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Advanced Mass Spectrometry Methods for Analysis of Lipids from Photosynthetic Organisms

  • Bettina Seiwert
  • Patrick Giavalisco
  • Lothar Willmitzer
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 30)

Summary

The analysis of lipids is technically very challenging, not only due to the large number of various classes of compounds provided by the cell, but also due to the enormous heterogeneity of these various classes. Especially plants with their large pigment content and their high degree of polyunsaturated acyl residues make lipid analysis in this system even more complicated. Due to this high complexity, more and more sophisticated large-scale lipid-analysis systems have been developed, intended for the analysis of the so-called “lipidome”, that is the entire lipid composition of a cell or a whole organism. These methods often consist of various building blocks, which show interlaced modularity. The two basic elements of a lipidomic analysis are an efficient extraction procedure and a sensitive detection system. In addition to these two basic elements, depending on the analytical question, additional separation and sample purification procedures can be introduced. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques are at the forefront of lipidomic analysis. These extremely sensitive and accurate detection methods are applied to investigate all kinds of lipid. Their application, in combination with various plant-specific techniques of extraction and separation, including solid-phase extraction, thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are presented in this chapter. Most of the MS-based technologies for lipid profiling of partially polar lipids rely on electrospray ionization, while more apolar lipids, like sterols, can be ionized by techniques, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. A number of various applications employing these mass spectrometric methods will be discussed. Finally combinations of various separation and detection technologies, so-called hyphenated approaches, such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or gas chromatography coupled to time of flight or quad-rupole mass spectrometry, are introduced and their suitability for lipid analysis are discussed.

Keywords

Lipid Class Direct Infusion High Resolution More Specific Evaporative Light Scatter Detector Plant Lipid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ASG

Acetylated steryl glycosides

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

APPI

Atmospheric pressure photoionization

CAD

Charged aerosol detector

Cer

Ceramide

DGTA

Diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyltrimethylalanine

DGTS

Diacylglyceryltri-methylhomoserine

DGDG

Digalactosyl diacylglycerol

ESI

Electrospray ionization

ELSD

Evaporative light scattering detector

FID

Flame ionization detection

GC

Gas chro-matography

GlcCer

Glycosyl ceramide

GIPC

Glycosyl inositol phosphatidyl ceramide

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

LCB

Long-chain base

MS

Mass spectrometry

MALDI

Matrix assisted laser desorption ioni-zation

MGDG

Monogalactosyl diacylglycerol

NPLC

Normal phase liquid chromatography

PA

Phosphatidic acid

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PG

Phosphatidylglycerol

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PS

Phos-phatidylserine

RPLC

Reversed-phase liquid chromatogra-phy

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SG

Steryl glycosides

SQDG

Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol

TLC

Thin-layer chromatography

UV

Ultraviolet

X:Y

X number of carbon atoms and Y number of double bonds

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bettina Seiwert
    • 1
  • Patrick Giavalisco
    • 1
  • Lothar Willmitzer
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Wissenschaftspark GolmPotsdam-GolmGermany

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