Advertisement

Wholesome Remembrance and the Critique of Memory—From Indian Buddhist Context to Chinese Chan Appropriation

  • Youru WangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Dao Companions to Chinese Philosophy book series (DCCP, volume 9)

Abstract

Although the major part of the chapter’s investigation is on the mode and acts of remembering in Chan Buddhism, Wang opens with a survey of the traditional Indian Buddhist context of remembering, its differentiation of wholesome and unwholesome acts of remembering, and its critique of unwholesome and discursive modes of memory, as Buddhism evolves from Theravada to Mahayana. This context is a necessary condition under which the interaction between Indian and Chinese Buddhist ideologies, or between the inherited tradition and its Chinese Chan appropriation, becomes possible. Wang then examines how Chan masters, from early to classical period, appropriate and develop the traditional distinction of wholesome and unwholesome remembrance and its affirmation of the former and critique of the latter in a Chinese context. As opposed to the widespread Chan hierarchy of forgetfulness over remembrance that has shaped much of our modern understanding, Wang presents a rediscovery of Chan teachings on remembrance, disclosing how remembrance is related to the internal tension between the positive attitude towards the traditional cultivation and the iconoclastic attitude towards it in various Chan ideologies. The approach of these examinations is a combination of textual/contextual inquiry, conceptual analysis and philosophical interpretation. The part of “summary and reflections” includes a review of the uniqueness of the Chan mode of remembering, an analysis of its ethical dimension by using, and comparing it with, Ricoeur’s ethics of memory, and an exploration of the paradoxical relationship between remembering and forgetting.

Keywords

Chan Buddhism Wholesome remembrance Mindfulness Critique of memory Ricoeur 

References

  1. Adamek, Wendi. 2007. The Mystique of Transmission: On An Early Chan History and Its Contexts. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ———. 2011. The Teachings of Master Wuzhu. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Anālayo. 2013. Perspectives on Satipaṭṭhāna. Cambridge, UK: Windhorse Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Augustine. 1887. On the Trinity, book XIV, chapter 10-13. Trans. by Arthur West Haddan. In Philip Schaff, ed., A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. 3. Buffalo, NY: The Christian Literature Company.Google Scholar
  5. Bai Juyi 白居易. 1979. Bai Juyi Ji 白居易集 (Collected Works of Bai Juyi). Ed. by Gu Xuejie. 4 vols. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.Google Scholar
  6. Barash, Jeffrey A. 2010. “The Place of Remembrance: Reflection on Paul Ricoeur’s theory of Collective Memory”. In Brian Treanor and Henry I. Venema, eds., A Passion for the Possible: Thinking with Paul Ricoeur. New York: Fordham University Press, 147-157.Google Scholar
  7. Boucher, Daniel. 2006. “Dharmarakṣa and the Transmission of Buddhism to China.” Asian Major 19.1/2: 13-37.Google Scholar
  8. Broughton, Jeffrey, trans. 2009. Zongmi on Chan. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Buswell, Robert E. Jr., and Donald S. Lopez Jr., eds. 2014. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Casey, Edward. 2000. Remembering: A Phenomenological Study. 2nd edition. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chanzong Jicheng 禪宗集成. 1968. Reprint of the collection of the Chan school from the HTC. 25 vols. Taibei: Yiwen Yinshu Guan.Google Scholar
  12. Conze, Edward, trans. 2001. Buddhist Wisdom: The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra, New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  13. Cox, Collett. 1992. “Mindfulness and Memory: The Scope of Smṛti from Early Buddhism to the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma.” In Gyatso 1992: 67-108.Google Scholar
  14. Duffy, Maria. 2009. Paul Ricoeur’s Pedagogy of Pardon: A Narrative Theory of Memory and Forgetting. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Faure, Bernard. 1986. “The Concept of One-Practice Samādhi in Early Ch’an.” In Peter Gregory, ed., Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 99-127.Google Scholar
  16. Foulk, Griffith. 1999. “Sung Controversies Concerning the ‘Separate Transmission’ of Ch’an.” In Peter Gregory and Daniel Getz, eds., Buddhism in the Sung. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 220-294.Google Scholar
  17. Gethin, Rupert M. L. 1992. The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiyā Dhammā. Leiden and New York: Brill.Google Scholar
  18. Griffiths, Paul. 1992. “Memory in Classical Indian Yogācāra.” In Gyatso 1992: 109-131.Google Scholar
  19. Gyatso, Janet, ed. 1992. In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  20. Han Chuanqiang 韓傳強. 2013. Chanzong Beizong Yanjiu 禪宗北宗研究 (A Study of the Northern School of Chan Buddhism). Beijing: Zongjiao Wenhua Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, Paul. 1978. “Buddhānusmṛti in the Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra.” Journal of Indian Philosophy 6: 35-57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ———. 1992. “Commemoration and Identification in Buddhānusmṛti.” In Gyatso 1992: 215-238.Google Scholar
  23. Heidegger, Martin. 1962. Being and Time. Trans. by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  24. Horner, I. B., trans. 1954. The Middle Length Sayings of the Buddha. Vol. 1. London: Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  25. Ives, Christopher. 1992. Zen Awakening and Society, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jan Yün-hua 冉雲華. 1990. “Donghai Dashi Wuxiang Zhuan Yanjiu 東海大師無相傳研究 (A Study of the Biography of the East Sea Master Wuxiang).” In Jan Yün-hua, Zhongguo Fojiao Wenhua Yanjiu Lunji 中國佛教文化研究論集 (Collected Essays on the Culture of Chinese Buddhism). Taibei: Dongchu Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1986. “Patterns of Chinese Assimilation of Buddhist Thought: A Comparative Study of No-Thought (Wu-nien) in Indian and Chinese Texts.” Journal of Oriental Studies 24. 1: 21-36.Google Scholar
  28. Jia, Jinhua. 2006. The Hongzhou School of Chan Buddhism in Eighth- through Tenth-Century China. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  29. Junker-Kenny, Maureen. 2004. “Memory and Forgiveness—Two Itineraries.” In Maureen Junker-Kenny and Peter Kenny, eds., Memory, Narrativity, Self and the Challenge to Think God: The Reception within Theology of the Recent Work of Paul Ricoeur. Münster: Germany: LIT, 19-41.Google Scholar
  30. Kamata Shigeo 鎌田茂雄, trans. and annotate. 1971. Zengen shosenshū tojo 禪源諸詮集都序 (Prolegomenon to the Collection of Expressions of the Chan Source). Zen no goroku, vol. 9. Tokyo: Chikuma shobō.Google Scholar
  31. Kapstein, Matthew. 1992. “The Amnesic Monarch and the Five Mnemic Men: ‘Memory’ in Great Perfection (Rdzog-chen) Thought.” In Gyatso 1992: 239-269.Google Scholar
  32. Keown, Damien. 2001. The Nature of Buddhist Ethics. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  33. King, Winston. 1980. Theravāda Meditation: The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Locke, John. 1996. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Ed. by Kenneth Winkler. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Luk, Charles, trans. 1972. The Vimalakīrti-Nirdeśa Sūtra. Berkeley, CA: Shambala,Google Scholar
  36. Lopez, Donald Jr. 1992. “Memories of the Buddha.” In Gyatso 1992: 21-45.Google Scholar
  37. Markus, R. A. 1964. “Augustine”. In D. J. O’Connor, ed., A Critical History of Western Philosophy. New York: The Free Press, 79-97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McRae, John. 1986. The Northern School and the Formation of Early Ch’an Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2003. Seeing through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ñāṇamoli and Bodhi, trans. 1995. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Poceski, Mario. 2006. “Guishan Jingce (Guishan’s Admonitions) and the Ethical Foundations of Chan Practice.” In Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright, eds., Zen Classics: Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press, 15-42.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 2004. “Mazu Yulu and the Creation of the Chan Records of Sayings.” In Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright, eds., The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts. New York: Oxford University Press, 53-79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. ———. 2007. Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ricoeur, Paul. 1999. “Memory and Forgetting.” In Richard Kearney and Mark Dooley, eds., Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy. London: Routledge, 5-11.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 2004a. Memory, History, Forgetting. Trans. by Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2004b. “The Difficulty to Forgive.” In Maureen Junker-Kenny and Peter Kenny, eds., Memory, Narrativity, Self and the Challenge to Think God: The Reception within Theology of the Recent Work of Paul Ricoeur. Münster: Germany: LIT, 6-16.Google Scholar
  47. Schlütter, Morten. 2008. How Zen Became Zen: The Dispute over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-Dynasty China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sharf, Robert. 2014. “Mindfullness and Mindlessness in Early Chan.” Philosophy East and West 64.4: 933-964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2002. “On Pure Land Buddhism and Ch’an/Pure Land Syncretism in Medieval China.” Toung Pao 88.4-5: 282-331.Google Scholar
  50. Shaw, Sarah. 2006. Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pali Canon. London and New York: Routledge,Google Scholar
  51. Shinpan Zengaku daijiten 新版禪學大辭典 (The New Edition of the Great Dictionary of Chan Buddhism). 1985. Ed. by Zengaku Daijiten Hensanjo. Tokyo: Taishukan shoten.Google Scholar
  52. Shulman, Eviatar. 2010. “Mindful Wisdom: The Sati-Paṭṭhāna-Sutta on Mindfulness, Memory, and Liberation.” History of Religions 49.4: 393-420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang, Youru. 2007. “Deconstructing Karma and the Aporia of the Ethical in Hongzhou Chan Buddhism.” In Youru Wang, ed., Deconstruction and the Ethical in Asian Thought. London and New York: Routledge, 81-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. ———. 2017. Historical Dictionary of Chan Buddhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  55. ———. 2003. Linguistic Strategies in Daoist Zhuangzi and Chan Buddhism: The Other Way of Speaking. London: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 2012. “Paradoxicality of Institution, De-Institutionalization and the Counter-Institutional: A Case Study in Classical Chinese Chan Buddhist Thought.” Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11.1: 21-37.Google Scholar
  57. Watson, Burton, trans. 1968. The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wayman, Alex. 1992. “Buddhist Terms for Recollection and Other Types of Memory.” in Gyatso 1992: 133-147.Google Scholar
  59. Yanagida Seizan 柳田聖山, ed. and trans. 1971. Shoki no zenshi 初期の禪史 (The Early History of Chan Buddhism). Vol. 1: Ryōga shiji ki, Den hōbō ki 楞伽師資記, 傳法宝記 (Records of the Masters and Disciples of the Lengqie [Jing], Annals of the Transmission of the Dharma Treasure). Zen no goroku 禪の語錄 2. Tokyo: Chikuma shobō.Google Scholar
  60. ———, ed. and trans. 1976. Shoki no zenshi 初期の禪史 (The Early History of Chan Buddhism). Vol. 2: Rekidai hōbō ki 歷代法寶記 (Records of the Dharma-Jewel through the Generations). Zen no goroku 禪の語錄 3, Tokyo: Chikuma shobō.Google Scholar
  61. Yang Zengwen 楊曾文, ed. 1996. Shenhui Heshang Chanhua Lu 神會和尚禪話錄 (Recorded Sayings on Chan by Monk Shenhui). Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 1999. Tang Wudai Chanzong Shi 唐五代禪宗史 (History of Chan Buddhism in the Tang and Five Dynasties). Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  63. ———, ed. 2001. Xinban Dunhuang Xinben Liuzu Tanjing 新版敦煌新本六祖壇經 (The New Edition of the Newly Discovered Dunhuang Version of the Platform Scripture of the Sixth Patriarch). Beijing: Zongjiao Wenhua Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  64. Yampolsky, Philip, trans. 1967. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Yifa. 2002. The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  66. Zhuangzi Yinde 莊子引得: A Concordance to Chuang Tzu. 1966. Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series, Supplement No. 20. Taibei: Chinese Materials and Research Aids Service Center.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rowan UniversityGlassboroUSA

Personalised recommendations