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Lipids in Plant Mitochondria

  • Radin SadreEmail author
  • Margrit Frentzen
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 30)

Summary

Mitochondria perform a variety of fundamental functions and are of pivotal importance in plant physiology and development. They possess a typical membrane lipid composition that is largely conserved in all eukaryotes. To establish and maintain their lipid pattern, they have to cooperate with other organelles, where a significant portion of their lipids are produced and subsequently assembled into the mitochondrial membranes. Certain lipids are, however, synthesized by the mitochondria themselves. Recent data provide new insight into the mitochondrial lipid biosynthetic pathways and the importance of their reaction products for mitochondrial structure and function. Mitochondrial de novo fatty acid synthesis, for instance, produces the precursor for the formation of lipoate, a sulfur-containing cofactor of several mitochondrial multi-enzyme complexes. This pathway has been shown to be indispensable for photoautotrophic growth of C3 plants to meet the high demand of lipoylated glycine decarboxylase complexes catalyzing a key step in photorespiration. Polyprenyl diphosphates are channeled into mitochondrial ubiquinone synthesis by a para-hydroxybenzoate prenyltransferase. The central role of ubiquinone in oxidative phosphorylation is reflected in the embryo-lethal phenotype of plant mutants lacking mitochondrial prenyltransferase activity. In addition, de novo glycerolipid synthesis results in the formation of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin, the typical mitochondrial membrane lipid with a unique tetraacyl structure. Mitochondria were found to require a defined level of these anionic lipids for proper structural integrity and function. Hereby phosphati-dylglycerol can partly substitute cardiolipin. Cardiolipin is, however, essential for optimal mitochondrial functions and for maintaining mitochondrial activities under unfavorable conditions. Furthermore, cardioli-pin has been shown to play a decisive role in controlling the dynamic equilibrium between mitochondrial fission and fusion and is indispensable for proper plant development.

Keywords

Phosphatidic Acid Lipoic Acid Plant Mitochondrion Isopentenyl Diphosphate Dimethylallyl Diphosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACP

Acyl carrier protein

CDP-DAG

Cytidine 5′-diphosphate-diacylglycerol

CL

Cardiolipin

DGDG

Digalactosyldiacylglycerol

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GroP

Glycerol-3-phosphate

IPI

Isopente-nyl diphosphate isomerase

KAS

β-Ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase

LPA

Lysophosphatidic acid, 1-acylglyc-erol-3-phosphate

mtKAS

Mitochondrial β-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase

PHB

Para-hydroxybenzoate

PA

Phosphatidic acid

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PG

Phosphatidylglycerol

PGP

Phosphatidylglycerophosphate

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PS

Phosphatidylserine

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to K. Katayama, S. Tanabashi, N. Nagata and H. Wada for sharing unpublished data and K. Katayama and H. Wada for providing us with Fig. 5. The work conducted in the authors' laboratory was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Biology IBotanyGermany

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