Effects of Disturbance, Succession and Management on Carbon Sequestration

  • Klaus LorenzEmail author
  • Rattan Lal


The C dynamics in forests depends on the natural processes and perturbations by ACC (see Chapter 2). In primary forests (i.e., forests of native species without clear indications of human activity and no significant disturbance of ecological processes) natural C sequestration processes are in effect (FAO 2006a). The primary forests occupy about one-third of the global forest area (Table 3.1). To fully account for the C sequestration potential of forests, however, the temporal changes in forest structure and function at the stand and landscape level, and their effects on the net primary productivity (NPP) and the net ecosystem C balance (NECB) must be assessed. Forest dynamics are one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate (Purves and Pacala 2008). Specifically, models of ACC effects do not incorporate episodic disturbances such as fires and insect epidemics (Running 2008). The annual C storage in forests depends, in particular, on disturbances, forest succession, and climate variation (Gough et al. 2008). Disturbance is any factor that significantly reduces the overstory leaf area index (LAI) for more than one year or an event that makes growing space available for surviving trees (Oliver and Larson 1996; Waring and Running 2007). The long-term net C flux from forests depends on changes in the rates of disturbance (Goward et al. 2008). High frequency of disturbances, for example, results in low wood biomass accumulation (Potter et al. 2008).


Forest Ecosystem Forest Management Forest Floor Forest Stand Bark Beetle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Amichev BY, Burger JA, Rodrigue JA (2008) Carbon sequestration by forests and soils on mined land in the Midwestern and Appalachian coalfields of the U.S. For Ecol Manag 246:1959–1969Google Scholar
  2. Andersson FO, Ågren GI, Führer E (2000) Sustainable tree biomass production. For Ecol Manag 132:51–62Google Scholar
  3. Andreae MO (2004) Assessment of global emissions from vegetation fires. Int For Fire News 31:112–121Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2008) Turning blight into bloom. Nature 455:137Google Scholar
  5. Apps MJ, Bernier P, Bhatti JS (2006) Forests in the global carbon cycle: implications of climate change. In: Bhatti JS, Lal R, Apps MJ, Price MA (eds) Climate change and managed ecosystems. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, pp 175–200Google Scholar
  6. Bauhus J, Puettmann K, Messier C (2009) Silviculture for old-growth attributes. For Ecol Manag 258:525–537Google Scholar
  7. Bebi P, Kulakowski D, Rixen C (2009) Snow avalanche disturbances in forest ecosystems-state of research and implications for management. For Ecol Manag 257:1883–1892Google Scholar
  8. Beedlow PA, Tingey DT, Phillips DL, Hogsett WE, Olszyk DM (2004) Rising atmospheric CO2 and carbon sequestration in forests. Front Ecol Environ 2:315–322Google Scholar
  9. Beilman DW, MacDonald GM, Smith LC, Reimer PJ (2009) Carbon accumulation in peatlands of West Siberia over the last 2000 years. Global Biogeochem Cy 23, GB1012, doi:10.1029/2007GB003112Google Scholar
  10. Bell LC (2001) Establishment of native ecosystems after mining – Australian experience across diverse biogeographic zones. Ecol Eng 17:179–186Google Scholar
  11. Belyea LR, Malmer N (2004) Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change. Glob Change Biol 10:1043–1052Google Scholar
  12. Bernier P, Schoene D (2009) Adapting forests and their management to climate change: an overview. Unasylva 60:5–11Google Scholar
  13. Binkley CS, Apps MJ, Dixon RK, Kauppi PE, Nilsson LO (1997) Sequestering carbon in natural forests. Crit Rev Environ Sci Tech 27:S23–S45Google Scholar
  14. Birdsey RA, Jenkins JC, Johnston M, Huber-Sanwald E (2007) Principles of forest management for enhancing carbon sequestration. In: King AW, Dilling L, Zimmerman GP, Fairman DM, Houghton RA, Marland G, Rose AZ, Wilbanks TJ (eds) The first state of the carbon cycle report (SOCCR) – the North American carbon budget and implications for the global carbon cycle. Global Change Research Information Office, Washington, DC, pp 175–176Google Scholar
  15. Boerner REJ, Huang J, Hart SC (2008) Fire, thinning, and the carbon economy: effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments on estimated carbon storage and sequestration rate. For Ecol Manag 255:3081–3097Google Scholar
  16. Boerner REJ, Huang J, Hart SC (2009) Impacts of fire and fire surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach. Ecol Appl 19:338–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolin B, Sukumar R, Ciais P, Cramer W, Jarvis P, Kheshgi H, Nobre C, Semenov S, Steffen W (2000) Global perspective. In: Watson RT, Noble IR, Bolin B, Ravindranath NH, Verardo DJ, Dokken DJ (eds) Land use, land-use change, and forestry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 23–52Google Scholar
  18. Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bond TC, Streets DG, Yarber KF, Nelson SM, Woo J-H, Klimont Z (2004) A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J Geophys Res 109:D14203. doi: 10.1029/2003JD003697 Google Scholar
  20. Bormann BT, Homann PS, Darbyshire RL, Morrissette BA (2008) Intense forest wildfire sharply reduces mineral soil C and N: the first direct evidence. Can J For Res 38:2771–2783Google Scholar
  21. Bouget C, Duelli P (2004) The effects of wind-throw on forest insect communities: a literature review. Biol Conserv 118:281–299Google Scholar
  22. Bowman DMJS, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CMD, DeFries R, Doyle JC, Harrison SP, Johnston FH, Keeley JE, Krawchuk MA, Kull CA, Marston JB, Moritz MA, Prentice IC, Roos CI, Scott AC, Swetnam TW, van Der Werf GR, Pyne SP (2009) Fire in the Earth system. Science 324:481–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradshaw A (2000) The use of natural processes in reclamation – advantages and difficulties. Landscape Urban Plan 51:89–100Google Scholar
  24. Bragg DC, Shelton MG, Zeide B (2003) Impacts and management implications of ice storms on forests in the southern United States. For Ecol Manag 186:99–123Google Scholar
  25. Brando PM, Nepstad DC, Davidson EA, Trumbore SE, Ray D, Camargo P (2008) Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: results of a throughfall reduction experiment. Phil Trans R Soc B 363:1839–1848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bravo F, del Río M, Bravo-Oviedo A, Del Peso C, Montero G (2008a) Forest management strategies and carbon sequestration. In: Bravo F, LeMay V, Jandl G, von Gadow K (eds) Managing forest ecosystems: the challenge of climate change. Springer, New York, pp 179–194Google Scholar
  27. Bravo F, Jandl R, Gadow KV, LeMay V (2008b) Introduction. In: Bravo F, LeMay V, Jandl R, von Gadow (eds) Managing forest ecosystems: the challenge of climate change. Springer, New York, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  28. Bréda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E (2006) Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Ann For Sci 63:625–644Google Scholar
  29. Bridgham SD (2007) Wetlands. In: King W, Dilling L, Zimmermann GP, Fairman DM, Houghton RA, Marland G, Rose AZ, Wilbanks TJ (eds) The first state of the carbon cycle report. U.S. Climate change science program, Washington, DC, pp 139–148Google Scholar
  30. Bridgham SD, Megonigal JP, Keller JK, Bliss NB, Trettin C (2006) The carbon balance of North American wetlands. Wetlands 26:889–916Google Scholar
  31. Brown LR (2001) Eco-economy: building an economy for the earth. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Busse MD, Sanchez FG, Ratcliff AW, Butnor JR, Carter EA, Powers RF (2009) Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues. Soil Biol Biochem 41:220–227Google Scholar
  33. Canadell JG, Raupach MR (2008) Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320:1456–1457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cannell MGR (1999) Environmental impacts of forest monocultures: water use, acidification, wildlife conservation, and carbon storage. New Forest 17:239–262Google Scholar
  35. Carey EV, Sala A, Keane R, Callaway RM (2001) Are old forests underestimated as global carbon sinks? Glob Change Biol 7:339–344Google Scholar
  36. Chambers JQ, Fisher JI, Zeng H, Chapman EL, Baker DB, Hurtt GC (2007) Hurricane Katrina’s carbon footprint on U.S. gulf coast forests. Science 318:1107Google Scholar
  37. Chapin FS III, Matson PA, Mooney HA (2002) Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Chapin FS III, Woodwell GM, Randerson JT, Rastetter EB, Lovett GM, Baldocchi DD, Clark DA, Harmon ME, Schimel DS, Valentini R, Wirth C, Aber JD, Cole JJ, Goulden ML, Harden JW, Heimann M, Howarth RW, Matson PA, McGuire AD, Melillo JM, Mooney HA, Neff JC, Houghton RA, Pace ML, Ryan MG, Running SW, Sala OE, Schlesinger WH, Schulze E-D (2006) Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems 9:1041–1050Google Scholar
  39. Cheng C-H, Lehmann J (2009) Ageing of black carbon along a temperature gradient. Chemosphere 75:1021–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Churkina G, Brown D, Keoleian G (2009) Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous US. Glob Change Biol (in press), doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02002.xGoogle Scholar
  41. Ciais P, Borges AV, Abril G, Meybeck M, Folberth G, Hauglustaine D, Janssens IA (2008a) The impact of lateral carbon fluxes on the European carbon balance. Biogeosciences 5:1259–1271Google Scholar
  42. Ciais P, Schelhaas M-J, Zaehle S, Piao SL, Cescatti A, Liski J, Luyssaert S, Le Maire G, Schulze E-D, Bouriaud O, Freibauer A, Valentini R, Nabuurs G-J (2008b) Carbon accumulation in European forests. Nat Geosci 1:425–429Google Scholar
  43. Ciccarese L, Brown S, Schlamadinger B (2005). Carbon sequestration through restoration of temperate and boreal forests. In: Stanturf JA, Madsen P (eds) Restoration of boreal and temperate forests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 111–120Google Scholar
  44. Czimczik CI, Masiello CA (2007) Controls on black carbon storage in soils. Global Biogeochem Cy 21, GB3005, doi:10.1029/2006GB002798Google Scholar
  45. Danielsen F, Beukema H, Burgess ND, Parish F, Brühl CA, Donald PF, Murdiyarso D, Phalan B, Reijnders L, Struebig M, Fitzherbert EB (2009) Biofuel plantations on forested lands: double jeopardy for biodiversity and climate. Conserv Biol 23:348–358Google Scholar
  46. DeFries R, Field C, Fung I, Collatz GJ, Bounoua L (1999) Combined satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity. Global Biogeochem Cy 13:803–815Google Scholar
  47. Diffenbaugh NS, Trapp RJ (2008) Does global warming influence tornado activity? EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 89:553–554Google Scholar
  48. Diochon AC, Kellman L (2009) Physical fractionation of soil organic matter: destabilization of deep soil carbon following harvesting of a temperate coniferous forest. J Geophys Res 114:G01016. doi: 10.1029/2008JG000844 Google Scholar
  49. Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J (1994) Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263:185–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dodman D (2009) Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emission inventories. Environ Urban 21:185–201Google Scholar
  51. Doney SC, Schimel DS (2007) Carbon and climate system coupling on timescales from the Precambrian to the Anthropocene. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:14.1–14.36Google Scholar
  52. Duryea ML, Vince SW (2005) Introduction: the city is moving to our frontier’s doorstep. In: Vince SW, Duryea ML, Macie EA, Hermansen LA (eds) Forests at the wildland-urban interface: conservation and management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  53. Eriksson E, Gillespie AR, Gustavsson L, Langvall O, Olsson M, Sathre R, Stendahl J (2007) Integrated carbon analysis of forest management practices and wood substitution. Can J For Res 37:671–681Google Scholar
  54. Euskirchen ES, Chen J, Li H, Gustafson EJ, Crow TR (2002) Modeling landscape net ecosystem productivity (LandNEP) under alternative management regimes. Ecol Model 154:75–91Google Scholar
  55. Fahey TJ, Siccama TG, Driscoll CT, Likens GE, Campbell J, Johnson CE, Battles JJ, Aber JD, Cole JJ, Fisk MC, Groffman PM, Hamburg SP, Holmes RT, Schwarz PA, Yanai RD (2005) The biogeochemistry of carbon at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 75:109–176Google Scholar
  56. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2001) Global forest resources assessment 2000-main report. FAO Forestry paper 140. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  57. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2006a) Global forest resources assessment 2005. Progress towards sustainable forest management. FAO Forestry paper 147. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  58. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2006b) Global planted forests thematic study: results and analysis. Planted forests and trees working paper 38. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  59. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2007a) Fire management – global assessment 2006. FAO Forestry paper 151. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  60. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2007b) State of the world’s forests 2007. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  61. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) (2009) Global review of forest pests and diseases. FAO Forestry paper 156. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  62. Faulkner S (2004) Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands. Urban Ecosyst 7:89–106Google Scholar
  63. Fellows AW, Goulden ML (2008) Has fire suppression increased the amount of carbon stored in western U.S. forests? Geophys Res Lett 35, L12404, doi:10.1029/2008GL033965Google Scholar
  64. Field CB, Lobell DB, Peters HA, Chiariello NR (2007) Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Annu Rev Environ Resour 32:7.1–7.29Google Scholar
  65. Fisher JI, Hurtt GC, Thomas RQ, Chambers JQ (2008) Clustered disturbances lead to bias in large-scale estimates based on forest sample plots. Ecol Lett 11:554–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Galik CS, Jackson RB (2009) Risks to forest carbon offset projects in a changing climate. For Ecol Manage 257:2209–2216Google Scholar
  67. García-Quijano JF, Deckmyn G, Ceulemans R, van Orshoven J, Muys B (2008) Scaling from stand to landscape scale of climate change mitigation by afforestation and forest management: a modeling approach. Clim Change 86:397–424Google Scholar
  68. Gleixner G, Kramer C, Hahn V, Sachse D (2005) The effect of biodiversity on carbon storage in soils. In: Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner C, Schulze E-D (eds) Forest diversity and function. Ecological studies, Vol. 176. Springer, Berlin, pp 165–183Google Scholar
  69. Goetz SJ, Jantz CA, Prince SD, Smith AJ, Wright R, Varlyguin D (2004) Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use change: the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In: De Fries RS, Asner GP, Houghton RA (eds) Ecosystems and land use change. Geophysical Monograph Series. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 263–275Google Scholar
  70. Gough CM, Vogel CS, Schmid HP, Curtis PS (2008) Controls on annual forest carbon storage: lessons from the past and predictions for the future. BioScience 58:609–622Google Scholar
  71. Goward SN, Masek JG, Cohen W, Moisen G, Collatz GJ, Healy S, Houghton RA, Huang C, Kennedy R, Law B, Powell S, Turner D, Wulder MA (2008) Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 89:105–106Google Scholar
  72. Gower ST, Krankina O, Olson RJ, Apps M, Linder S, Wang C (2001) Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystems. Ecol Appl 11:1395–1411Google Scholar
  73. Griffiths H, Jarvis PG (2005) The carbon balance of forest biomes. Taylor & Francis, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  74. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Harmon ME (2001) Carbon sequestration in forests. J For 99:24–29Google Scholar
  76. Harris JA, Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Aronson J (2006) Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restor Ecol 14:170–176Google Scholar
  77. Heisler GM (1986) Energy savings with trees. J Arboricult 12:113–125Google Scholar
  78. Helms JA (ed) (1998) The dictionary of forestry. Society of American Forestry, Bethesda, MDGoogle Scholar
  79. Hennigar CR, MacLean DA, Amos-Binks LJ (2008) A novel approach to optimize management strategies for carbon stored in both forests and wood products. For Ecol Manag 256:786–797Google Scholar
  80. Hirano T, Jauhiainen J, Inoue T, Takahashi H (2009) Controls on the carbon balance of tropical peatlands. Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s10021-008-9209-1Google Scholar
  81. Hoenicka H, Fladung M (2006) Biosafety in Populus spp. and other forest trees: from non-native species to taxa derived from traditional breeding and genetic engineering. Trees 20:131–144Google Scholar
  82. Holl KD (2002) Long-term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. J Appl Ecol 39:960–970Google Scholar
  83. Houghton RA, Hackler JL, Lawrence KT (1999) The U.S. carbon budget: contributions from land use change. Science 295:574–578Google Scholar
  84. Hudiburg T, Law B, Turner DP, Campbell J, Donato D, Duane M (2009) Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecol Appl 19:163–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hungate BA, Naiman RJ, Apps M, Cole JJ, Moldan B, Satake K, Stewart JWB, Victoria R, Vitousek PM (2003) Disturbance and element interactions. In: Melillo JM, Field CB, Moldan B (eds) Interactions of the major biogeochemical cy: global change and human impacts. Island Press Washington, DC, pp 47–62Google Scholar
  86. Huq S, Kovats S, Reid H, Satterthwaite D (2007) Editorial: reducing risks to cities from disasters and climate change. Environ Urban 19:3–15Google Scholar
  87. Hurteau MD, Koch GW, Hungate BA (2008) Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets. Front Ecol Environ 6:493–498Google Scholar
  88. Hyvönen R, Ågren GI, Linder S, Persson T, Cotrufo MF, Ekblad A, Freeman M, Grelle A, Janssens IA, Jarvis PG, Kellomäki S, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Lundmark T, Norby RJ, Oren R, Pilegaard K, Ryan MG, Sigurdsson BD, Strömgren M, Oijen M, Wallin G (2007) The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems: a literature review. New Phytol 173:463–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Imhoff ML, Bounoua L, DeFries R, Lawrence WT, Stutzer D, Tucker CJ, Ricketts T (2004) The consequences of urban land transformation on net primary productivity in the United States. Remote Sens Environ 89:434–443Google Scholar
  90. Ingerson A, Loya W (2008) Measuring forest carbon: strengths and weaknesses of available tools. Science and policy brief. The Wilderness Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  91. Irland LC (2000) Ice storms and forest impacts. Sci Total Environ 262:231–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ise T, Dunn AL, Wofsy SC, Moorcroft PR (2008) High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water-table feedback. Nat Geosci 1:763–766Google Scholar
  93. Jackson RB, Randerson JT, Canadell JG, Anderson RG, Avissar R, Baldocchi DD, Bonan GB, Caldeira K, Diffenbaugh NS, Field CB, Hungate BA, Jobbágy EG, Kueppers LM, Nosetto MD, Pataki DE (2008) Protecting climate with forests. Environ Res Lett 3:044006Google Scholar
  94. Jaenicke J, Rieley JO, Mott C, Kimman P, Siegert F (2008) Determination of the amount of carbon stored in Indonesian peatlands. Geoderma 147:151–158Google Scholar
  95. Jandl R, Lindner M, Vesterdahl L, Bauwens B, Baritz R, Hagedorn F, Johnson DW, Minkkinen K, Byrne KA (2007a) How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration? Geoderma 137:253–268Google Scholar
  96. Jandl R, Vesterdal L, Olsson M, Bens O, Badeck F, Rock J (2007b) Carbon sequestration and forest management. CAB Rev Perspect Agr Vet Sci Nutr Nat Res,doi: 10.1079/PAVSNNR20072017 Google Scholar
  97. Janisch JE, Harmon ME (2002) Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity. Tree Physiol 22:77–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Jarvis PG, Ibrom A, Linder S (2005) ‘Carbon forestry’: managing forests to conserve carbon. In: Griffiths H, Jarvis PG (eds) The carbon balance of forest biomes. Taylor & Francis, Oxon, UK, pp 331–349Google Scholar
  99. Jarvis PG, Linder S (2007) Forests remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere: spruce forest tales! In: Freer-Smith PH, Broadmeadow MSJ, Lynch JM (eds) Forestry and climate change. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 60–72Google Scholar
  100. Johnson DW, Curtis PS (2001) Effects of forest management on soil C and N storage: meta analysis. For Ecol Manag 140:227–238Google Scholar
  101. Johnson EA, Miyanishi K (2008) Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecol Lett 11:419–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jose S, Williams R, Zamora D (2006) Belowground ecological interactions in mixed-species forest plantations. For Ecol Manag 233:231–239Google Scholar
  103. Kashian DM, Romme WH, Tinker DB, Turner MG, Ryan MG (2006) Carbon storage on landscapes with stand-replacing fires. BioScience 56:598–606Google Scholar
  104. Keddy PA, Fraser LH, Solomeshch AI, Junk WJ, Campbell DR, Arroyo MTK, Alho CJR (2009) Wet and wonderful: the world’s largest wetlands are conservation priorities. BioScience 59:39–51Google Scholar
  105. Kimmins JP (2004) Forest ecology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  106. Kirilenko AP, Sedjo RA (2007) Climate change impacts on forestry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19697–19702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Knicker H (2007) How does fire affect the nature and stability of soil organic nitrogen and carbon? A review. Biogeochemistry 85:91–118Google Scholar
  108. Knoke T, Ammer C, Stimm B, Mosandl R (2008) Admixing broadleaved to coniferous tree species: a review on yield, ecological stability and economics. Eur J For Res 127:89–101Google Scholar
  109. Koch JM, Hobbs RJ (2007) Synthesis: is Alcoa successfully restoring a jarrah forest ecosystem after bauxite mining in Western Australia? Restor Ecol 15:S137–S144Google Scholar
  110. Körner C (2006) Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply. New Phytol 172:393–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kowalski AS, Loustau D, Berbigier P, Manca G, Tedeschi V, Borghetti M, Valentini R, Kolari P, Berninger F, Rannik Ü, Hari P, Rayment M, Mencuccini M, Moncrieff J, Grace J (2004) Paired comparisons of carbon exchange between undisturbed and regenerating stands in four managed forests in Europe. Glob Change Biol 10:1707–1723Google Scholar
  112. Krankina ON, Harmon ME (2006) Forest management strategies for carbon storage. In: Matrazzo D (ed) Forests, carbon and climate change – a synthesis of science findings. Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, OR, pp 79–91Google Scholar
  113. Krawchuk MA, Moritz MA, Parisien M-A, Van Dorn J, Hayhoe K (2009) Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire. PloS ONE 4(4):e5102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005102 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kurz WA, Dymond CC, Stinson G, Rampley GJ, Neilson ET, Carroll AL, Ebata T, Safranyik L (2008a) Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452: 987–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kurz WA, Stinson G, Rampley GJ, Dymond CC, Neilson ET (2008b) Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada’s forest to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1551–1555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lähteenoja O, Ruokolainen K, Schulman L, Oinonen M (2009) Amazonian peatlands: an ignored C sink and potential source. Glob Change Biol 15:2311–2320Google Scholar
  117. Laine J, Laiho R, Minkkinen K, Vasander H (2006) Forestry and boreal peatlands. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.331–357Google Scholar
  118. Lal R (2005) Forest soils and carbon sequestration. For Ecol Manag 220:242–258Google Scholar
  119. Lal R, Kimble JM, Birdsey RA, Heath LS (2003). Research and development priorities for carbon sequestration in forest soils. In: Kimble JM, Heath LS, Birdsey RA, Lal R (eds) The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 409–420Google Scholar
  120. Lal R, Sobecki TM, Jivari T, Kimble JM (2004) Soil degradation by mining and other disturbance. In: Lal R, Sobecki TM, Jivari T, Kimble JM (eds) Soil degradation in the United States – extent, severity, and trends. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 163–171Google Scholar
  121. Landsberg JJ, Gower ST (1997) Applications of physiological ecology to forest management. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  122. Larjavaara M (2008) A review on benefits and disadvantages of tree diversity. Open For Sci J 1:24–26Google Scholar
  123. Lehmann J, Sohi S (2008) Comment on “fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus”. Science 321:1295cGoogle Scholar
  124. Lewis SL, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Sonké B, Affum-Baffoe K, Baker TR, Ojo LO, Phillips OL, Reitsma JM, White L, Comiskey JA, M-N DK, Ewango CEN, Feldpausch TR, Hamilton AC, Gloor M, Hart T, Hladik A, Lloyd J, Lovett JC, Makana J-R, Malhi Y, Mbago FM, Ndangalasi HJ, Peacock J, S-H PK, Sheil D, Sunderland T, Swaine MD, Taplin J, Taylor D, Thomas SC, Votere R, Wöll H (2009) Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests. Nature 457:1003–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Limpens J, Berendse F, Blodau C, Canadell JG, Freeman C, Holden J, Roulet N, Rydin H, Schaepman-Strub G (2008) Peatlands and the carbon cycle: from local processes to global implications – a synthesis. Biogeosciences 5:1475–1491Google Scholar
  126. Lindroth A, Grelle A, Morén AS (1998) Long-term measurements of boreal forest carbon balance reveal large temperature sensitivity. Glob Change Biol 4:443–450Google Scholar
  127. Lindroth A, Lagergren F, Grelle A, Klemedtsson L, Langvall O, Weslien P, Tuulik J (2009) Storms can cause Europe-wide reduction in forest carbon sink. Glob Change Biol 15:346–355Google Scholar
  128. Liski J, Pussinen A, Pingoud K, Mäkipää R, Karjalainen T (2001) Which rotation length is favourable to carbon sequestration? Can J For Res 31:2004–2013Google Scholar
  129. Litton CM, Raich JW, Ryan MG (2007) Review: carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. Glob Change Biol 13:2089–2109Google Scholar
  130. Long AJ, Nair PKR (1999) Trees outside forests: agro-, community-, and urban forestry. New Forest 17:145–174Google Scholar
  131. Lorenz K, Lal R (2007) Stabilization of organic carbon in chemically separated pools in reclaimed coal mine soils in Ohio. Geoderma 141:294–301Google Scholar
  132. Lorenz K, Lal R (2009) Biogeochemical C and N cy in urban soils. Environ Int 35:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lottermoser BG (2007) Mine wastes: characterization, treatment and environmental impacts. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  134. Loveland TR, Reed BC, Brown JF, Ohlen DO, Zhu Z, Yang L, Merchant J (2000) Global land cover characteristics database (GLCCD) version 2.0. , accessed August 25, 2009
  135. Lubowski RN, Vesterby M, Bucholtz S, Baez A, Roberts MJ (2006) Major uses of land in the United States, 2002. Economic information bulletin no. 14. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
  136. Luyssaert S, Inglima I, Jung M, Richardson AD, Reichstein M, Papale D, Piao SL, Schulze E-D, Wingate L, Matteucci G, Aragao L, Aubinet M, Beer C, Bernhofer C, Black KG, Bonal D, Bonnefond J-M, Chambers J, Ciais P, Cook B, Davis KJ, Dolman AJ, Gielen B, Goulden M, Grace J, Granier A, Grelle A, Griffis T, Grünwald T, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Harding R, Hollinger DY, Hutyra LR, Kolari P, Kruijt B, Kutsch W, Lagergren F, Laurila T, Law BE, Le Maire G, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Malhi Y, Mateus J, Migliavacca M, Misson L, Montagnani L, Moncrieff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Nikinmaa E, Ollinger SV, Pita G, Rebmann C, Roupsard O, Saigusa N, Sanz MJ, Seufert G, Sierra C, Smith M-L, Tang J, Valentini R, Vesala T, Janssens IA (2007) The CO2-balance of boreal, temperate and tropical forests derived from a global database Glob Change Biol 13:2509–2537Google Scholar
  137. Luyssaert S, Schulze E-D, Börner A, Knohl A, Hessenmöller D, Law BE, Ciais P, Grace J (2008) Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455:213–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. MacFarlane DW (2009) Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A. Biomass Bioenerg 33:628–634Google Scholar
  139. Magnani F, Dewar RC, Borghetti M (2009) Leakage and spillover effects of forest management on carbon storage: theoretical insights from a simple model. Tellus 61B:385–393Google Scholar
  140. Magnani F, Mencuccini M, Borghetti M, Berbigier P, Berninger F, Delzon S, Grelle A, Hari P, Jarvis PG, Kolari P, Kowalski AS, Lankreijer H, Law BE, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Manca G, Moncrieff JB, Rayment M, Tedeschi V, Valentini R, Grace J (2007) The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature 447:848–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Maguire DA, Osawa A, Batista JLF (2005) Primary production, yield and carbon dynamics. In: Andersson F (ed) Ecosystems of the world 6. Coniferous forests. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 339–383Google Scholar
  142. Markewitz D (2006) Fossil fuel carbon emissions from silviculture: impacts on net carbon sequestration in forests. For Ecol Manag 236:153–161Google Scholar
  143. Martin PH, Nabuurs G-J, Aubinet M, Karjalainen T, Vine EL, Kinsman J, Heath LS (2001) Carbon sinks in temperate forests. Annu Rev Energy Environ 26:435–465Google Scholar
  144. McCarthy HR, Oren R, Kim H-S, Johnsen KH, Maier C, Pritchard SG, Davis MA (2006) Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2 atmosphere. J Geophys Res 111:D15103. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006428 Google Scholar
  145. McHale MR, Burke IC, Lefsky MA, Peper PJ, McPherson EG (2009) Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees? Urban Ecosyst 12:95–113Google Scholar
  146. McIver J, Youngblood A, Stephens SL (2009) The national fire and fire surrogate study: ecological consequences of fuel reduction methods in seasonally dry forests. Ecol Appl 19:283–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mead DJ (2005) Forests for energy and the role of planted trees. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:407–421Google Scholar
  148. Miner R, Perez-Garcia J (2007) The greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the global forest products industry. Forest Prod J 57:80–90Google Scholar
  149. Miranda M, Burris P, Bincang JF, Shearman P, Briones JO, La Viña A, Menard A (2003) Mining and critical ecosystems : mapping the risks. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  150. Moore PD (2002) The future of cool temperate bogs. Environ Conserv 29:3–20Google Scholar
  151. Muller-Landau HC (2009) Sink in the African jungle. Nature 457:969–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mund M, Schulze E-D (2005) Silviculture and its interaction with biodiversity and the carbon balance of forest soils. In: Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner C, Schulze E-D (eds) Forest diversity and function. Ecological studies, Vol. 176. Springer, Berlin, pp 185–210Google Scholar
  153. Nabuurs GJ, Masera O, Andrasko K, Benitez-Ponce P, Boer R, Dutschke M, Elsiddig E, Ford-Robertson J, Frumhoff P, Karjalainen T, Krankina O, Kurz WA, Matsumoto M, Oyhantcabal W, Ravindranath NH, Sanz Sanchez MJ, Zhang X (2007): Forestry. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, NY, pp 541–584Google Scholar
  154. Nabuurs G-J, Thürig E, Heidema N, Armolaitis K, Biber P, Cienciala E, Kaufmann E, Mäkipää R, Nilsen P, Petritsch R, Pristova T, Rock J, Schelhaas M-J, Sievanen R, Somogyi Z, Vallet P (2008) Hotspots of the European forests carbon cycle. For Ecol Manag 256:194–200Google Scholar
  155. Nelson BW, Kapos V, Adams JB, Oliveira WJ, Braun OPG, do Amaral IL (1994) Forest disturbance by large scale blowdowns in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecology 75:853–885Google Scholar
  156. Nepstad DC, Tohver IM, Ray D, Moutinho P, Cardinot G (2007) Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest. Ecology 88:2259–2269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Neuzil SG (1997) Onset and rate of peat and carbon accumulation in four domed ombrogenous peat deposits, Indonesia. In: Rieley JO, Page SE (eds) Biodiversity and sustainability of tropical peatlands. Samara Publishing, Cardigan, UK, pp 55–72Google Scholar
  158. Nichols JD, Bristow M, Vanclay JK (2006) Mixed-species plantations: prospects and challenges. For Ecol Manag 233:383–390Google Scholar
  159. Nowak DJ, Crane DE (2002) Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environ Pollut 116:381–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Nowak DJ, Noble MH, Sisinni SM, Dwyer JF (2001) Assessing the U.S. urban forest resource. J For 99:37–42Google Scholar
  161. Nowak DJ, Walton JT (2005) Projected urban growth (2000–2050) and its estimated impact on the US forest resource. J For 103:383–389Google Scholar
  162. Nowak DJ, Walton JT, Dwyer JF, Kaya LG, Myeong S (2005) The increasing influence of urban environments on US forest management. J For 103:377–382Google Scholar
  163. Nyland RD (2002) Silviculture: concepts and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  164. Oliver CD, Larson BC (1996) Forest stand dynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  165. Overby ST, Hart SC, Neary DG (2003) Impacts of natural disturbance on soil carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems. In: Kimble JM, Heath LS, Birdsey RA, Lal R (eds) The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and to mitigate the greenhouse effect. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 159–172Google Scholar
  166. Page SE (2004) The natural resource functions of tropical peatlands. In: Mansor M, Ali A, Rieley J, Ahmad AH, Mansor A (eds) Tropical peat swamps-safe-guarding a global natural resource. Proceedings of the international conference and workshop on tropical peat swamps. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, pp 153–161Google Scholar
  167. Page SE, Banks C (2007) Tropical peatlands: distribution, extent and carbon storage – uncertainties and knowledge gaps. Peatlands Int 2:26–27Google Scholar
  168. Page SE, Siegert F, Rieley JO, Boehm H-D V, Jaya A, Limin S (2002) The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420:61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Papiez MR, Potosnak MJ, Goliff WS, Guenther AB, Matsunaga SN, Stockwell WR (2009) The impacts of reactive terpene emissions on air quality in Las Vegas, Nevada. Atmos Environ 43:4109–4123Google Scholar
  170. Pataki DE (2007) Human settlements and the North American carbon cycle. In: King W, Dilling L, Zimmermann GP, Fairman DM, Houghton RA, Marland G, Rose AZ, Wilbanks TJ (eds) The first state of the carbon cycle report. U.S. Climate change science program, Washington, DC, pp 149–156Google Scholar
  171. Pataki DE, Emmi PC, Forster CB, Mills JI, Pardyjak ER, Peterson TR, Thompson JD, Dudley-Murphy E (2009) An integrated approach to improving fossil fuel emissions scenarios with urban ecosystem studies. Ecol Complex 6:1–14Google Scholar
  172. Paul KI, Polglase PJ, Nyakuengama JG, Khanna PK (2002) Change in soil carbon following afforestation. For Ecol Manag 168:241–257Google Scholar
  173. Paavilainen E, Päivänen J (1995) Peatland forestry. Ecological studies, Vol. 111. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  174. Petrenko VV, Smith AM, Brook EJ, Lowe D, Riedel K, Brailsford G, Hua Q, Schaefer H, Reeh N, Weiss RF, Etheridge D, Severinghaus JP (2009) 14CH4 measurements in Greenland ice: investigating last glacial termination CH4 sources. Science 324:506–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Potter C, Gross P, Klooster S, Fladeland M, Genovese V (2008) Storage of carbon in U.S. forests predicted from satellite data, ecosystem modeling, and inventory summaries. Clim Change 90:269–282Google Scholar
  176. Potter C, Tan P-N, Kumar V, Kucharik C, Klooster S, Genovese V, Cohen W, Healey S (2005) Recent history of large-scale ecosystem disturbances in North America derived from the AVHRR satellite record. Ecosystems 8:808–824Google Scholar
  177. Pouyat RV, Yesilonis ID, Golubiewski NE (2009) A comparison of soil organic carbon stocks between residential turf grass and native soil. Urban Ecosyst 12:45–62Google Scholar
  178. Pouyat RV, Yesilonis ID, Nowak DJ (2006) Carbon storage by urban soils in the United States. J Environ Qual 35:1566–1575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Powers RF (1999) On the sustainable productivity of planted forests. New For 17:263–306Google Scholar
  180. Powers RF, Scott DA, Sanchez FG, Voldseth RA, Page-Dumroese DS, Elioff JD, Stone DM (2005) The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research. For Ecol Manag 220:31–50Google Scholar
  181. Pregitzer KS, Euskirchen ES (2004) Carbon cycling and storage in world forests: biome patterns related to forest age. Glob Change Biol 10:2052–2077Google Scholar
  182. Pretzsch H (2005) Diversity and productivity in forests: evidence from long-term experimental plots. In: Scherer-Lorenzen M, Körner C, Schulze E-D (eds) Forest diversity and function. Ecological studies, Vol. 176. Springer, Berlin, pp 41–64Google Scholar
  183. Purves D, Pacala S (2008) Predictive models of forest dynamics. Science 320:1452–1453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Quigley MF (2004) Street trees and rural conspecifics: will long-lived trees reach full size in urban conditions? Urban Ecosyst 7:29–39Google Scholar
  185. Radeloff VC, Hammer RB, Stewart SI, Fried JS, Holcomb SS, McKeefry JF (2005) The wildland–urban interface in the United States. Ecol Appl 15:799–805Google Scholar
  186. Rauch JN, Pacyna JM (2009) Earth’s global Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn cy. Global Biogeochem Cy 23, GB2001, doi:10.1029/2008GB003376Google Scholar
  187. Ren D, Wang J, Fu R, Karoly DJ, Hong Y, Leslie LM, Fu C, Huang G (2009) Mudslide-caused ecosystem degradation following Wenchuan earthquake 2008. Geophys Res Lett 36:L05401. doi: 10.1029/2008GL036702 Google Scholar
  188. Richards KR, Sampson RN, Brown S (2006) Agricultural & forestlands: U.S. carbon policy strategies. Pew Center on Global Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  189. Richter deB D Jr, Jenkins DH, Karakash JT, Knight J, McCreery LR, Nemestothy KP (2009) Wood energy in America. Science 323:1432–1433Google Scholar
  190. Rigby M, Prinn RG, Fraser PJ, Simmonds PG, Langenfelds RL, Huang J, Cunnold DM, Steele LP, Krummel PB, Weiss RF, O’Doherty S, Salameh PK, Wang HJ, Harth CM, Mühle J, Porter LW (2008) Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophys Res Lett 35:L22805. doi: 10.1029/2008GL036037 Google Scholar
  191. Roulet NT (2000) Peatlands, carbon storage, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocol: prospects and significance for Canada. Wetlands 20:605–615Google Scholar
  192. Rousseau R, Kaczmarek D, Martin J (2005) A review of the biological, social, and regulatory constraints to intensive plantation culture. S J Appl For 29:105–109Google Scholar
  193. Rumpel C, Balesdent J, Grootes P, Weber E, Kögel-Knabner I (2003) Quantification of lignite- and vegetation-derived soil carbon using 14C activity measurements in a forested chronosequence. Geoderma 112:155–166Google Scholar
  194. Running SW (2008) Ecosystem disturbance, carbon, and climate. Science 321:652–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ryan MG, Binkley D, Fownes JH (1997) Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process. In: Begon M, Fitter AH (eds) Advances in ecological research Vol. 27. San Diego, CA, pp 214–262Google Scholar
  196. Sartori F, Markewitz D, Borders BE (2007) Soil carbon storage and nitrogen and phosphorous availability in loblolly pine plantations over 4 to 16 years of herbicide and fertilizer treatments. Biogeochemistry 84:13–30Google Scholar
  197. Schaeffer M, Eickhout B, Hoogwijk M, Strengers B, van Vuuren D, Leemans R, Opsteegh T (2006) CO2 and albedo climate impacts of extratropical carbon and biomass plantations. Global Biogeochem Cy 20, GB2020, doi:10.1029/2005GB002581Google Scholar
  198. Schelhaas M-J, Nabuurs G-J, Schuck A (2003) Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Glob Change Biol 9:1620–1633Google Scholar
  199. Schils R, Kuikman P, Liski J, van Oijen M, Smith P, Webb J, Alm J, Somogyi Z, van den Akker J, Billett M, Emmett B, Evans C, Lindner M, Palosuo T, Bellamy P, Jandl R, Hiederer R (2008) Review of existing information on the interrelations between soil and climate change (CLIMSOIL). , Accessed August 25, 2009
  200. Schoene D, Netto M (2005) The Kyoto Protocol: what does it mean for forests and forestry? Unasylva 56:3–11Google Scholar
  201. Schulp CJE, Nabuurs G-J, Verburg PH (2008a) Future carbon sequestration in Europe – effects of land use change. Ag Ecosyst Environ 127:251–264Google Scholar
  202. Schulp CJE, Nabuurs G-J, Verburg PH, de Waal RW (2008b) Effect of tree species on carbon stocks in forest floor and mineral soil and implications for soil carbon inventories. For Ecol Manag 256:482–490Google Scholar
  203. Schulze E-D (2006) Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink. Biogeosciences 3:147–166Google Scholar
  204. Schulze E-D, Beck E, Müller-Hohenstein K (2005) Plant ecology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  205. Schulze E-D, Lloyd J, Kelliher FM, Wirth C, Rebmann C, Lühker B, Mund M, Knohl A, Milyukova IM, Schulze W, Ziegler W, Varlagin AB, Sogachev AF, Valentini R, Dore S, Grigoriev S, Kolle O, Panfyorov MI, Tchebakova N, Vygodskaya NN (1999) Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink – a synthesis. Glob Change Biol 5:703–722Google Scholar
  206. Schulze E-D, Valentini R, Sanz M-J (2002) The long way from Kyoto to Marrakesh: implications of the Kyoto Protocol negotiations for global ecology. Glob Change Biol 8:505–518Google Scholar
  207. Schulze E-D, Wirth C, Heimann M (2000) Managing forests after Kyoto. Science 289:2058–2059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Schuur EAG, Bockheim J, Canadell JG, Euskirchen E, Field CB, Goryachkin SV, Hagemann S, Kuhry P, Lafleur PM, Lee H, Mazhitova G, Nelson FE, Rinke A, Romanovsky VE, Shiklomanov N, Tarnocai C, Venevsky S, Vogel JG, Zimov SA (2008) Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: implications for the global carbon cycle. Bioscience 58:701–714Google Scholar
  209. Seppälä R, Buck A, Katila P (eds) (2009) Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), Helsinki, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  210. Shorohova E, Kuuluvainen T, Kangur A, Jõgiste K (2009) Natural stand structures, disturbance regimes and successional dynamics in the Eurasian boreal forests: a review with special reference to Russian studies. Ann For Sci 66:200–220Google Scholar
  211. Smith DM, Larson BC, Kelty MJ, Ashton PMS (1997) The practice of silviculture: applied forest ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  212. Smith P, Fang C, Dawson JJC, Moncrieff JB (2008) Impact of global warming on soil organic carbon. Adv Agron 97:1–43Google Scholar
  213. Smithwick EAH, Harmon ME, Domingo JB (2007) Changing temporal patterns of forest carbon stores and net ecosystem carbon balance: the stand to landscape transformation. Landscape Ecol 22:77–94Google Scholar
  214. Soja AJ, Tchebakova NM, French NHF, Flannigan MD, Shugart HH, Stocks BJ, Sukhinin AI, Parfenova EI, Chapin FSIII, Stackhouse PW Jr (2007) Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations. Global Planet Change 56:274–296Google Scholar
  215. Solomon AM, Freer-Smith PH (2007) Forest responses to global change in North America: interacting forces define a research agenda. In: Freer-Smith PH, Broadmeadow MSJ, Lynch JM (eds) Forestry and climate change. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 151–159Google Scholar
  216. Sperow M (2006) Carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed mine sites in seven east-central states. J Environ Qual 35:1428–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Spittlehouse DL, Stewart RB (2003) Adaptation to climate change in forest management. BC J Ecosyst Manag 4:1–11Google Scholar
  218. Stocks BJ (2004) Forest fires in the looreal zone: climate change and carbon implications. International Forest Fire News 31:122–131Google Scholar
  219. Stokstad E (2008) A second chance for rainforest biodiversity. Science 320:436–438Google Scholar
  220. Stoy PC, Katul GG, Siqueira MBS, Juang J-Y, Novick KA, McCarthy HR, Oishi AC, Oren R (2008) Role of vegetation in determining carbon sequestration along ecological succession in the southeastern United States. Glob Change Biol 14:1409–1427Google Scholar
  221. Strak M (ed) (2008) Peatlands and climate change. International Peat Society, Jyväskylä, FinnlandGoogle Scholar
  222. Suchanek TH, Mooney HA, Franklin JF, Gucinski H, Ustin SL (2004) Carbon dynamics of an old-growth forest. Ecosystems 7:421–426Google Scholar
  223. Tonn B, Marland G (2007) Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties. Environ Sci Policy 10:162–168Google Scholar
  224. Torbert JL, Burger JA (2000) Forest land reclamation. In: Barnhisel RJ, Darmody RG, Lee Daniels W (eds) Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands, Agronomy Monograph no. 41, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 371–398Google Scholar
  225. Trettin CC, Jurgensen MF (2003) Carbon cycling in wetland forest soils. In: Kimble JM, Heath LS, Birdsey RA, Lal R (eds) The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 311–331Google Scholar
  226. Trusilova K, Churkina G (2008) The response of the terrestrial biosphere to urbanization: land cover conversion, climate, and urban pollution. Biogeosciences 5:1505–1515Google Scholar
  227. Turetsky MR, St. Louis VL (2006) Disturbance in boreal peatlands. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 359–379Google Scholar
  228. Ulanova NG (2000) The effects of wind-throw on forests at different spatial scales: a review. For Ecol Manag 135:155–167Google Scholar
  229. United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) (2003) Land use / land cover change – USGCRP fiscal year 2003 accomplishments. Washington, D.C., , accessed August 25, 2009
  230. Ussiri DAN, Lal R (2008) Method for determining coal carbon in the reclaimed minesoils contaminated with coal. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:231–237Google Scholar
  231. van der Werf GR, Dempewolf J, Trigg SN, Randerson JT, Kasibhatla PS, Giglio L, Murdiyarso D, Peters W, Morton DC, Collatz GJ, Dolman AJ, DeFries RS (2008) Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:20350–20355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Vasander H, Kettunen A (2006) Carbon in boreal peatlands. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 165–194Google Scholar
  233. Vetter M, Wirth C, Böttcher H, Churkina G, Schulze E-D, Wutzler T, Weber G (2005) Partitioning direct and indirect human-induced effects on carbon sequestration of managed coniferous forests using model simulations and forest inventories. Glob Change Biol 11:810–827Google Scholar
  234. Vitousek PM, Fahey TJ, Johnson DW, Swift MJ (1988) Element interactions in forest ecosystems: succession, allometry and input-output budgets. Biogeochemistry 5:7–34Google Scholar
  235. Vitt DH, Wieder RK (2006) Boreal peatland ecosystems: our carbon heritage. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 425–429Google Scholar
  236. Wagner RG, Little KM, Richardson B, McNabb K (2006) The role of vegetation management for enhancing productivity of the world’s forests. Forestry 79:57–79Google Scholar
  237. Wardle DA, Nilsson M-C, Zackrisson O (2008) Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science 320:629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Wardle DA, Walker LR, Bardgett RD (2004) Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science 305:509–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Waring RW, Running SW (2007) Forest ecosystems – analysis at multiple scales. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MAGoogle Scholar
  240. Wieder RK, Vitt DH, Benscoter BW (2006) Peatlands and the boreal forest. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 188. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  241. Wiedinmyer C, Neff JC (2007) Estimates of CO2 from fires in the United States: implications for carbon management. Carbon Bal Manag 2:10Google Scholar
  242. Yanai RD, Currie WS, Goodale CL (2003) Soil carbon dynamics after forest harvest: an ecosystem paradigm reconsidered. Ecosystems 6:197–212Google Scholar
  243. Young TP, Petersen DA, Clary JJ (2005) The ecology of restoration: historical links, emerging issues and unexplored realms. Ecol Lett 8:662–673Google Scholar
  244. Zaehle S, Bondeau A, Carter T, Cramer W, Erhard M, Prentice I, Reginster I, Rounsevell M, Sitch S, Smith B, Smith P, Sykes M (2007) Projected changes in terrestrial carbon storage in Europe under climate and land-use change, 1990–2100. Ecosystems 10:380–401Google Scholar
  245. Zeng N (2008) Carbon sequestration via wood burial. Carbon Bal Manag 3:1Google Scholar
  246. Zeng H, Chambers JQ, Negrón-Juárez RI, Hurtt GC, Baker DB, Powell MD (2009) Impacts of tropical cyclones on U.S. forest tree mortality and carbon flux from 1851 to 2000. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:7888–7892Google Scholar
  247. Zhang C, Tian H, Pan S, Liu M, Lockaby G, Schilling EB, Stanturf J (2008) Effects of forest regrowth and urbanization on ecosystem carbon storage in a rural-urban gradient in the southeastern United States. Ecosystems 11:1211–1222Google Scholar
  248. Zhou G, Liu S, Li Z, Zhang D, Tang X, Zhou C, Yan J, Mo J (2006) Old-growth forests can accumulate carbon in soils. Nature 314:1417Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Carbon Management and Sequestration Center School of Environment and Natural ResourcesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations