Ballistic Impacts on Composite and Sandwich Structures

  • Serge AbrateEmail author


Composite and sandwich structures are sometimes subjected to impacts that result in complete perforation. Tests are conducted to determine the velocity required to achieve complete penetration for a given projectile and a model is required for data reduction purposes, to understand the effect of various parameters and to extrapolate for other test conditions. In addition, models capable of predicting the ballistic limit and the extent of damage in composite and sandwich structures are also needed. This chapter presents a comprehensive and critical assessment of the existing literature on this topic.


Sandwich Structure Sandwich Plate Areal Density Penetration Resistance Strain Energy Release Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abrate S (1998) Impact on Composite Structures, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Navarro C (1998) Simplified modeling of the ballistic behavior of fabrics and fibre-reinforced polymeric matrix composites. Key Eng Mater 141–143:383–400Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheeseman BA, Bogetti TA (2003) Ballistic impact into fabric and compliant composite laminates. Compos Struct 61(1–2):161–173Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zukas JA, Nicholas T, Swift HF, Greszczuk LB, Curran DR (1982) Impact Dynamics, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Young CW (1969) Depth prediction for earth-penetrating projectiles. J Soil Mech Found, 95(SM3):803–817Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun CT, Potti SV (1993) High velocity impact and penetration of composite laminates. Proc ICCM-9 Ninth Int Conf Compos Mater, Madrid, Spain, vol. 4, pp. 157–167Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jenq ST, Mo JJ (1996) Ballistic impact response for two-step braided three-dimensional textile composites. AIAA J 34(2):375–383Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenq ST, Jing HS, Chung C (1994) Predicting the ballistic limit for plain woven glass/epoxy composite laminate. Int J Imp Eng 15(4):451–464Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee SWR, Sun CT (1993) Dynamic penetration of graphite/epoxy laminates impacted by a blunt-ended projectile. Compos Sci Technol 49(4):369–380Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee SWR, Sun CT (1992) Ballistic limit prediction of composite laminates by a quasi-static penetration model. Proc 24th Int SAMPE Tech Conf, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pp. 497–511Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reddy TY, Wen HM, Reid SR, Soden PD (1998) Penetration and perforation of composite sandwich panels by hemispherical and conical projectiles. J Pressure Vessel Technol 120(2):186–194Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kasano H (1999) Recent advances in high-velocity impact perforation of fiber composite laminates. JSME Int J, Series A:Mech Mater Eng 42(2):147–157Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee BL, Song JW, Ward JE (1994) Failure of Spectra®Polyethylene Fiber-Reinforced Composites under Ballistic Impact Loading. J Compos Mater 28:1202–1226Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee BL, Walsh TF, Won ST, Patts HM, Song JW, Mayer AH (2001) Penetration failure mechanisms of armor-grade fiber composites under impact. J Compos Mater 35(18):1605–1633Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roach AM, Evans, KE, Jones N (1998) Penetration energy of sandwich panel elements under static and dynamic loading. Part I Compos Struct 42(2):119–134Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mines RAW, Roach AM, Jones N (1999) High velocity perforation behaviour of polymer composite laminates. Int J Imp Eng 22(6):561–588Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prevorsek DC, Chin HB (1989) Properties of spectra fibres and composites at ballistic rates of deformation. Proc 21st Int SAMPE Tech Conf, Atlantic City, NJ, pp. 812–824Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jenq ST, Kuo JT, Sheu LT (1998) Ballistic impact response of 3-D four-step braided glass/epoxy laminates. Key Eng Mater 141–143:349–366Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kasano H (2000) Impact perforation of orthotropic and quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates by a steel ball projectile. Proc 9th US—Japan Conf Compos Mater, Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. 485–492Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kasano H (2001) Impact perforation of orthotropic and quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates by a steel ball projectile. Adv Compos Mater 10(4):309–318Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kasano H, Hasegawa O, Yamagata S (2002) Ballistic impact properties and behavior of structural ceramics at high temperature. Proc. Tenth US—Japan Conf Compos Mater, Stanford University, pp. 581–587Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hasegawa O, Okubo T, Yamagata S, Kasano H (2001) Application of ultra-high speed photography to analytical modeling of impact perforation of polymer and ceramic materials. Proc SPIE Int Soc Optical Eng 4183:1010–1016Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kasano H, Hasegawa O (2001) Ballistic impact behavior and properties of structural ceramics. Proc 7th Japan Int SAMPE Symp Exhibition, Tokyo, pp. 891–894Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kasano H, Okubo T, Hasegawa O (2001) Impact perforation characteristics of carbon/carbon composite laminates. Int J Mater Product Technol 16(1–3):165–170Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tanabe Y, Aoki M, Fujii K, Kasano H, Yasuda E (2003) Fracture behavior of CFRPs impacted by relatively high-velocity steel sphere. Int J Impact Eng 28(6):627–642Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kasano H, Hasegawa O, Nanjyo N (2004) Ballistic impact properties of polymer and polymer matrix composites. Proc 11th US—Japan Conf on Compos Mater, Sept 9–11, Yamagata, JapanGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larsson F (1997) Damage tolerance of a stitched carbon/epoxy laminate. Compos A 28(11):923–934Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gu B, Xu J (2004) Finite element calculation of 4-step 3-dimensional braided composite under ballistic perforation. Compos B 35(4):291–297Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gu B, Ding X (2005) A refined quasi-microstructure model for finite element analysis of three-dimensional braided composites under ballistic penetration. J Compos Mater 39(8):685–710Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wonderly C, Grenestedt J, Fernlund G, Cepus E (2005) Comparison of mechanical properties of glass fiber/vinyl ester and carbon fiber/vinyl ester composites, Compos Part B:Eng 36(5):417–426Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shokrieh MM, Javadpour GH (2008) Penetration analysis of a projectile in ceramic composite armor. Compos Struct 82(2):269–276Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gama BA, Bogetti TA, Fink BK, Yu CJ, Claar TD, Eifert HH, Gillespie JW Jr (2001) Aluminum foam integral armor:a new dimension in armor design. Compos Struct 52(3–4):381–395Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vaidya UK, Abraham A, Bhide S (2001) Affordable processing of thick section and integral multi-functional composites. Compos Part A 32(8):1133–1142Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Senf H, Strassburger E, Rothenhäusler H (1997) Investigation of bulging during impact in composite armour. J De Physique IV:JP, 7(3), C3-301-C3-306Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wen HM (2000) Predicting the penetration and perforation of FRP laminates struck normally by projectiles with different nose shapes. Compos Struct 49(3):321–329Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wen HM (2001) Penetration and perforation of thick FRP laminates, Compos Sci Technol 61(8):1163–1172Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wen HM (2002) Predicting the penetration and perforation of targets struck by projectiles at normal incidence. Mech Struct Mach 30(4):543–577Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ulven C, Vaidya UK, Hosur MV (2003) Effect of projectile shape during ballistic perforation of VARTM carbon/epoxy composite panels, Compos Struct 61(1–2):143–150Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    He T, Wen HM, Qin Y (2007) Penetration and perforation of FRP laminates struck transversely by conical-nosed projectiles. Compos Struct 81(2):243–252Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abdullah MR, Cantwell WJ (2006) The impact resistance of fiber—metal laminates based on glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. Polym Compos 27(6):700–708Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abdullah MR, Cantwell WJ (2006) The impact resistance of polypropylene-based fibre-metal laminates. Compos Sci Technol 66(11–12):1682–1693Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Reyes Villanueva G, Cantwell WJ (2004) The high velocity impact response of composite and FML-reinforced sandwich structures. Compos Sci Technol 64(1):35–54Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2002) Optimization of the nose shape of an impactor against a semi-infinite FRP laminate. Compos Sci Technol 62(5):663–667Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2002) A model for predicting penetration and perforation of FRP laminates by 3-D impactors. Compos Struct 56(3):243–248Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2002) Optimal nose geometry of the impactor against FRP laminates. Compos Struct 55(1):73–80Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reid SR, Yella Reddy T, Ho HM, Crouch IG, Greaves LJ (1995) Dynamic indentation of thick fibre reinforced composites. ASME AD-Vol 48 High Strain Rate Effects on Polymer, Metal and Ceramic Matrix Composites and Other Advanced Materials 71–75Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang B, Chou SM (1997) The behaviour of laminated composite plates as armour. J Mater Proc Technol 68(3):279–287Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2001) A class of models implying the Lambert—Jonas relation. Int J Solids Struct 38(40–41):7113–7119Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2000) The optimum arrangement of the plates in a multi-layered shield. Int J Solids Struct 37(4):687–696Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (1999) Some ballistic properties of non-homogeneous, Compos Part A —Appl Sci Manuf 30:733–736Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (1997) Optimal 3D impactors penetrating into layered targets. Theor Appl Fract Mech 27(3):161–166Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jones SE, Rule WK (2000) On the optimal nose geometry for a rigid penetrator, including the effects of pressure-dependent friction. Int J Impact Eng 24(4):403–415Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jones SE, Hughes ML, Toness OA, Davis RN (2003) A one-dimensional analysis of rigid-body penetration with high-speed friction. Proc Inst Mech Eng —Part C —J Mech Eng Sci 217(4):411–422Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ben-Dor G, Dubinsky A, Elperin T (2002) On the Lambert—Jonas approximation for ballistic impact. Mech Res Commun 29(2–3):137–139Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zhu G, Goldsmith W, Dharan CKH (1992) Penetration of laminated Kevlar by 7rrojectiles —II. Analytical model. Int J Solids Struct 29(4):421–436Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhu G, Goldsmith W, Dharan CKH (1992) Penetration of laminated Kevlar by projectiles —I. Experimental investigation. Int J Solids Struct 29(4):399–420Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gupta BP, Davids N (1966) Penetration experiments with fiber-reinforced plastics. Exp Mech 6:445–450Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Iremonger MJ, Went AC (1996) Ballistic impact of fibre composite armours by fragment-simulating projectiles. Compos Part A 27(7):575–581Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bartus SD, Vaidya UK (2005) Performance of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics subjected to transverse intermediate velocity blunt object impact. Compos Struct 67(3):263–277Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jacobs MJN, Van Dingenen JLJ (2001) Ballistic protection mechanisms in personal armor. J Mater Sci 36(13):3137–3142Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lin LC, Bhatnagar A (1991) Ballistic energy absorption of composites —II. Proc 23rd Int SAMPE Tech Conf, Kiamesha Lake, NY, vol. 23, pp. 669–683Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hoo Fatt MS, Lin C, Revilock DM Jr, Hopkins DA (2003) Ballistic impact of GLARE™fibermetal laminates. Compos Struct 61(1–2):73–88Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lin C, Hoo Fatt MS (2006) Perforation of composite plates and sandwich panels under quasi-static and projectile loading. J Compos Mater 40(20):1801–1840Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bhatnagar A, Lin LC, Lang DC, Chang HW (1989) Comparison of ballistic performance of composites. Proc 34th Int SAMPE Symp Exhibition, Reno, NV, Part 2, pp. 1529–1537Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lin LC, Bahtnagar A, Lang DC, Chang HW (1988) Ballistic performance of lightweight spectra composite hard armor. Proc 33rd SAMPE Int Symp Exhibition, Seattle, WA, pp. 883–889Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Goldsmith W, Dharan CKH, Chang H (1995) Quasi-static and Ballistic perforation of carbon fiber laminates, Int J Solids Struct 32(1):89–103Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vasudev A, Meehlman MJ (1987) A comparative study of the ballistic performance of glass reinforced plastic materials. SAMPE Quarterly 18(4):43–48Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Justo J, Marques AT (2003) High velocity impact resistance of composite materials. J de Physique IV, 110:651–656Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Caprino G, Lopresto V (2001) On the penetration energy for fibre-reinforced plastics under low-velocity impact conditions. Compos Sci Technol 61(1):65–73Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Caprino G, Langella A, Lopresto V (2003) Indentation and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates, Compos Part B 34(4):319–325Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Koudela KL, Cheeseman BA (2006) A computational analysis of the ballistic performance of light-weight hybrid composite armors. Appl Surf Sci 253(2):730–745Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jenq ST, Wang SB, Sheu LT (1992) A model for predicting the residual strength of GFRP laminates subject to ballistic impact. J. Reinf Plast Compos 2:1127–1141Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fernandez-Fdz D, Lopez-Puente J, Zaera R (2008) Prediction of the behaviour of CFRPs against high-velocity impact of solids employing an artificial neural network methodology. Compos Part A 39(6):989–996Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Garcia-Crespo A, Ruiz-Mezcua B, Fernandez-Fdz D, et al. (2007) Prediction of the response under impact of steel armours using a multilayer perceptron. Neural Compos Appl 16(2):147–154Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hazell PJ, Kister G, Stennett C, et al. (2008) Normal and oblique penetration of woven CFRP laminates by a high velocity steel sphere. Compos A 39(5):866–874Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lopez-Puente J, Zaera R, Navarro C (2008) Experimental and numerical analysis of normal and oblique ballistic impacts on thin carbon/epoxy woven laminates. Compos A 39:374–387Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chu CK, Chen YL, Hseu GC, Hwang DG (2007) The study of obliquity on the ballistic performance of basket fabric composite materials. J Compos Mater 41:1539–1558Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Czarnecki GJ (1998) Estimation of the V50 using semi-empirical (1-point) procedures, Compos B 29(3):321–329Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Czarnecki GJ (1994) The significance of laminate spallation generated by high velocity spherical metallic impactors. Compos Eng 4(3):287–297Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee SWR, Sun CT (1993) A quasi-static penetration model for composite laminates. J Compos Mater 27(3):251–271Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee SWR, Sun CT (1991) Modeling penetration process of composite laminates subjected to a blunt-ended punch. Proc 23rd Int SAMPE Tech Conf, Kiamesha Lake, NY, pp. 624–638Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Potti SV, Sun CT (1997) Prediction of impact induced penetration and delamination in thick composite laminates. Int J Impact Eng 19(1):31–48Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ursenbach DO, Vaziri R, Delfosse D (1995) An engineering model for deformation of CFRP plates during penetration. Compos Struct 32(1–4):197–202Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Found MS, Howard IC, Paran AP (2000) Impact perforation of thin stiffened CFRP panels. Compos Struct 48:95–98Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sykes GF, Stoakley DM (1980) Impact penetration studies of graphite/epoxy laminates. Proc 12th Nat SAMPE Tech Conf, Seattle, WA, pp. 482–493Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zee RH, Wang CJ, Mount A, Jang BZ, Hsieh CY (1991) Ballistic response of polymer composites. Polym Compos 12(1):196–202Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mines RAW, Roach AM, Jones N (1999) High velocity perforation behaviour of polymer composite laminates. Int J Impact Eng 22(6):561–588Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Maffeo M, Cunniff PM (2000) Composite materials for small arms (ball round) protective armor. Proc 32nd Int SAMPE Tech Conf, Boston, MA, pp. 768–777Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Langlie S, Cheng W (1990) A simplified analytical model for impact/penetration process in thick fiber-reinforced composites. Composite Materials —Design and Analysis, WP de Wilde, WR Blain, Eds., Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, Boston, MA, pp. 429–448Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cantwell WJ, Morton J (1985) The ballistic perforation of CFRP. Preprints of the papers presented at the Int Conf Impact Testing Perf Polym Mater, Guildford, England, pp. 17.1–17.6Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cantwell WJ, Morton J (1989) The influence of varying projectile mass on the impact response of CFRP. Compos Struct 13(2):101–104Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cantwell WJ, Morton J (1990) Impact perforation of carbon fibre reinforced plastic. Compos Sci Technol 38(2):119–141Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harel H, Marom G, Kenig S (2002) Delamination controlled ballistic resistance of polyethylene/polyethylene composite materials. Appl Compos Mater 9(1):33–42Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zee RH, Hsieh CY (1993) Energy loss partitioning during ballistic impact of polymer composites. Polym Compos 14(3):265–271Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Caprino G, Lopresto V, Santoro D (2007) Ballistic impact behaviour of stitched graphite/epoxy laminates. Compos Sci Technol 67(3–4):325–335Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    López-Puente J, Zaera R, Navarro C (2007). An analytical model for high velocity impacts on thin CFRPs woven laminated plates. Int J Solids Struct 44(9):2837–2851Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chan S, Fawaz Z, Behdinan K, Amid R (2007) Ballistic limit prediction using a numerical model with progressive damage capability. Compos Struct 77(4):466–474Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Iannucci L, Dechaene R, Willows M, Degrieck J (2001) A failure model for the analysis of thin woven glass composite structures under impact loadings. Comput Struct 79(8):785–799Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sheikh AH, Bull PH, Kepler JA (2009) Behaviour of multiple composite plates subjected to ballistic impact. Compos Sci Technol 69(6):704–710Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Grujicic M, Arakere G, He T, Bell WC, Cheeseman BA, Yen C-F, Scott B (2008) A ballistic material model for cross-plied unidirectional ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene fiber-reinforced armor-grade composites. Mater Sci Eng:A-Struct Mater Prop Microstruct and Proc 498(1–2):231–241Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hou J P, Petrinic N, Ruiz C, Hallett SR (2000) Prediction of impact damage in composite plates. Compos Sci Technol 60(2):273–281Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hou JP, Petrinic N, Ruiz C (2001) A delamination criterion for laminated composites under low-velocity impact. Compos Sci Technol 61(14):2069–2074Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Li C F, Hu N, Yin YJ, Sekine H, Fukunaga H (2002) Low-velocity impact-induced damage of continuous fiber-reinforced composite laminates. Part I. An FEM numerical model. Compos A 33(8):1055–1062Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Krueger R (2004) Virtual crack closure technique:history, approach, and applications. Appl Mech Rev 57(2):109–143Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hu N, Zemba Y, Okabe T, Yan C, Fukunaga H, Elmarakbi AM (2008) A new cohesive model for simulating delamination propagation in composite laminates under transverse loads. Mech Mater 40(11):920–935Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Borg R, Nilsson L, Simonsson K (2004) Simulation of low velocity impact on fiber laminates using a cohesive zone based delamination model. Compos Sci Technol 64(2):279–288Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Aymerich F, Dore F, Priolo P (2008) Prediction of impact-induced delamination in cross-ply composite laminates using cohesive interface elements. Compos Sci Technol 68(12):2383–2390Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yoshimura A, Nakao T, Yashiro S, Takeda N (2008) Improvement on out-of-plane impact resistance of CFRP laminates due to through-the-thickness stitching. Compos A 39 (9):1370–1379Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nishikawa M, Okabe T, Takeda N (2007) Numerical simulation of interlaminar damage propagation in CFRP cross-ply laminates under transverse loading. Int J Solids Struct 44(10):3101–3113Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Johnson HE, LA Louca, Mouring S, Fallah AS (2009) Modelling impact damage in marine composite panels. Int J Impact Eng 36(1):25–39Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elder DJ, Thomson RS, Nguyen MQ, Scott ML (2004) Review of delamination predictive methods for low speed impact of composite laminates. Compos Struct 66(1–4):677–683Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Abrate S (1997) Localized impact on sandwich structures with laminated facings. Appl Mech Rev 50(2):69–82Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Roach AM, Evans KE, Jones N (1998) Penetration energy of sandwich panel elements under static and dynamic loading. Part I. Compos Struct 42(2):119–134Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Roach AM, Jones N, Evans KE (1998) Penetration energy of sandwich panel elements under static and dynamic loading. Part II. Compos Struct 42(2):135–152Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mines RAW, Worrall CM, Gibson AG (1998) Low velocity perforation behaviour of polymer composite sandwich panels. Int J Impact Eng 21(10):855–879Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Raju KS, Smith BL, Tomblin JS, Liew KH, Guarddon JC (2008) Impact damage resistance and tolerance of honeycomb core sandwich panels. J Compos Mater 42:385Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lim TS, Lee CS, Lee DG (2004) Failure modes of foam core sandwich beams under static and impact loads. J Compos Mater 38:1639Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Reyes Villanueva G, Cantwell WJ (2004) The high velocity impact response of composite and FML-reinforced sandwich structures. Compos Sci Technol 64(1):35–54Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Abdullah MR, Cantwell WJ (2006) The impact resistance of polypropylene-based fibre—metal laminates. Compos Sci Technol 66(11–12):1682–1693Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hoo Fatt MS, Park KS (2000) Perforation of honeycomb sandwich plates by projectiles. Compos A:31(8):889–899Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lin C, Hoo Fatt MS (2006) Perforation of composite plates and sandwich panels under quasi-static and projectile loading. J Compos Mater 40(20):1801–1840Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lin CF, Fatt MSH (2005) Perforation of sandwich panels with honeycomb cores by hemispherical nose projectiles. J Sandwich Struct Mater 7(2):133–172Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA

Personalised recommendations