Classroom Inequity and the Literacy Experiences of Black Adolescent Girls

Chapter
Part of the Globalisation, Comparative Education and Policy Research book series (GCEP, volume 10)

Abstract

According to Portes (2005), equity is defined as “all groups of citizens having (proportionally) comparable school learning outcomes regardless of cultural history, gender, or ethnic background” (p. 11). Inequity in the classroom represents not only an educational issue but also a social one. USA, as a country, is still addressing societal inequities that plague the way citizens govern themselves. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination and segregation of individuals in schools, public places, and employment. In 1972, the Senate passed Title IX that states “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational programs or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (United States Department of Education (USDOE), 1998). Additional legislation followed with the 1994 Gender Equity in Education Act in order to protect young women in school and reinforce earlier legislation. In 1974, The Education of All Handicapped Children Act was passed to ensure that states and public agencies provided ­appropriate early intervention, special education, and special services to children with disabilities. These examples of legislation demonstrate the nation’s insistence on tolerance in open societies as well as the education system. They also show how the country has made slow but progressive efforts to alleviate societal inequities; however, at the core of the US education system, much effort is still required to ensure that inequities in the classrooms are eradicated.

References

  1. Allen BJ (2004).Difference matters: Communicating social identity. Waveland, Long Grove, IL.Google Scholar
  2. Amrein AL, Berliner DC (2002) High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning. Education Policy Analysis Archives 10(18).Google Scholar
  3. Applebee AN (1992) Stability and change in high-school canon. English Journal 81(5):27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Au KH (2001).Culturally responsive instruction as a dimension of new literacies. Reading Online 5. Retrieved January 19, 2005 from http//www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=au/index.html
  5. Baytops JL (2003) Counseling African American adolescents: The impact of race, culture, and middle class status. Professional School Counseling 7(1):40–50.Google Scholar
  6. Boston G, Baxley T (2007) Living the literature: Race, gender construction and black female adolescents. Urban Education 42(6):560–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boykin AW (1994) Harvesting culture and talent: African-American children and educational reform. In: Rossi R (ed.) Educational reform and at-risk students. Teachers College Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Brown LM, Gilligan C (1992) Meeting at the crossroads: Women’s psychology and girls development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  9. Cosse WJ (1992) Who’s who and what’s what? The effects of gender on development in adolescence. In: Wainrib BR (ed) Gender issues across the life cycle. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Cummins J (1993) Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention. In: Weis L, Fine M (eds) Beyond silenced voices: Class, race, and gender in United States schools. State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 101–117.Google Scholar
  11. DeBlase G (2003) Missing stories, missing lives: Urban Girls (re)constructing race and gender in the literacy classroom. Urban Education 38(3):279–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delpit L (1995).Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Delpit LD (1993) The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in education other peoples children. In: Weis L, Fine M (eds) Beyond silenced voices: Class, race, and gender in United States schools. State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 119–139.Google Scholar
  14. Flake S (1998) Skin i’m in. Jump in the Sun/Hyperion, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Frazier-Kouassi S (2002) Race and gender at the crossroads: African American females in school. African American Research Perspectives 8(1):151–162.Google Scholar
  16. Grimes N (1998) Jazmin’s notebook. Penguin Putnam, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Groves P (2002) Widening of the equality gap. Educational Foundations 16:15–31.Google Scholar
  18. Groves PE (1996) Coming-of-rage: Young, black and female in America. In: Vandergrift E (ed) Mosaics of meaning: Enhancing the intellectual life of young adults through story. Scarecrow, Lanham, MD, K47–K66.Google Scholar
  19. Gulek C (2003) Preparing for high-stakes testing. Theory into Practice 42(1):42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guzman F (2007) Fostering gender equity in the classroom. Retrieved March 27, 2007 from Episode 9 Podcast at http://www.idra.org/Podcasts/Resources/Fostering_Gender_Equity_in_the_Classroom/
  21. Haney W (1993) Testing and minorities. In: Weis L, Fine M (eds) Beyond silenced voices: Class, race, and gender in United States schools. State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 45–73.Google Scholar
  22. Harris VJ (1994).Teaching multicultural literature in grades k-8. Christopher-Gordon, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Harry B, Anderson MG (1999) The social construction of high-incidence disabilities: The effect on African American males. In: Polite VC, Davis JE (eds) African American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education. New York, Teacher College Press.Google Scholar
  24. Irvine RW (1986) Education in the post-integration era. The Journal of Negro Education 55:508–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ivey G, Broaddus K (2001) Just plain reading: A survey of what makes students want to read in middle school classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly 36(4):350–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelly P (1992) Gender issues and the young adult novel. In: Virginia M, Gary S (eds) Reading their world: The young adult novel in the classroom. Boynton/Cook, Portsmouth, UK, pp. 154–167.Google Scholar
  27. Kohn A (2000).The case against standardized testing: Raising the scores, ruining the Schools. Heinemann, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, UK.Google Scholar
  28. Kuykendall C (2002) From rage to hope: Strategies for reclaiming Black and Hispanic students.National Educational Services, Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  29. Ladson-Billings G (1994).The dreamkeeper. Successful teachers of African American children. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  30. Lalas J (2007) Teaching for social justice in multicultural urban schools: Conceptualization and classroom implication. Multicultural Education 14(3):17–21.Google Scholar
  31. LeCroy C (2004) Evaluation of an empowerment program for early adolescent girls. Adolescence 39:432–434.Google Scholar
  32. Leiding D (2006) Racial bias in the classroom. Can teachers reach all students? Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  33. Mathis WJ (2003) No child left behind: Costs and benefits. Phi Delta Kappan 84(9):679–686.Google Scholar
  34. McNeil L (2000) Contradictions of school reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  35. McNeil L, Valenzuela A (2001) The harmful impact of the TAAS system of testing in Texas: Beneath the accountability rhetoric. In: Kornhaber M, Orfield G (eds) Raising standard or raising barriers? Inequality and high stakes testing in public education. The Century Foundation Press, New York, pp. 127–150.Google Scholar
  36. Nieto S (1994) Moving beyond tolerance in multicultural education. Multicultural Education 1(4):9–12, 35–38.Google Scholar
  37. Norton DE (2001) Multicultural children’s literature: Through the eyes of many children. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, NJ.Google Scholar
  38. O’Connor C (1997) Disposition toward (collective) struggle and educational resilience in the inner city: A case analysis of six African-American high school students. American Educational Research Journal 34:593–629.Google Scholar
  39. Orenstein P (1994) Schoolgirls. Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Orfield G, Wald J (2000) Testing, testing. The Nation 270(22):38–40.Google Scholar
  41. Orfield G, Losen D, Wald J, Swanson CB (2004) Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind of the graduation rate crisis. Urban Institute. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from http://www.urban.org/publications/410936.html
  42. Oyserman D, Harrison K, Bybee D (2001) Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development 25:379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parameswaran G (2007) Enhancing diversity education. Multicultural Education 14(3):51–55.Google Scholar
  44. Paul DG (2003) Talkin’ back: Raising and educating resilient black girls. Praeger, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  45. Phillips L (1998) The girls report: What we know and need to know about growing up female. National Council for Research on Women, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Pipher M (1995) Reviving ophelia. Ballentine, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Portes PR (2005) Dismantling educational inequality: A cultural-historical approach to closing the achievement gap. Peter Lang, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Resnicow K, Soler RE, Braithwaithe RL, Selassie MB, Smith M (1999) Development of a racial and ethnic identity scale for African American adolescents: The survey of Black life. Journal of Black Psychology 25:171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ruggiero KM, Taylor DM (1995) Coping with discriminations: How disadvantaged members perceive the discrimination that confronts them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68:826–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sadker M, Sadker D (1994).Failing at fairness: How our schools cheat girls. Simon & Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Slavin R (1977).Student’s team learning techniques: Narrowing the achievement gap. (Report No. 228). Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  52. Smith MW, Wilhelm JD (2002 Reading don’t fix no Chevys: Literacy in the lives of young men. Heinemann, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, UK.Google Scholar
  53. Tatum A (2001) Nesting Grounds. Principal Leadership (high school education) 2(2):26–32.Google Scholar
  54. Tatum BD (1997) Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? And other conversations about race. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Taylor SV, Nesheim DW (2000) Reading for meaning: Fostering comprehension in the middle grades. Teachers College Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. United States Department of Education (USDOE) National Center for Education Statistic (NCES) (nd) Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2007/2007496_3.pdf
  57. United States Department of Education (USDOE) (1998Title IX and sex discrimination. Office for Civil Rights. http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/tix_dis.html
  58. Woodson J (1991) The dear one. Penguin Putnam, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Education, Department of Curriculum, Culture, and Educational InquiryFlorida Atlantic UniversityFloridaUSA
  2. 2.College of Liberal Arts, Department of EnglishFlorida A&M UniversityFloridaUSA

Personalised recommendations