papua New Guinea. Alcheringa 13:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Flannery TF, Rich TH, Turnbull WD, Lundelius EL (1992) The Macropodoidea (Marsupialia) of the early Pliocene Hamilton Local Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Fieldiana Geol 25:1–37Google Scholar
  165. Flood J (1995) Archaeology of the Dreamtime: the story of prehistoric Australia and its people. Angus and Robertson, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  166. Frakes LA, McGowran B, Bowler JM (1987) Evolution of Australian environments. In: Dyne GR, Walton DW (eds) Fauna of Australia, vol 1A. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  167. Fujioka T, Chappell J, Honda M, Yatsevich I, Fifield K, Fabel D (2005) Global cooling initiated stony deserts in central Australia 2–4 Ma, dated by cosmogenic 21Ne–10Be. Geology 33:993–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Furby J, Fullagar R, Dodson J, Prosser I (1993) The Cuddie Springs bone bed revisited, 1991. In: Smith MA, Spriggs M, Fankhauser BL (eds) Sahul in review: Pleistocene archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia. Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, pp 204–210Google Scholar
  169. Gallagher SJ, Greenwood DR, Taylor D, Smith AJ, Wallace MW, Holdgate GR (2003) The Pliocene climatic and environmental evolution of southeastern Australia: evidence from the marine and terrestrial realm. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 193:349–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Garvey J (2010) Economic anatomy of the Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus): implications for understanding human hunting strategies in late Pleistocene Tasmania. Quaternary Int 211:144–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Gillespie AK (1999) Diversity and evolutionary relationships of marsupial lions. Aust Mammal 21:21–22, 34–45Google Scholar
  172. Gillespie AK (2007) Diversity and systematics of marsupial lions from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and the evolution of the Thylacoleonidae. Doctor of Philosophy, University of New South Wales, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  173. Gingerich PD (2006) Environment and evolution through the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Trends Ecol Evol 21:246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Glauert L (1910) Sthenurus occidentalis (Glauert). Bull Geol Surv West Aust 36:53–70Google Scholar
  175. Godthelp H, Archer M, Cifelli R, Hand SJ, Gilkeson CF (1992) Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna. Nature 356:514–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Godthelp H, Wroe S, Archer M (1999) A new marsupial from the early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna of Murgon, Southeastern Queensland: a prototypical Australian marsupial? J Mamm Evol 6:289–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Goin FJ, Candela AM, de Muizon C (2003) The affinities of Roberthoffstetteria nationalgeographica (Marsupialia) and the origin of the polydolopine molar pattern. J Vertebrate Paleontol 23:869–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Goldfuss GA (1817) Die Säugethiere, Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen von Schreber JCD (ed). Fortgesetzt von A. Goldfuss. 65e cahierGoogle Scholar
  179. Gould J (1842) Descriptions of four new species of kangaroos. Proc Zool Soc London 1841:80–83Google Scholar
  180. Greenwood DR, Christophel DC (2005) The origins and Tertiary history of Australian “tropical” rainforests. In: Bermingham E, Dick C, Moritz C (eds) Tropical rainforests: past, present, future. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 336–373Google Scholar
  181. Grün R, Wells RT, Eggins S, Spooner N, Aubert M, Brown L, Rhodes E, (2008) Electron spin resonance dating of South Australian megafauna sites. Aust J Earth Sci 55:917–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Guerin G, Hill R (2006) Plant macrofossil evidence for the environment associated with the Riversleigh fauna. Aust J Bot 54:717–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Haight JR, Murray PF (1981) The cranial endocast of the early Miocene marsupial, Wynyardia bassiana: an assessment of taxonomic relationships based upon comparisons with recent forms. Brain, Behav Evol 19:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Hall R (2001) Cenozoic reconstructions of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: changing patterns of land and sea. In: Metcalfe I, Smith JMB, Morwood M, Davidson I (eds) Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia–Australasia. Swets and Zeitlinger b. v., Lisse, pp 35–56Google Scholar
  185. Hand SJ (1997) Hipposideros bernardsigei, a new hipposiderid (Microchiroptera) from the Miocene of Australia and a reconsideration of the monophyly of related species groups. Müchner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, A 34:73–92Google Scholar
  186. Hand S, Archer M (2005) A new hipposiderid genus (Microchiroptera) from an early Miocene bat community in Australia. Palaeontology 48:371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Hand S, Archer M, Rich T, Pledge N (1993) Nimbadon, a new genus and three species of Tertiary zygomaturines (Marsupialia, Diprotodontidae) from northern Australia, with a reassessment of Neohelos. Mem Queensland Mus 33:193–210Google Scholar
  188. Hand SJ, Novacek MJ, Godthelp H, Archer M (1994) First Eocene bat from Australia. J Vertebrate Paleontol 14:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Hardjasasmita HS (1985) Fosil diprotodontid: Zygomaturus Owen 1859 dari Nimboran, Irian Jaya. Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi 3:999–1004Google Scholar
  190. Hays JD, Imbrie J, Shackleton NJ (1976) Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science 194:1121–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Head L (1995) Meganesian barbecue: reply to George Seddon. Meanjin 54:702–709Google Scholar
  192. Hesse PP (1994) The record of continental dust from Australia in Tasman Sea sediments. Quaternary Sci Rev 13:257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Hesse PP, McTainsh GH (2003) Australian dust deposits: modern processes and the Quaternary record. Quaternary Sci Rev 22:2007–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Hesse PP, Magee JW, van der Kaars S (2004) Late Quaternary climates of the Australian arid zone: a review. Quaternary Int 118–119:87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Hill RS (1992) Nothofagus: evolution from a southern perspective. Trends Ecol Evol 7:190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Hill RS (1994) The history of selected Australian taxa. In: Hill RS (ed) History of the Australian vegetation: Cretaceous to recent. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 390–419Google Scholar
  197. Hocknull SA, Zhao J-X, FengY-X, Webb GE (2007) Responses of Quaternary rainforest vertebrates to climate change in Australia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 264:317–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Holdaway R, Jacomb C (2000) Rapid extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): model, test, and implications. Science 287:2250–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Hope JH, Wilkinson HE (1982) Warendja wakefieldi, a new genus of wombat (Marsupialia, Vombatidae) from Pleistocene sediments in McEacherns Cave, western Victoria. Mem Natl Mus Victoria 43:109–120Google Scholar
  200. Horovitz I, Sánchez-Villagra MR (2003) A morphological analysis of marsupial mammal higher-level phylogenetic relationships. Cladistics 19:181–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Horovitz I, Martin T, Bloch J, Ladevèze S, Kurz C, Sánchez-Villagra MR (2009) Cranial anatomy of the earliest marsupials and the origin of opossums. PLoS One 4(12):e8278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Horton DR (1980) A review of the extinction question: man, climate and megafauna. Archaeol Phys Anthropol Oceania 15:86–97Google Scholar
  203. Horton D (1984) Red kangaroos: last of the Australian megafauna. In: Martin PS, Klein RG (eds) Quaternary extinctions: a prehistoric revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 639–680Google Scholar
  204. Huxley TH (1862) On the premolar teeth of Diprotodon and on a new species of that genus. Q J Geol Soc London 18:422–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) (2008) http://essayweb.net/geology/timeline/images/ICS.gif
  206. Jansen JHF, Kuijpers A, Troelstra SR (1986) A mid-brunhes climatic event: long-term changes in global atmosphere and ocean circulation. Science 232:619–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Johnson CN, Wroe S (2003) Causes of extinction of vertebrates during the Holocene of mainland Australia: arrival of the dingo, or human impact? The Holocene 13:941–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Jones FW (1930) A re-examination of the skeletal characters of Wynyardia bassiana, an extinct Tasmanian marsupial. Pap Proc R Soc Tasmania 1930:96–115Google Scholar
  209. Jones R (1968) The geographical background to the arrival of man in Australia and Tasmania. Archaeol Phys Anthropol Oceania 3:186–215Google Scholar
  210. Kavanagh JR, Burk-Herrick A, Westerman M, Springer MS (2004) Relationships among families of Diprotodontia (Marsupialia) and the phylogenetic position of the autapomorphic honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Mamm Evol 11:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Kawahata H (2002) Shifts in oceanic and atmospheric boundaries in the Tasman Sea (Southwest Pacific) during the Late Pleistocene: evidence from organic carbon and lithogenic fluxes. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 184:225–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Kawamura H, Holbourn A, Kuhnt W (2006) Climate variability and land–ocean interactions in the Indo PacificWarm Pool: a 460-ka palynological and organic geochemical record from the Timor Sea. Mar Micropaleontol 59:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Kear B (1998) Postcranial morphology and phylogenetics of Oligo-Miocene kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSWGoogle Scholar
  214. Kear BP (2002) Phylogenetic implications of macropodid (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) postcranial remains from Miocene deposits of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 26:299–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Kear BP, Cooke BN (2001) A review of macropodoid (Marsupialia) systematics with the inclusion of a new family. Assoc Australas Palaeontol Mem 25:83–102Google Scholar
  216. Kear BP, Archer M, Flannery TF (2001) Bulungamayine (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) postcranial elements from the late Miocene of Riversleigh northwestern Queensland. Assoc Australas Palaeontol Mem 25:103–122Google Scholar
  217. Kear BP, Cooke BN, Archer M, Flannery TF (2007) Implications of a new species of the Oligo-Miocene kangaroo (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea) Nambaroo, from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, Queensland. J Paleontol 81:1147–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Kemp TS (2005) The Origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  219. Kennett JP (1977) Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation, the Circum-Antarctic Ocean, and their impact on global paleoceanography. J Geophys Res 82:3843–3860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Kershaw AP, McKenzie GM, McMinn A (1993) A Quaternary vegetation history of northeastern Queensland from pollen analysis of ODP site 820. Proc Ocean Drilling Program Sci Results 133:107–114Google Scholar
  221. Kershaw AP, van der Kaars S, Moss PT (2003a) Late Quaternary Milankovitch-scale climate change and variability and its impact on monsoonal Australasia. Mar Geol 201:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Kershaw P, Moss P, van der Kaars S (2003b) Causes and consequences of long-term climatic variability on the Australian continent. Freshwater Biol 48:1274–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Kidwell SM, Holland SM (2002) Quality of the fossil record: implications for evolutionary biology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:561–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Kiernan K, Jones R, Ranson D (1983) New evidence from Fraser cave for glacial age man in Southwest Tasmania. Nature 301:28–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Kirsch JAW (1977a) The comparative serology of Marsupialia, and a classification of marsupials. Aust J Zool, Suppl Ser 52:1–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Kirsch JAW (1977b) The six-percent solution: second thoughts on the adaptedness of the Marsupialia. Am Sci 65:276–288Google Scholar
  227. Kirsch J, Lapointe F, Springer M (1997) DNA-hybridisation studies of marsupials and their implications for metatherian classification. Aust J Zool 45:211–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Krajewski C, Blacket M, Buckley L, Westerman M (1997) A multigene assessment of phylogenetic relationships within the dasyurid marsupial subfamily Sminthopsinae. Mol Phylogen Evol 8:236–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Krajewski C, Blacket MJ, Westerman M (2000a) DNA sequence analysis of familial relationships among dasyuromorphian marsupials. J Mamm Evol 7:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Krajewski C, Wroe S, Westerman M (2000b) Molecular evidence for the pattern and timing of cladogenesis in dasyurid marsupials. Zool J Linnean Soc 130:375–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Lambeck K, Chappell J (2001) Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Lawver LA, Gahagan LM (2003) Evolution of Cenozoic seaways in the circum-Antarctic region. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 198:11–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Lepage T, Bryant D, Philippe H, Lartillot N (2007) A general comparison of relaxed molecular clock models. Mol Biol Evol 24:2669–2680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Lindsay, JM (1987) Age and habitat of a monospecific foraminiferal fauna from near-type Etadunna Formation, Lake Palankarinna, Lake Eyre Basin. Department of Mines and Energy South Australia Report Book 87/93 (unpublished)Google Scholar
  235. Long J, Archer M, Flannery T, Hand S (2002) Prehistoric mammals of Australia and New Guinea: one hundred million years of evolution. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSWGoogle Scholar
  236. Louys J, Black K, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (2007a) Descriptions of koala fossils from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland and implications for Litokoala (Marsupialia, Phascolarctidae). Alcheringa: An Australasian J Palaeontol 31:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Louys J, Curnoe D, Tong H (2007b) Characteristics of Pleistocene megafauna extinctions in Southeast Asia. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 243:152–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Louys J, Aplin K, Beck RMD, Archer M (2009) Cranial anatomy of Oligo-Miocene koalas (Diprotodontia: Phascolarctidae): stages in the evolution of an extreme leaf-eating specialization. J Vertebrate Paleontol 29:981–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Lundelius EL Jr, Graham R (1999) The weather changed: shifting climate dissolved ancient animal alliances. Discovering Archaeol 1:48–50, 53Google Scholar
  240. Luo Z-X, Ji Q, Wible JR, Yuan C-X (2003) An Early Cretaceous tribosphenic mammal and metatherian evolution. Science 302:1934–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Luo Z-X, Chen P, Li G, Chen M (2007) A new eutriconodont mammal and evolutionary development in early mammals. Nature 446:288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Lynch AH, Abramson D, Görgen K, Beringer J, Uotila P (2007) Influence of savanna fire on Australian monsoon season precipitation and circulation as simulated using a distributed computing environment. Geophys Res Lett 34:L20801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Mackness BS (1995) Palorchestes selestiae, a new species of palorchestid marsupial from the early Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna, northeastern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 38:603–609Google Scholar
  244. Mackness BS, Archer M (2001) A new petauroid possum (Marsupialia, Pseudocheiridae) from the Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna, northern Queensland. Alcheringa 25:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Mackness BS, Whitehead P, McNamara G (2000) A new potassium-argon date in relation to the Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna, northern Australia. Australian J Earth Sci 47:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Macphail MK (1996) A habitat for the enigmatic Wynyardia bassiana Spencer, 1901 Australia’s first described Tertiary land mammal? Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 20:227–243Google Scholar
  247. Marcus LF (1962) A new species of Sthenurus (Marsupialia, Macropodidae) from the Pleistocene of New South Wales. Rec Aust Mus 15:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Marshall LG, Corruccini RS (1978) Variability, evolutionary rates, and allometry in dwarfing lineages. Paleobiology 4:101–119Google Scholar
  249. Marshall LG, de Muizon C (1988) The dawn of the age of mammals in South America. Natl Geogr Res 4:23–55Google Scholar
  250. Marshall LG, Case JA, Woodburne MO (1990) Phylogenetic relationships of the families of marsupials. In: Genoways HH (ed) Current mammalogy, vol 2. Plenum Press, New York, pp 433–502Google Scholar
  251. Martin HA (1990) The palynology of the Namba Formation in the Wooltana-1 bore, Callabonna Basin (Lake Frome), South Australia, and its relevance to Miocene grasslands in central Australia. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 14:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Martin HA (1994) Australian Tertiary phytogeography. In: Hill R (ed) History of the Australian vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 104–142Google Scholar
  253. Martin HA (1998) Tertiary climatic evolution and the development of aridity in Australia. Proc Linnean Soc New South Wales 119:115–136Google Scholar
  254. Martin HA (2006) Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. J Arid Environ 66:533–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. McGowran B, Li Q (1994) The Miocene oscillation in southern Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 27:197–212Google Scholar
  256. McGowran B, Li Q, Cann J, Padley D, McKirdy DM, Shafik S (1997) Biogeographic impact of the Leeuwin Current in southern Australia since the late middle Eocene. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 136:19–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. McGowran B, Archer M, Bock P, Darragh TA, Godthelp H, Hageman S, Hand SJ, Hill R, Li Q, Maxwell PA, McNamara KJ, Macphail M, Mildenhall D, Partridge AD, Richardson J, Shafik S, Truswell EM, Warne M (2000) Australasian palaeobiogeography: the Palaeogene and Neogene record. Mem Assoc Australas Palaeontol 23:405–470Google Scholar
  258. McNamara JA (1994) A new fossil wallaby (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from the south east of South Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 27:111–115Google Scholar
  259. Megirian D (1992) Interpretation of the Miocene Carl Creek Limestone, northwestern Queensland. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 9:219–248Google Scholar
  260. Megirian D, Murray P, Wells R (1996) The late Miocene Ongeva Local Fauna of central Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 13:9–38Google Scholar
  261. Megirian D, Murray P, Schwartz L, Borch CVD (2004) Late Oligocene Kangaroo Well Local Fauna from the Ulta Limestone (new name), and climate of the Miocene oscillation across central Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 51:701–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Meredith R, Westerman M, Case J, Springer M (2008a) A phylogeny and timescale for marsupial evolution based on sequences for five nuclear genes. J Mammalian Evol 15:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Meredith RW, Westerman M, Springer MS (2008b) A phylogeny and timescale for the living genera of kangaroos and kin (Macropodiformes: Marsupialia) based on nuclear DNA sequences. Australian J Zool 56:395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Meredith RW, Westerman M, Springer MS (2008c) A timescale and phylogeny for “Bandicoots” (Peramelemorphia: Marsupialia) based on sequences for five nuclear genes. Mole Phylogen Evol 47:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Meredith RW, Westerman M, Springer MS (2009) A phylogeny of Diprotodontia (Marsupialia) based on sequences for five nuclear genes. Mol Phylogen Evol 51:554–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Meredith R, Mendoza M, Roberts K, Westerman M, Springer M (2010) A phylogeny and timescale for the evolution of Pseudocheiridae (Marsupialia: Diprotodontia) in Australia and New Guinea. J Mamm Evol 17:75–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Meredith RW, Krajewski C, Westerman M, Springer MS (2011) Relationships and divergence times among the orders and families of Marsupialia. Mus Northern Arizona, Bul 65:383–406Google Scholar
  268. Merrilees D (1968) Man the destroyer: late Quaternary changes in Australian marsupial fauna. J R Soc West Aust 51:1–24Google Scholar
  269. Miller GH, Magee JW, Johnson BJ, Fogel ML, Spooner NA, McCulloch MT, Ayliffe LK (1999) Pleistocene extinction of Genyornis newtoni: human impact on Australian megafauna. Science 283:205–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Miller GH, Fogel ML, Magee JW, Gagan MK, Clarke SJ, Johnson BJ (2005) Ecosystem collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a human role in megafaunal extinction. Science 309:287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Moriarty KC, McCulloch M, Wells RT, McDowell MC (2000) Mid-Pleistocene cave fills, megafaunal remains and climate change at Naracoorte, South Australia: towards a predictive model using U/Th dating of speleothems. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 159:113–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Morwood MJ, O’Sullivan PB, Aziz F, Raza A (1998) Fission–track ages of stone tools and fossils on the east Indonesian island of Flores. Nature 392:173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Moss PT, Kershaw AP (2000) The last glacial cycle from the humid tropics of northeastern Australia: comparison of a terrestrial and a marine record. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 155:155–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Moss PT, Kershaw AP (2007) A late Quaternary marine palynological record (Oxygen Isotope Stages 1 to 7) for the Humid Tropics of northeastern Australia based on ODP Site 820. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 251:4–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Muirhead J (1992) A specialised thylacinid, Thylacinus macknessi (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) from Miocene deposits of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Aust Mammal 15:67–76Google Scholar
  276. Muirhead J (1994) Systematics, evolution, and palaeobiology of recent and fossil bandicoots (Peramelemorphia, Marsupialia). Doctor of Philosophy, University of New South Wales, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  277. Muirhead J (1997) Two new early Miocene thylacines from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:367–377Google Scholar
  278. Muirhead J (2000) Yaraloidea (Marsupialia, Peramelemorphia), a new superfamily of marsupial and a description and analysis of the cranium of the Miocene Yarala Burfieldi. J Paleontol 74:512–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Muirhead J, Archer M (1990) Nimbacinus dicksoni, a plesiomorphic thylacine (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) from Tertiary deposits of Queensland and the Northern Territory. Mem Queensland Mus 28:203–221Google Scholar
  280. Muirhead J, Filan S (1995) Yarala burchfieldi, a plesiomorphic bandicoot (Marsupialia, Peramelemorphia) from Oligo-Miocene deposits of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. J Paleontol 69:127–134Google Scholar
  281. Muirhead J, Godthelp HJ (1996) Fossil bandicoots of Chillagoe (northeastern Queensland) and the first known specimens of the Pig–footed Bandicoot Chaeropus Ogilby, 1838 from Queensland. Aust Mammal 19:73–76Google Scholar
  282. Muirhead J, Wroe S (1998) A new genus and species, Badjjcinus turnbulli (Thylacinidae: Marsupialia), from the late Oligocene of Riversleigh, northern Australia, and an investigation of thylacinid phylogeny. J Vertebrate Paleontol 18:612–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Muirhead J, Dawson L, Archer M (1997) Perameles bowensis, a new species of Perameles (Peramelemorphia, Marsupialia) from Pliocene faunas of Bow and Wellington Caves, New South Wales. Proc Linnean Soc New South Wales 117:163–173Google Scholar
  284. Munson CJ (1992) Postcranial descriptions of Ilaria and Ngapakaldia (Vombatiformes, Marsupialia) and the phylogeny of the vombatiforms based on postcranial morphology, vol 125. University of California Publications in Zoology. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  285. Murray P (1986) Propalorchestes novaculacephalus gen. et sp. nov., a new palorchestid (Diprotodontoidea: Marsupialia) from the middle Miocene Camfield Beds, Northern Territory, Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 3:195–211Google Scholar
  286. Murray P (1990a) Primitive marsupial tapirs (Propalorchestes novaculacephalus Murray and P. ponticulus [Marsupialia: Palorchestidae] sp. nov.) from the mid-Miocene of north Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 7:39–51Google Scholar
  287. Murray R (1990b) Alkwertatherium webbi, a new zygomaturine genus and species from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna, Northern Territory (Marsupialia: Diprotodontidae). The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 7:53–80Google Scholar
  288. Murray P (1991) The sthenurine affinity of the late Miocene kangaroo, Hadronomas puckridgi Woodburne (Marsupialia, Macropodidae). Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 15:255–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Murray PF (1992) The smallest New Guinea zygomaturines—derived dwarfs or relict plesiomorphs? The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 9:89–110Google Scholar
  290. Murray PF (1995) The postcranial skeleton of the Miocene kangaroo, Hadronomas puckridgi Woodburne (Marsupialia, Macropodidae). Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 19:119–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Murray P (1997a) Alcoota: a snapshot of the Australian late Miocene. Riversleigh Notes 35:2–7Google Scholar
  292. Murray PF (1997b) Thylacinus megiriani, a new species of thylacine (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) from the Ongeva Local Fauna of central Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 30:43–61Google Scholar
  293. Murray P (1998) Palaeontology and palaeobiology of wombats. In: Wells R, Pridmore PA (eds) Wombats. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  294. Murray P, Megirian D (1990) Further observations on the morphology of Wakaleo vanderleuri (Marsupialia: Thylacoleonidae) from the mid-Miocene Camfield Beds, Northern Territory. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 7:91–102Google Scholar
  295. Murray P, Megirian D (1992) Continuity and contrast in middle and late Miocene vertebrate communities from the Northern Territory. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 9:195–218Google Scholar
  296. Murray P, Megirian D (2000) Two new genera and three new species of Thylacinidae (Marsupialia) from the Miocene of the Northern Territory, Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 16:145–162Google Scholar
  297. Murray PF, Megirian D (2006a) The Pwerte Marnte Marnte Local Fauna: a new vertebrate assemblage of presumed Oligocene age from the Northern Territory of Australia. Alcheringa Special Issue 1:211–228Google Scholar
  298. Murray PF, Megirian D (2006b) Cranial morphology of the Miocene thylacinid Mutpuracinus archibaldi (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia) and relationships within the Dasyuromorphia. Alcheringa Special Issue 1:229–276Google Scholar
  299. Murray PF, Vickers-Rich P (2004) Magnificent Mihirungs: the colossal flightless birds of the Australian dreamtime. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, INGoogle Scholar
  300. Murray P, Megirian D, Wells R (1993) Kolopsis yperus sp. nov. (Zygomaturinae, Marsupialia) from the Ongeva Local Fauna: new evidence for the age of the Alcoota fossil beds of central Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 10:155–172Google Scholar
  301. Murray P, Megirian D, Rich T, Plane M, Black K, Archer M, Hand S, Vickers-Rich P (2000a) Morphology, systematics, and evolution of the marsupial genus Neohelos Stirton (Diprotodontidae, Zygomaturinae). Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory Research Report No. 6, pp 1–141Google Scholar
  302. Murray P, Megirian D, Rich T, Plane M, Vickers-Rich P (2000b) Neohelos stirtoni, a new species of Zygomaturinae (Diprotodontidae: Marsupialia) from the mid-Tertiary of northern Australia. Mem Queen Victoria Mus 105:1–47Google Scholar
  303. Myers T, Archer M (1997) Kuterintja ngama (Marsupialia, Ilariidae): a revised systematic analysis based on material from the late Oligocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:379–392Google Scholar
  304. Myers T, Archer M, Krikmann A, Pledge N (1999) Diversity and evolutionary relationships of ilariids, wynyardiids, vombatids and related groups of marsupials. Aust Mammal 21:18–19, 34–45Google Scholar
  305. Myers T, Crosby K, Archer M, Tyler M (2001) The Encore Local Fauna, a late Miocene assemblage from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Assoc Australas Palaeontol 25:147–154Google Scholar
  306. Nilsson MA, Arnason U, Spencer PBS, Janke A (2004) Marsupial relationships and a timeline for marsupial radiation in South Gondwana. Gene 340:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Nogués-Bravo D, Ohlemüller R, Batra P, Araú MB (2010) Climate predictors of late Quaternary extinctions. Evolution 64:2442–2449Google Scholar
  308. O’Connell JF, Allen J (2004) Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea): a review of recent research. J Archaeol Sci 31:835–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Osborne MJ, Christidis L (2002) Systematics and biogeography of pygmy possums (Burramyidae:Cercartetus). Aust J Zool 50:25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Owen R (1838) Fossil remains from Wellington Valley, Australia. Marsupialia. In: Appendix to Mitchell TL (ed) Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia, with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales, vol 2. T. and W. Boone, London, pp 359–369Google Scholar
  311. Owen R (1845) Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the Fossil organic remains of Mammalia and Aves contained in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Taylor, LondonGoogle Scholar
  312. Owen R (1858) Odontology. Teeth of mammals. Encyclopaedia Britannica, or dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature, 8th edn, vol 16, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc, Edinburgh, p447Google Scholar
  313. Owen R (1859) On the classification and geographical distribution of the Mammalia. Lecture on Sir Robert Reade’s Foundation, delivered before the University of Cambridge in the Senate-House, May 10, 1859. London, John W. Parker and Son, 103ppGoogle Scholar
  314. Owen R (1872) On the fossil mammals of Australia. Part VII. Genus Phascolomys. Philos Trans R Soc 162:172–196, 241–258Google Scholar
  315. Owen R (1874) On the fossil mammals of Australia. Part IX. Family Macropodidae. Genera Macropus, Pachysiagon, Leptosiagon, Procoptodon and Palorchestes. Philos Trans R Soc 164:783–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Owen R (1877) On a new species of Sthenurus, with remarks on the relation of the genus to Dorcopsis, Müller. Proc Sci Meetings Zool Soc London 1877:352–361Google Scholar
  317. Phillips MJ, Pratt RC (2008) Family-level relationships among the Australasian marsupial “herbivores” (Diprotodontia: koala, wombats, kangaroos and possums). Mol Phylogen Evol 46:594–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Phillips MJ, McLenachan PA, Down C, Gibb GC, Penny D (2006) Combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences resolve the interrelations of the major Australasian marsupial radiations. Syst Biol 55:122–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Pillans B (2003) Subdividing the Pleistocene using the Matuyama–Brunhes boundary (MBB): an Australasian perspective. Quaternary Sci Rev 22:1569–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Pillans B, Bourman R (2001) Mid Pleistocene arid shift in southern Australia, dated by magnetostratigraphy. Aust J Soil Res 39:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Piper K (2006) A new species of Palorchestidae (Marsupialia) from the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Victoria. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 30(Issue S1):281–294Google Scholar
  322. Piper KJ, Fitzgerald EMG, Rich TH (2006) Mesozoic to early Quaternary mammal faunas of Victoria, south-east Australia. Palaeontology 49:1237–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Plane MD (1967) Two new diprotodontids from the Pliocene Otibanda Formation, New Guinea. Bull Bureau Mineral Resour Geol Geophys Aust 85:105–128Google Scholar
  324. Pledge NS (1977) A new species of Thylacoleo (Marsupialia: Thylacoleonidae) with notes on the occurrences and distribution of Thylacoleonidae in South Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 17:277–283Google Scholar
  325. Pledge NS (1982) Enigmatic Ektopodon: a case history of palaeontological interpretation. In: Rich PV, Thompson EM (eds) The fossil vertebrates of Australasia. Monash University Offset Printing Unit, Clayton, pp 477–488Google Scholar
  326. Pledge N (1986) A new species of Ektopodon (Marsupialia; Phalangeroidea) from the Miocene of South Australia. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, vol 131, pp 43–67Google Scholar
  327. Pledge N (1987a) Muramura williamsi, a new genus and species of ?wynyardiid (Marsupialia: Vombatoidea) from the middle Miocene Etadunna Formation of South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution, Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 393–400Google Scholar
  328. Pledge NS (1987b) Kuterintja ngama, a new genus and species of primitive vombatoid marsupial from the medial Miocene Ngama Local Fauna of South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 419–422Google Scholar
  329. Pledge NS (1987c) A new species of Burramys Broom (Marsupialia: Burramyidae) from the middle Miocene of South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 725–728Google Scholar
  330. Pledge NS (1987d) Phascolarctos maris, a new species of koala (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) from the early Pliocene of South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 327–330Google Scholar
  331. Pledge NS (1992) The Curramulka local fauna: a new late Tertiary fossil assemblage from Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. The Beagle, Records Northern Territory Mus Arts Sci 9:115–142Google Scholar
  332. Pledge NS (2003) A new species of Muramura Pledge (Wynyardiidae: Marsupialia) from the middle Tertiary of the Callabonna Basin, northeastern South Australia. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 279:541–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Pledge N (2005) The Riversleigh wynyardiids. Mem Queensland Mus 51:135–169Google Scholar
  334. Pledge N, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (1999) Additions to knowledge about ektopodontids (Marsupialia: Ektopodontidae): including a new species E. litolophus. Rec West Aust Mus, Suppl 57:255–264Google Scholar
  335. Price GJ (2008) Is the modern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses. Quaternary Sci Rev 27:2516–2521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Price GJ, Hocknull SA (2011) Invictokoala monticola gen. et sp. nov. (Phascolarctidae, Marsupialia), a Pleistocene koala holdover from Oligocene ancestors. J Syst Palaeontol 9:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Price GJ, Sobbe IH (2005) Pleistocene palaeoecology and environmental change on the Darling Downs, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Mem Queensland Mus 51:171–201Google Scholar
  338. Price GJ, Zhao J-X, Feng Y-X, Hocknull SA (2009) New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. J Asian Earth Sci 34:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Prideaux GJ (2004) Systematics and evolution of the sthenurine kangaroos. UC Publications in Geological Sciences, University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, vol 146, pp 1–622Google Scholar
  340. Prideaux GJ, Warburton NM (2010) An osteology based appraisal of the phylogeny and evolution of kangaroos and wallabies (Macropodidae, Marsupialia). Zool J Linnean Soc 159:954–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Prideaux GJ, Long JA, Ayliffe LK, Hellstrom JC, Pillans B, Boles WE, Hutchinson MN, Roberts RG, Cupper ML, Arnold LJ, Devine PD, Warton NM (2007a) An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia. Nature 445:422–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Prideaux GJ, Roberts RG, Megirian D, Westaway KE, Hellstrom JG, OIley JM (2007b) Mammalian responses to Pleistocene climate change in southeastern Australia. Geology 35:33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Rauscher B (1987) Priscilieo pitikantensis, a new genus and species of thylacoleonid marsupial (Marsupialia: Thylacoleonidae) from the Miocene Etadunna Formations, South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 423–432Google Scholar
  344. Reguero MA, Marenssi SA, Santillana SN (2002) Antarctic Peninsula and South America (Patagonia) Paleogene terrestrial faunas and environments: biogeographic relationships. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 179:189–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Rhodes E, Chappell J, Fujioka T, Fitzsimmons K, Magee J, Aubert M, Hewitt D (2005) The history of aridity in Australia: chronological developments. In: Roach IC (ed) Regolith 2005 – ten years of CRC LEME. Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Environments and Mineral Exploration, Bentley, WA, pp 265–268Google Scholar
  346. Rich TH (1983) The largest marsupial. Diprotodon optatum. In: Quirk S, Archer M (eds) Prehistoric animals of Australia. Australian Museum, Sydney, pp 62–63Google Scholar
  347. Rich TH (1986) Darcius duggani, a new ektopodontid (Marsupialia; Phalangeroidea) from the early Pliocene Hamilton Local Fauna, Australia. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, Berkeley, vol 131, pp 68–74Google Scholar
  348. Rich TH, Archer M (1979) Namilamadeta snideri, a new diprotodontan (Marsupialia, Vombatoidea) from the medial Miocene of South Australia. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 3:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Rich TH, Rich PV (1987) New specimens of Ngapakaldia (Marsupialia: Diprotodontoidea) and taxonomic diversity in medial Miocene palorchestids. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 467–476Google Scholar
  350. Rich TH, Archer M, Tedford RH (1978) Raemeotherium yatkolai, gen. et sp. nov., a primitive diprotodontid from the medial Miocene of South Australia. Mem Natl Mus Victoria 39:85–91Google Scholar
  351. Rich TH, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp HJ, Muirhead J, Pledge NS, Flannery TF, Woodburne MO, Case JA, Tedford RH, Turnbull WD, Lundelius ELJ, Rich LSV, Whitelaw MJ, Kemp A, Rich PV (1991) Australian Mesozoic and Tertiary terrestrial mammal localities. In: Vickers-Rich P, Monaghan JM, Baird RF, Rich TH (eds) Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia. Pioneer Design Studio and Monash University Publications Committee, Melbourne, pp 1005–1058Google Scholar
  352. Rich TH, Darragh TA, Vickers-Rich P (2003) The strange case of the wandering fossil. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 279:556–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Rich TH, Piper KJ, Pickering D, Wright S (2006) Further Ektopodontidae (Phalangeroidea, Mammalia) from southwestern Victoria. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 30:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Ride WDL (1964) A review of Australian fossil marsupials. J R Soc West Aust 47:97–131Google Scholar
  355. Ride WDL (1993) Jackmahoneya gen. nov. and the genesis of the macropodiform molar. Mem Assoc Australas Palaeontol 15:441–459Google Scholar
  356. Ride WDL, Pridmore PA, Barwick RE, Wells RT, Heady RD (1997) Towards a biology of Propleopus oscillans (Marsupialia: Propleopinae, Hypsiprymnodontidae). Proc Linnean Soc New South Wales 117:243–328Google Scholar
  357. Roberts RG, Jones R, Spooner NA, Head MJ, Murray AS, Smith MA (1994) The human colonisation of Australia: optical dates of 53,000 and 60,000 years bracket human arrival at Deaf Adder Gorge, Northern Territory. Quaternary Sci Rev 13:575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Roberts RG, Flannery TF, Ayliffe LK, Yoshida H, Olley JM, Prideaux GJ, Laslett GM, Baynes A, Smith MA, Jones R, Smith BL (2001) New ages for the last Australian Megafauna: continent-wide extinction about 46,000 years ago. Science 292:1888–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Roberts KK, Bassarova M, Archer M (2008) Oligo-Miocene ringtail possums of the genus Paljara (Pseudocheiridae: Marsupialia) from Queensland, Australia. Geobios 41:833–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Roberts KK, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (2007) New genus and species of extinct Miocene ringtail possums (Marsupialia, Pseudocheiridae). Am Mus Novitates 3560:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Roberts KK, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (2009) New Australian Oligocene to Miocene ringtail possums (Pseudocheiridae) and revision of the genus Marlu. Palaeontology 52:441–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Rose KD (2006) The beginning of the age of mammals. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  363. Rougier GW, Wible JR, Novacek MJ (1998) Implications of Deltatheridium specimens for early marsupial history. Nature 396:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Salisbury SW, Willis PMA (1996) A new crocodylian from the early Eocene of southeastern Queensland and a preliminary investigation into the phylogenetic relationships of crocodyloids. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 20:179–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Sánchez-Villagra M, Ladevèze S, Horovitz I, Argot C, Hooker JJ, Macrini TE, Martin T, Moore-Fay S, de Muizon C, Schmelzle T, Asher RJ (2007) Exceptionally preserved North American Paleogene metatherians: adaptations and discovery of a major gap in the opossum fossil record. Biol Lett 3:318–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Scanlon JD (2005) Australia’s oldest known snakes: Patagoniophis, Alamitophis, and cf. Madtsoia (Squamata: Madtsoiidae) from the Eocene of Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 51:215–235Google Scholar
  367. Scher HD, Martin EE (2006) Timing and climatic consequences of the opening of Drake Passage. Science 312:428–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Schwartz L (2006a) A new species of bandicoot from the Oligocene of northern Australia and implications of bandicoots for correlating Australian Tertiary mammal faunas. Palaeontology 49:991–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Schwartz LRS (2006b) Miralinidae (Marsupialia: Phalangeroidea) from northern Australia, including the youngest occurrence of the family. Alcheringa: An Australasian J Palaeontol 30:343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Schwartz LRS, Megirian D (2004) A New Species of Nambaroo (Marsupialia; Macropodoidea) from the Miocene Camfield Beds of Northern Australia with observations on the phylogeny of the Balbarinae. J Vertebrate Paleontol 24:668–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Sigé B, Sempere T, Butler Robert F, Marshall LG, Crochet J-Y (2004) Age and stratigraphic reassessment of the fossil-bearing Laguna Umayo red mudstone unit, SE Peru, from regional stratigraphy, fossil record, and paleomagnetism. Geobios 37:771–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Sigé B, Archer M, Crochet J-Y, Godthelp H, Hand S, Beck R (2009) Chulpasia and Thylacotinga, late Paleocene–earliest Eocene trans-Antarctic Gondwanan bunodont marsupials: new data from Australia. Geobios 42:813–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Singh G, Kershaw AP, Clark R (1981) Quaternary vegetation and fire history in Australia. In: Gill AM, Groves RA, Noble JC (eds) Fire and the Australian biota. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, pp 23–54Google Scholar
  374. Spencer WB (1901) A description of Wynyardia bassiana, a fossil marsupial from the Tertiary beds of Table Cape, Tasmania. Proc Zool Soc London 1900:776–794Google Scholar
  375. Springer MS (1987) Lower molars of Litokoala (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) and their bearing on phascolarctid evolution. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 319–325Google Scholar
  376. Springer MS, Westerman M, Kavanagh JR, Burk A, Woodburne MO, Kao DJ, Krajewski C (1998) The origin of the Australasian marsupial fauna and the phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic monito del monte and marsupial mole. Proc R Soc B 265:2381–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Springer MS, Krajewski C, Meredith RW (2009) Metatheria. In: Hedges SB, Kumar S (eds) The timetree of life. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 466–470Google Scholar
  378. Steffen W, Burbidge A, Hughes L, Kitching R, Lindenmayer D, Musgrave W, Smith MS, Werner PA (2010) Australia’s biodiversity and climate change. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  379. Stephenson AE (1986) Lake Bungunnia—a Plio-Pleistocene megalake in southern Australia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 57:137–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Stirton RA (1955) Late Tertiary marsupials from South Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 11:247–268Google Scholar
  381. Stirton RA (1957a) Tertiary marsupials from Victoria, Australia. Mem Natl Mus Victoria 21:121–134Google Scholar
  382. Stirton RA (1957b) A new koala from the Pliocene Palankarinna fauna of South Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 13:71–81Google Scholar
  383. Stirton R (1967a) The Diprotodontidae from the Ngapakaldi Fauna, South Australia. Bull Bureau Mineral Resour, Geol Geophys Aust 85:1–44Google Scholar
  384. Stirton R (1967b) A diprotodontid from the Miocene Kutjamarpu Fauna, South Australia. Bull Bureau Mineral Resour, Geol Geophys Aust 85:45–51Google Scholar
  385. Stirton RA (1967c) New species of Zygomaturus and additional observations on Meniscolophus, Pliocene Palankarinna Fauna, South Australia. Bull Bureau Mineral Resour, Geol Geophys 85:129–147Google Scholar
  386. Stirton RA, Tedford RH, Woodburn MO (1967) A new Tertiary formation and fauna from the Tirari Desert, South Australia. Rec South Aust Mus 15:427–462Google Scholar
  387. Strahan R (ed) (1995) The mammals of Australia. Reed Books, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  388. Szalay FS (1982) A new appraisal of marsupial phylogeny and classification. In: Archer M (ed) Carnivorous marsupials, vol 2. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney, pp 621–640Google Scholar
  389. Szalay F (1994) Evolutionary history of the marsupials and an analysis of osteological characters. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  390. Tate GHH (1951) The wombats (Marsupialia, Phascolomyidae). Am Mus Novitates 1521:1–18Google Scholar
  391. Tedford RH, Kemp NR (1998) Oligocene marsupials of the Geilston Bay Local Fauna, Tasmania. Am Mus Novitates 3244:1–22Google Scholar
  392. Tedford RH, Woodburne MO (1987) The Ilariidae, a new family of vombatiform marsupials from Miocene strata of South Australia and an evaluation of the homology of molar cusps in the Diprotodontia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 401–418Google Scholar
  393. Tedford RH, Banks MR, Kemp NR, McDougall I, Sutherland FL (1975) Recognition of the oldest known fossil marsupials from Australia. Nature 225:141–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Tedford RH, Wells R, Prideaux G (2006) Pliocene and earlier Pleistocene marsupial evolution in southeastern Australia. Alcheringa 30:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Travouillon KJ, Archer M, Hand SJ, Godthelp H (2006) Multivariate analyses of Cenozoic mammalian faunas from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa, Special Issue 1:323–349Google Scholar
  396. Travouillon KJ, Legendre S, Archer M, Hand SJ (2009) Palaeoecological analyses of Riversleigh’s Oligo-Miocene sites: implications for Oligo-Miocene climate change in Australia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 276:24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Turnbull WD, Lundelius EL Jr (1970) The Hamilton fauna. A late Pliocene mammalian fauna from the Grange Burn, Victoria, Australia. Fieldiana: Geology 19:1–163Google Scholar
  398. Turnbull WD, Rich TH, Lundelius EL Jr (1987) Burramyids (Marsupialia: Burramyidae) of the early Pliocene Hamilton Local Fauna, southwestern Victoria. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 729–739Google Scholar
  399. Turnbull WD, Lundelius EL Jr, Archer M (2003) Dasyurids, perameloids, phalangeroids, and vombatoids from the Early Pliocene Hamilton Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 279:513–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Turney CSM, Bird MI, Fifield LK, Roberts RG, Smith M, Dortch CE, Gr¨un R, Lawson E, Ayliffe LK, Miller GH, Dortch J, Cresswell RG (2001) Early human occupation at Devil’s Lair, southwestern Australia 50,000 years ago. Quaternary Res 55:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Turney C, Flannery TF, Roberts RG, Reid C, Fifield LK, Higham TFG, Jacobs Z, Kemp N, Colhoun EA, Kalin RM, Ogle N (2008) Late-surviving megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, implicate human involvement in their extinction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:12150–12153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Tyler MJ, Godthelp H (1993) A new species of Lechriodus Boulenger (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the early Eocene of Queensland. Trans R Soc South Aust 117:187–189Google Scholar
  403. Van Dyck S (1982) Antechinus puteus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), a new fossil species from the Texas Caves, southeastern Queensland. Aust Mammal 5:59–68Google Scholar
  404. Van Valen L (1969) Variation genetics of extinct animals. Am Nat 103:193–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Van Valkenburgh B, Wang X, Damuth J (2004) Cope’s Rule, hypercarnivory and extinction in North American canids. Science 306:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Vullo R, Gheerbrant E, de Muizon C, Néraudeau D (2009) The oldest modern therian mammal from Europe and its bearing on stem marsupial paleobiogeography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19910–19915Google Scholar
  407. Westerman M, Burk A, Amrine-Madsen HM, Prideaux GJ, Case JA, Springer MS (2002) Molecular evidence for the last survivor of an ancient kangaroo lineage. J Mamm Evol 9:209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Westerman M, Loke S, Springer MS (2004) Molecular phylogenetic relationships of two extinct potoroid marsupials, Potorous platyops and Caloprymnus campestris (Potoroinae: Marsupialia). Mol Phylogen Evol 31:476–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. White ME (2006) Environments of the geological past. In: Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickey GM, Lee MSY (eds) Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp 17–50Google Scholar
  410. White AW, Worthy TH, Hawkins S, Bedford S, Spriggs M (2010) Megafaunal meiolaniid horned turtles survived until early human settlement in Vanuatu, Southwest Pacific. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(35):15512–15516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Willis PMA, Molnar RE, Scanlon JD (1993) An early Eocene crocodylian from Murgon, southeastern Queensland. Kaupia Darmstädter Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte 3:25–32Google Scholar
  412. Woinarski JCZ, Armstrong M, Brennan K, Fisher A, Griffiths AD, Hill B, Milne DJ, Palmer C, Ward S, Watson M, Winderlich S, Young S (2010) Monitoring indicates rapid and severe decline of native small mammals in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. Wildlife Res 37:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Woodburne MO (1967) The Alcoota Fauna, central Australia. An integrated palaeontological and geological study. Bull Bureau Mineral Resour Geophys Aust Geol 87:1–187Google Scholar
  414. Woodburne M (1972) The Hamilton Fauna-A late Pliocene mammalian fauna from the Grange Burn, Victoria, Australia. J Paleontol 46:930Google Scholar
  415. Woodburne MO (1984) Wakiewakie lawsoni, a new genus and species of Potoroinae (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) of medial Miocene age, South Australia. J Paleontol 58:1062–1073Google Scholar
  416. Woodburne MO, Case JA (1996) Dispersal, vicariance, and the late Cretaceous to early Tertiary land mammal biogeography from South America to Australia. J Mamm Evol 3:121–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Woodburne MO, Clemens WA (1986) Revision of the Ektopodontidae (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Phalangeroidea) of the Australian Neogene. Univer California Pub Geol Sci v. 131. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  418. Woodburne MO, Tedford RH, Archer M, Turnbull WD, Plane MD, Lundelius EL Jr (1985) Biochronology of the continental mammal record of Australia and New Guinea. South Australian Dep Mines Energy, Spec Pub 5:347–364Google Scholar
  419. Woodburne MO, Tedford R, Archer M, Pledge N (1987a) Madakoala, a new genus and two species of Miocene koalas (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) from South Australia and a new species of Perikoala. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 293–317Google Scholar
  420. Woodburne MO, Pledge NS, Archer M (1987b) The Miralinidae, a new family and two new species of phalangeroid marsupials from Miocene strata of South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 581–602Google Scholar
  421. Woodburne MO, Tedford RH, Archer M (1987c) New Miocene ringtail possums (Marsupialia: Pseudocheiridae) from South Australia. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton, pp 639–679Google Scholar
  422. Woodburne MO, MacFadden BJ, Case JA, Springer MS, Springer KB (1993) Land mammal biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy of the Etadunna Formation (Late Oligocene) of South Australia. J Vertebrate Paleontol 13:483–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Woolnough AP, Steele VR (2001) The palaeoecology of the Vombatidae: did giant wombats burrrow? Mammal Rev 31:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Wroe S (1996a) An investigation of phylogeny in the giant extinct rat kangaroo Ekaltadeta (Propleopinae, Potoroidae, Marsupialia). J Paleontol 70:681–690Google Scholar
  425. Wroe S (1996b) Muribacinus gadiyuli (Thylacinidae; Marsupialia), a very plesiomorphic thylacinid from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, and the problem of paraphyly for the Dasyuridae (Marsupialia). J Paleontol 70:1032–1044Google Scholar
  426. Wroe S (1997a) Mayigriphus orbus gen. et sp. nov., a Miocene dasyuromorphian from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Mem Queensland Mus 41:439–448Google Scholar
  427. Wroe S (1997b) Stratigraphy and phylogeny of the giant extinct rat kangaroos (Propleopinae, Hypsiprymnodontidae, Marsupialia). Mem Queensland Mus 41:449–456Google Scholar
  428. Wroe S (1998) A new ‘bone-cracking’ dasyurid (Marsupialia), from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australas J Palaeontol 22:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Wroe S (1999) The geologically oldest dasyurid (Marsupialia), from the Miocene Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland. Palaeontology 42:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Wroe S (2001) Maximucinus muirheadae, gen. et sp. nov. (Thylacinidiae, Marsupialia), from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, with estimates of body weights for fossil thylacinids. Aust J Zool 49:603–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Wroe S, Archer M (1995) Extraordinary diphyodonty-related change in dental function for a tooth of the extinct marsupial Ekaltadeta ima (Propleopinae, Hypsiprymnodontidae). Archs oral Biol 40:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Wroe S, Archer M (2006) Origins and early radiations of marsupials. In: Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickey GM, Lee MSY (eds) Evolution and biogeography of Australasian vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp 551–574Google Scholar
  433. Wroe S, Field J (2006) A review of the evidence for a human role in the extinction of Australian megafauna and an alternative interpretation. Quaternary Sci Rev 25:2692–2703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Wroe S, Mackness BS (1998) Revision of the Pliocene dasyurid Dasyurus dunmalli (Dasyuridae, Marsupialia). Mem Queensland Mus 42:605–612Google Scholar
  435. Wroe S, Mackness B (2000) A new genus and species of dasyurid from the Pliocene Chinchilla Local Fauna of south-eastern Queensland. Alcheringa: An Australasian J Palaeontol 24:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Wroe S, Muirhead J (1999) Evolution of Australia’s marsupicarnivores: Dasyuridae, Thylacinidae, Myrmecobiidae, Dasyuromorphia incertae sedis and Marsupialia incertae sedis. Aust Mammal 21:10–11, 34–45Google Scholar
  437. Wroe S, Musser A (2001) The skull of Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae: Marsupialia). Aust J Zool 49:487–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Wroe S, Brammall JR, Cooke BN (1998) The skull of Ekaltadeta ima (Marsupialia, Hypsiprymnodontidae?): and analysis of some marsupial cranial features and a re-investigation of propleopine phylogeny, with notes on the inference of carnivory in mammals. J Paleontol 72:738–751Google Scholar
  439. Wroe S, Crowther M, Dortch J, Chong J (2004) The size of the largest marsupial and why it matters. Proc R Soc London B 271:S34–S36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Wroe S, Ebach M, Ahyong S, Muizon C, Muirhead J (2000) Cladistic analysis of dasyuromorphians (Marsupialia) phylogeny using cranial and dental characters. J Mammal 81:1008–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Wroe S, Myers TJ, Seebacher F, Kear B, Gillespie A, Crowther M, Salisbury S (2003) An alternative method for predicting body mass: the case of the Pleistocene marsupial lion. Paleobiology 29:404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292:686–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Zheng H, Wyrwoll K-H, Li Z, Powell C McA (1998) Onset of aridity in southern Western Australia—a preliminary appraisal. Global Planet Change 18:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Zheng H, Powell CMcA, Zhao H (2002) Eolian and lacustrine evidence of late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes in southwestern Australia. Global Planet Change 35:75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen H. Black
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Archer
    • 2
  • Suzanne J. Hand
    • 3
  • Henk Godthelp
    • 3
  1. 1.Evolution of Earth and Life Sciences Research Group, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations