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Biosynthesis and Biotechnology of Seed Lipids Including Sterols, Carotenoids and Tocochromanols

  • Knut Meyer
  • Anthony J. Kinney
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 30)

Summary

This chapter will take a broad look at non-acyl and acyl lipids found in seed. Initially it will focus on certain non-acyl lipids, such as sterols, carotenoids and tocochromanols. It will provide a brief overview of the function of these molecules in plants with a focus on seeds, review information on biosynthetic pathways and attempts at altering quality and quantity of these molecules through metabolic engineering. Our subsequent review of acyl lipid biosynthesis will mainly focus on recent findings related to modification of the pathways providing energy, reductant and carbon for fatty acid biosynthesis that allows for high levels of acyl lipid accumulation during seed filling. This section will have a specific focus on the interaction of primary metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis. We will then briefly review fatty acid biosynthesis in seed plastids and cytosolic assembly of seed storage and membrane lipids in seed. Finally developmental regulation of seed storage lipid accumulation and transgenic approaches to increase the total oil content of seeds will be summarized.

Keywords

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Carotenoid Biosynthesis Seed Filling Phytosterol Content Tocopherol Biosynthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACCase

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

ACP

Acyl-carrier protein

CRTO

Algal β carotene ketolase

CRTZ

Bacterial β carotene hydroxylase

CRTW

Bacterial β carotene ketolase

BCCP

Biotin carboxyl carrier protein

CRTISO

Carotenoid isomerase

CoA

Coenzyme A

DGAT

Diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase

DHAP

Dihydroxyacetone-3-phospate

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FAD

Fatty acid desaturase

GC/MS

Gas chromatography/mass-spectroscopy

GGDP

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate

GAP

Glyceraldehyde-3phospate

GPAT

Glycerolphosphate:acyl-CoA acyltransferase

HGGT

Homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase

HMGR

Hydroxymethylglutaryl(HMG)-CoA reductase

HPPD

Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase

IPP

Isopentenyldiphosphate

KAS

Ketoacyl synthase

LPAAT

Lysophosphatidic acid:acyl-CoA acyltransferase

MEP

Methylerythritolphosphate pathway

OPPP

Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

Pi

Phosphate

PEP

Phosphoenolpyruvate

PGA

Phosphoglycerate

PDS

Phytoene desaturase

PPK

Phytol phosphate kinase

PDH

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

PK

Pyruvate kinase

QTL

Quantitative traite locus

RuBP

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

RuBisCo

Ribulose-1,5bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SAM

S-adenosyl methionine

SMT

Sterol methyltransferase

T-DNA

Transfer-DNA

TCA

Tricarboxylic acid cycle

TAG

Triacylglycerol

VLCFA

Very long chain fatty acid

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Genetics Research and DevelopmentDuPont Experimental StationWilmingtonUSA

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