Regulatory Roles in Photosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids
- 2.4k Downloads
The diversity of lipids in thylakoid membranes and their unique characteristics, in addition to their specific orientation in these membranes, strongly suggest that they play specific and important roles in the thylakoid membrane. In the chloroplasts of plants and algae, as well as in cyanobacterial cells, most of the photosyn-thetic machinery is embedded in thylakoid membranes, which are composed of proteins, lipids and pigments. Alterations in the extent of unsaturation of fatty acids in membrane lipids are expected to affect the physical characteristics of the membranes and, consequently, the activities of the photosynthetic machinery. The availability of entire genome sequences and an understanding of the functions of the individual genes for fatty acid desaturases in cyanobacteria led to the successful site-directed mutagenesis of such genes that reduced the extent of unsaturation of fatty acids in membrane lipids in a step-wise manner and, also, to the genetic transformation of cyanobacterial cells and whole plants that increased the extent of unsaturation of fatty acids in lipids of thylakoid membranes. Characterization of the photosynthetic properties of the transformed cyanobacteria and higher plants revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for protection of the photosynthetic machinery against environmental stresses, such as strong light, salt stress, and high and low temperatures. Moreover, the available evidence suggests that the unsaturation of fatty acids enhances the repair of the photosystem II complex that has been damaged by strong light under stress conditions.
KeywordsSalt Stress Thylakoid Membrane Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Fatty Acid Desaturases Photosynthetic Machinery
Fourier transform infrared
- PS I
- PS II
Fatty acid in which X and Y indicate numbers of carbon atoms and double bonds, respectively, and Z in parenthesis indicates the position of double bond as counted from the carboxyl terminus of the fatty-acyl chain.
This work was supported, in part, by the Cooperative Research Program on the Stress Tolerance of Plants of the National Institute for Basic Biology to Norio Murata, and by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Molecular and Cell Biology Program of the Russian Academy of Sciences (to Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev and Dmitry A. Los).
- Ariizumi T, Kishitani S, Inatsugi R, Nishida I, Murata N and Toriyama K (2002) An increase in unsaturation of fatty acids in phosphatidylglycerol from leaves improves the rates of photosynthesis and growth at low temperatures in transgenic rice seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol 43: 751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Frentzen M, Nishida I and Murata N (1987) Properties of the plastidial acyl-(acyl-carrier protein): glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from the chilling-sensitive plant squash (Cucurbita moschata). Plant Cell Physiol 28: 1195–1201Google Scholar
- Gombos Z and Murata N (1998) Genetic engineering of the unsaturation of membrane glycerolipid: effects on the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to tolerate temperature stress. In: Siegenthaler P-A and Murata N (eds) Lipids in Photosynthesis: Structure, Function and Genetics. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 249–262Google Scholar
- Macartney AI, Maresca B and Cossins AR (1994) Acyl-CoA desaturases and the adaptive regulation of membrane lipid composition. In: Cossins AR (ed) Temperature Adaptation of Biological Membranes. Portland Press, London, pp. 129–139Google Scholar
- Nishida I, Frentzen M, Ishizaki O and Murata N (1987) Purification of isomeric forms of acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from greening squash cotyledons. Plant Cell Physiol 28: 1071–1079Google Scholar
- Ohnishi N, Allakhverdiev SI, Takahashi S, Higashi S, Watanabe M, Nishiyama Y and Murata N (2005) The two-step mechanism of photodamage to photosystem II: step one occurs at the oxygen-evolving complex and step two occurs at the photochemical reaction center. Biochemistry 44: 8494–8499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Popova AV, Velitchkova M and Zanev Y (2007) Effect of membrane fluidity on photosynthetic oxygen production reactions. Z Naturforsch [C] 62: 253–260Google Scholar
- Sakamoto A, Sulpice R, Hou C-X, Kinoshita M, Higashi S, Kanaseki T, Nonaka H, Moon BY and Murata N (2003) Genetic modification of fatty acid unsaturation of phos-phatidylglycerol in chloroplasts alters the sensitivity of tobacco plants to cold stress. Plant Cell Environ 27: 99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wu J and Browse J (1995) Elevated levels of high-melting-point phosphatidylglycerols do not induce chilling sensitivity in an Arabidopsis mutant. Plant Cell 1: 17–27Google Scholar