Experimental and Computational Investigation of Viscoelasticity of Native and Engineered Ligament and Tendon

  • J. Ma
  • H. Narayanan
  • K. Garikipati
  • K. Grosh
  • E. M. ArrudaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the IUTAM Bookseries book series (IUTAMBOOK, volume 16)


The important mechanisms by which soft collagenous tissues such as ligament and tendon respond to mechanical deformation include non-linear elasticity, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. These contributions to the mechanical response are modulated by the content and morphology of structural proteins such as type I collagen and elastin, other molecules such as glycosaminoglycans, and fluid. Our ligament and tendon constructs, engineered from either primary cells or bone marrow stromal cells and their autogenous matricies, exhibit histological and mechanical characteristics of native tissues of different levels of maturity. In order to establish whether the constructs have optimal mechanical function for implantation and utility for regenerative medicine, constitutive relationships for the constructs and native tissues at different developmental levels must be established. A micromechanical model incorporating viscoelastic collagen and non-linear elastic elastin is used to describe the non-linear viscoelastic response of our homogeneous engineered constructs in vitro. This model is incorporated within a finite element framework to examine the heterogeneity of the mechanical responses of native ligament and tendon.


Tibialis Anterior Medial Collateral Ligament Native Tissue Micromechanical Model Persistence Length 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Ma
    • 1
  • H. Narayanan
    • 1
  • K. Garikipati
    • 1
  • K. Grosh
    • 1
  • E. M. Arruda
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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