Tools and Recent Progress in Studying Gene Flow and Population Genetics of the Bemisia tabaci Sibling Species Group

  • Margarita HadjistylliEmail author
  • Judith K. Brown
  • George K. Roderick


The use of molecular markers in the Bemisia tabaci complex has been a definitive step in identifying the enormous genetic diversity hidden behind the morphological likeness among its members (see Gill and Brown, Chapter 1), and in determining interrelationships. The presence of biologically-based biotypes in B. tabaci was first realized in the 1950s by Bird (Bird 1957; Bird and Maramorosch 1978), who found that morphologically indistinguishable populations of the whitefly differed substantially in biological and ecological traits, including host range, adaptability to different hosts, and plant virus-transmission efficiencies. Later studies used ecological and biological experiments to examine mating compatibilities as well as differences among distinct populations in phytotoxic induction, insecticide resistance, behavior (Brown et al. 1995b).


Genetic Differentiation Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Microsatellite Locus Cleave Amplify Polymorphic Sequence AFLP Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Abdullahi I, Atiri GI, Thottappilly G, Winter S. 2004. Discrimination of cassava-associated Bemisia tabaci in Africa from polyphagous populations, by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. J. Appl. Entomol. 128:81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullahi I, Winter S, Atiri GI, Thottappilly G. 2003. Molecular characterization of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations infesting cassava. Bull. Entomol. Res. 93:97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony N, Brown JK, Markham PG, ffrench-Constant RH. 1995. Molecular analysis of cyclodiene resistance-associated mutations among populations of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 51:220–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avise JC. 2004. Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  5. Ballard JWO, Whitlock MC. 2004. The incomplete natural history of mitochondria. Mol. Ecol. 13:729–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks GK, Colvin J, Chowda Reddy RV, Maruthi MN, Muniyappa V. 2001. First report of the Bemisia tabaci B biotype in India and an associated tomato leaf curl virus disease epidemic. Plant Dis. 85:231.Google Scholar
  7. Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Rosell RC, Markham PG. 1994. Geminivirus transmission and biological characterization of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes from different geographic regions. Ann. Appl. Biol. 125:311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behura SK. 2006. Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues. Mol. Ecol. 15:3087–3113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellows TS, Perring TM, Gill RJ, Headrick DH. 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87:195–206.Google Scholar
  10. Bensch S, Akesson M. 2005. Ten years of AFLP in ecology and evolution: why so few animals? Mol. Ecol. 14:2899–2914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berry SD, Fondong VN, Rey C, Rogan D, Fauquet CM, Brown JK. 2004. Molecular evidence for five distinct Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) geographic haplotypes associated with cassava plants in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97:852–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bird J. 1957. A whitefly-transmitted mosaic of Jatropha gossypifolia. Tech. Pap. P. R. Agric. Exp. Stn. 22:1–35.Google Scholar
  13. Bird J, Maramorosch K. 1978. Viruses and virus diseases associated with whiteflies. Adv. Virus Res. 22:55–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Black WC. 1993. PCR with arbitrary primers: approach with care. Insect Mol. Biol. 2:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Black WC, Duteau NM, Puterka GJ, Nechols JR, Pettorini JM. 1992. Use of the random amplified polymorphic DNA – polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) to detect DNA polymorphisms in aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 82:151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bosco D, Loria A, Sartor C, Cenis JL. 2006. PCR-RFLP identification of Bemisia tabaci biotypes in the Mediterranean basin. Phytoparasitica 34:243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Botstein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW. 1980. Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32:314–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown JK. 2007. The Bemisia tabaci complex: genetic and phenotypic variability drives begomovirus spread and virus diversification. Plant Dis. APSNet Feature Article. January 2008.
  19. Brown JK, Bird J. 1992. Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in the Americas and the Caribbean Basin: past and present. Plant Dis. 76:220–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown JK, Bird J. 1996. Introduction of an exotic whitefly (Bemisia) vector facilitates secondary spread of Jatropha mosaic virus, a geminivirus previously vectored exclusively by the Jatropha biotype. In Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, ed. D Gerling, RT Mayer, pp. 351–353. Wimborne: Intercept Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Brown JK, Coats SA, Bedford ID, Markham PG, Bird J, Frohlich DR. 1995a. Characterization and distribution of esterase electromorphs in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biochem. Genet. 33:205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown JK, Fletcher D, Bird J. 1993. First report of Passiflora leaf mottle caused by a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus in Puerto Rico. Plant Dis. 77:1264.Google Scholar
  23. Brown JK, Frohlich DR, Rosell RC. 1995b. The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of Bemisia tabaci or a species complex? Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40:511–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown JK, Perring TM, Cooper AD, Bedford ID, Markham PG. 2000. Genetic analysis of Bemisia (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Biochem. Genet. 38:13–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burban C, Fishpool LDC, Fauquet C, Fargette D, Thouvenel JC. 1992. Host-associated biotypes within West African populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 113:416–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buth DG. 1984. The application of electrophoretic data in systematic studies. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15:501–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Byrne FJ, Cahill M, Denholm I, Devonshire AL. 1995. Biochemical identification of interbreeding between B type and non B-type strains of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Biochem. Genet. 33:13–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Byrne FJ, Devonshire AL. 1993. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase and esterase polymorphism in susceptible and resistant populations of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 45:34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Byrne FJ, Devonshire AL. 1996. Biochemical evidence of haplodiploidy in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Biochem. Genet. 34:93–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Byrne FJ, Gorman KJ, Cahill M, Denholm I, Devonshire AL. 2000. The role of B-type esterases in conferring insecticide resistance in the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Pest Manage. Sci. 56:867–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Caballero R. 2007. Systematics of the Bemisia tabaci complex and the role of endosymbionts in reproductive compatibility. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, 107pp.Google Scholar
  32. Callen DF, Thompson AD, Shen Y, Phillips HA, Richards RI, Mulley JC, Sutherland GR. 1993. Incidence and origin of null alleles in the (AC)n microsatellite markers. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 52:922–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cervera MT, Cabezas JA, Simon B, Martinez-Zapater JM, Beitia F, Cenis JL. 2000. Genetic relationships among biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on AFLP analysis. Bull. Entomol. Res. 90:391–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coats SA, Brown JK, Hendrix DL. 1994. Biochemical characterization of biotype specific esterases in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 24:723–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Costa HS, Brown JK. 1990. Variability in biological characteristics, isozyme patterns and virus transmission among populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in Arizona. Phytopathology 80:888.Google Scholar
  36. Costa HS, Brown JK. 1991. Variation in biological characteristics and esterase patterns among populations of Bemisia tabaci, and the association of one population with silverleaf symptom induction. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 61:211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Costa HS, Brown JK, Sivasupramaniam S, Bird J. 1993. Regional distribution insecticide resistance, and reciprocal crosses between the A-biotype and B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci. Insect Sci. Appl. 14:255–266.Google Scholar
  38. Dakin EE, Avise JC. 2004. Microsatellite null alleles in parentage analysis. Heredity 93:504–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dalmon A, Halkett F, Granier M, Delatte H, Peterschmitt M. 2008. Genetic structure of the invasive pest Bemisia tabaci: evidence of limited but persistent genetic differentiation in glasshouse populations. Heredity 100:316–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davies N, Villablanca FX, Roderick GK. 1999. Determining the source of individuals: multilocus genotyping in nonequilibrium population genetics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. De Barro PJ. 2005. Genetic structure of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the Asia-Pacific region revealed using microsatellite markers. Mol. Ecol. 14:3695–3718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Barro PJ, Driver F. 1997. Use of RAPD PCR to distinguish the B biotype from other biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Aust. J. Entomol. 36:149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Barro PJ, Driver F, Trueman JWH, Curran J. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of world populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using ribosomal ITS1. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16:29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Barro PJ, Liebregts W, Carver M. 1998. Distribution and identity of biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in member countries of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Aust. J. Entomol. 37:214–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. De Barro PJ, Scott KD, Graham GC, Lange CL, Schutze MK. 2003. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Bemisia tabaci. Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:40–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. De Barro PJ, Trueman JWH, Frohlich DR. 2005. Bemisia argentifolii is a race of B. tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): the molecular genetic differentiation of B. tabaci populations around the world. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95:193–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Delatte H, David P, Granier M, Lett JM, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M, Reynaud B. 2006. Microsatellites reveal extensive geographical, ecological and genetic contacts between invasive and indigenous whitefly biotypes in an insular environment. Genet. Res. 87:109–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Delatte H, Reynaud B, Granier M, Thornary L, Lett JM, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M. 2005. A new silverleaf-inducing biotype Ms of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) indigenous to the islands of the south-west Indian Ocean. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95:29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Demichelis S, Bosco D, Manino A, Marian D, Caciagli P. 2000. Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in Italy. Can. Entomol. 132:519–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DeWoody J, Nason JD, Hipkins VD. 2006. Mitigating scoring errors in microsatellite data from wild populations. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6:951–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dobrowolski MP, Tommerup IC, Blakeman HD, O’Brien PA. 2002. Non-mendelian inheritance revealed in a genetic analysis of sexual progeny of Phytophthora cinnamomi with microsatellite markers. Fungal Genet. Biol. 35:197–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Edwards OR, Hoy MA. 1993. Polymorphism in two parasitoids detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction. Biol. Control 3:243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ellegren H. 2004. Microsatellites: simple sequences with complex evolution. Nat. Rev. Genet. 5:435–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ellegren H. 2008. News and views: sequencing goes 454 and takes large-scale genomics into the wild. Mol. Ecol. 17:1629–1631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Emerson BC, Paradis E, Thebaud C. 2001. Revealing the demographic histories of species using DNA sequences. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16:707–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Endersby NM, McKechnie SW, Vogel H, Gahan LJ, Baxter SW, Ridland PM, Weeks AR. 2005. Microsatellites isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), for studies of dispersal in Australian populations. Mol. Ecol. Notes 5:51–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Estoup A, Jarne P, Cornuet JM. 2002. Homoplasy and mutation model at microsatellite loci and their consequences for population genetics analysis. Mol. Ecol. 11:1591–1604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Excoffier L, Heckel G. 2006. Computer programs for population genetics data analysis: a survival guide. Nat. Rev. Genet. 7:745–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gauthier N, Dalleau-Clouet C, Bouvret M-E. 2008. Twelve new polymorphic microsatellite loci and PCR multiplexing in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 8:1004–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gawel NJ, Bartlett AC. 1993. Characterization of differences between whiteflies using RAPD-PCR. Insect Mol. Biol. 2:33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Guillot G, Santos F, Estoup A. 2008. Analysing georeferenced population genetics data with Geneland: a new algorithm to deal with null alleles and a friendly graphical user interface. Bioinformatics 24:1406–1407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Guirao P, Beitia F, Cenis JL. 1997. Biotype determination of Spanish populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 87:587–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gunning RV, Byrne FJ, Conde BD, Connelly MI, Hergstrom K, Devonshire AL. 1995. First report of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 34:116–120.Google Scholar
  64. Gunning RV, Byrne FJ, Devonshire AL. 1997. Electrophoretic analysis of non-B and B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Aust. J. Entomol. 36:245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hadrys H, Balick M, Schierwater B. 1992. Applications of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in molecular ecology. Mol. Ecol. 1:55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harris H. 1966. Enzyme polymorphisms in man. Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 164:298–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harris SA. 1999. RAPDs in systematics – a useful methodology? In Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution, ed. PM Hollingsworth, RM Bateman, RJ Gornall, pp. 211–228. London: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hartle D, Clark A. 2007. Principles of Population Genetics. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  69. Horowitz AR, Denholm I, Gorman K, Cenis JL, Kontsedalov S, Ishaaya I. 2003. Biotype Q of Bemisia tabaci identified in Israel. Phytoparasitica 31:94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoy M. 2003. Insect Molecular Genetics: An Introduction to Principles and Applications. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hubby JL, Lewontin RC. 1966. A molecular approach to study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations.I. Number of alleles at different loci in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54:595–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jansen RC, Geerlings H, Van Oeveren AJ, Van Schaik RC. 2001. A comment on codominant scoring of AFLP markers. Genetics 158:925–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jarne P, Lagoda PJL. 1996. Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11:424–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnson FM, Kanapi CG, Richardson RH, Wheeler MR, Stone WS. 1966. An analysis of polymorphisms among isozyme loci in dark and light Drosophila ananassae strains from American and Western Samoa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56:119–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jones CJ, Edwards KJ, Castaglione S, Winfield MO, Sala F. 1997. Reproducibility testing of RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers in plants by a network of European laboratories. Mol. Breed. 3:381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Karl SA, Avise JC. 1992. Balancing selection at allozyme loci in oysters – implications from nuclear RFLPs. Science 256:100–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khasdan V, Levin I, Rosner A, Morin S, Kontsedalov S, Maslenin L, Horowitz AR. 2005. DNA markers for identifying biotypes B and Q of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and studying population dynamics. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95:605–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kim KS, Sappington TW. 2006. Molecular genetic variation of boll weevil populations in North America estimated with microsatellites: implications for patterns of dispersal. Genetica 127:143–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirk AA, Lacey LA, Brown JK, Ciomperlik MA, Goolsby JA, Vacek DC, Wendel LE, Napompeth B. 2000. Variation in the Bemisia tabaci s. l. species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies leading to successful biological control of Bemisia biotype B in the USA. Bull. Entomol. Res. 90:317–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Legg JP, French R, Rogan D, Okao-Okuja G, Brown JK. 2002. A distinct Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) genotype cluster is associated with the epidemic of severe cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda. Mol. Ecol. 11:1219–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Levinson G, Gutman GA. 1987. Slipped-strand mispairing – a major mechanism for DNA-sequence evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4:203–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lima LHC, Campos L, Moretzsohn MC, Navia D, de Oliveira MRV. 2002. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) populations in Brazil revealed by RAPD markers. Genet. Mol. Biol. 25:217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lima LHC, Navia D, Inglis PW, de Oliveira MRV. 2000. Survey of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in Brazil using RAPD markers. Genet. Mol. Biol. 23:781–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Liu SS, De Barro PJ, Xu J, Luan JB, Zang LS, Ruan YM, Wan FH. 2007. Asymmetric mating interactions drive widespread invasion and displacement in a whitefly. Science 318:1769–1772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lowe A, Harris S, Ashton P. 2004. Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  86. Luikart G, England PR. 1999. Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14:253–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lynch M, Milligan BG. 1994. Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markers. Mol. Ecol. 3:91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marjoram P, Tavaré S. 2006. Modern computational approaches for analyzing molecular genetic variation data. Nat. Rev. Genet. 7:759–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Seal S. 2001. Mating compatibility, life-history traits, and RAPD-PCR variation in Bemisia tabaci associated with the cassava mosaic disease pandemic in East Africa. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 99:13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Seal S, Gibson G, Cooper J. 2002. Co-adaptation between cassava mosaic geminiviruses and their local vector populations. Virus Res. 86:71–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McKenzie CL, Anderson PK, Villarreal N. 2004. An extensive survey of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in agricultural ecosystems in Florida. Fla. Entomol. 87:403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mitton JB. 1994. Molecular approaches to population biology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25:45–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Moya A, Guirao P, Cifuentes D, Beitia F, Cenis JL. 2001. Genetic diversity of Iberian populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Ecol. 10:891–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mueller UG, Wolfenbarger LL. 1999. AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14:389–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mullis K, Faloona F, Scharf S, Saiki R, Horn G, Erlich H. 1986. Specific enzymatic amplification of DNA in vitro – the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 51:263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nei M. 1976. Mathematical models of speciation and genetic distance. In Population Genetics and Ecology, ed. S Karlin, E Neve, pp. 723–765. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. Parker PG, Snow AA, Schug MD, Booton GC, Fuerst PA. 1998. What molecules can tell us about populations: choosing and using a molecular marker. Ecology 79:361–382.Google Scholar
  98. Parsons YM, Shaw KL. 2002. Mapping unexplored genomes: a genetic linkage map of the Hawaiian cricket Laupala. Genetics 162:1275–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Pemberton JM, Slate J, Bancroft DR, Barrett JA. 1995. Nonamplifying alleles at microsatellite loci – a caution for parentage and population studies. Mol. Ecol. 4:249–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Perring TM. 2001. The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop Prot. 20:725–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Perring TM, Cooper A, Kazmer DJ. 1992. Identification of the poinsettia strain of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on broccoli by electrophoresis. J. Econ. Entomol. 85:1278–1284.Google Scholar
  102. Perring TM, Cooper AD, Rodriguez RJ, Farrar CA, Bellows TS, Jr. 1993. Identification of a whitefly species by genomic and behavioral studies. Science 259:74–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Prabhaker N, Coudriet DL, Meyerdirk DE. 1987. Discrimination of 3 whitefly species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) by electrophoresis of nonspecific esterases. J. Appl. Entomol. 103:447–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Qiu BL, Coats SA, Ren SX, Dris AM, Xu CX, Brown JK. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of native and introduced Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from China and India based on mtCO1 DNA sequencing and host plant comparisons. Prog. Nat. Sci. 17:645–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rekha AR, Maruthi MN, Muniyappa V, Colvin J. 2005. Occurrence of three genotypic clusters of Bemisia tabaci and the rapid spread of the B biotype in south India. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 117:221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Robinson JP, Harris SA. 1999. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites: a phylogenetic perspective. In Which DNA Marker for Which Purpose? ed. EM Gillet, pp. 1–27. Göttingen, Germany: Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen.Google Scholar
  107. Roderick GK. 1996. Geographic structure of insect populations: gene flow, phylogeography, and their uses. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 41:325–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rosell RC, Bedford ID, Frohlich DR, Gill RJ, Markham PG, Brown JK. 1997. Analyses of morphological variation in distinct populations of Bemisia tabaci. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90:575–589.Google Scholar
  109. Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA-polymerase. Science 239:487–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schierwater B, Ender A. 1993. Different thermostable DNA polymerases may amplify different RAPD products. Nucleic Acids Res. 21:4647–4648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schlötterer C. 2000. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite DNA. Chromosoma 109:365–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schlötterer C. 2001. Genealogical inference of closely related species based on microsatellites. Genet. Res. 78:209–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schlötterer C. 2004. The evolution of molecular markers – just a matter of fashion? Nat. Rev. Genet. 5:63–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schlötterer C, Pemberton J. 1994. The use of microsatellites for genetic analysis of natural populations. In Molecular Ecology and Evolution: Approaches and Applications, ed. B Schierwater, B Streit, GP Wagner, R DeSalle, pp. 203–214. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schlötterer C, Tautz D. 1992. Slippage synthesis of simple sequence DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Selkoe KA, Toonen RJ. 2006. Microsatellites for ecologists: a practical guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers. Ecol. Lett. 9:615–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Simon B, Cenis JL, De La Rua P. 2007. Distribution patterns of the Q and B biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Basin based on microsatellite variation. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 124:327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Simon B, Cenis JL, Demichelis S, Rapisarda C, Caciagli P, Bosco D. 2003. Survey of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in Italy with the description of a new biotype (T) from Euphorbia characias. Bull. Entomol. Res. 93:259–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith KL, Alberts SC, Bayes MK, Bruford MW, Altmann J, Ober C. 2000. Cross-species amplification, non-invasive genotyping, and non-Mendelian inheritance of human STRPs in Savannah baboons. Am. J. Primatol. 51:219–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sseruwagi P, Legg JP, Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Rey MEC, Brown JK. 2005. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations and presence of the B biotype and a non-B biotype that can induce silverleaf symptoms in squash, in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 147:253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sseruwagi P, Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Rey MEC, Brown JK, Legg JP. 2006. Colonization of non-cassava plant species by cassava whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in Uganda. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 119:145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sseruwagi P, Rey MEC, Brown JK, Legg J. 2004. The cassava mosaic geminiviruses occuring in Uganda following the 1990s epidemic of severe mosaic disease. Ann. Appl. Biol. 145:113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tautz D. 1989. Hypervariability of simple sequences as a general source for polymorphic DNA markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:6463–6471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tsagkarakou A, Roditakis N. 2003. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 3:196–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tsagkarakou A, Tsigenopoulos CS, Gorman K, Lagnel J, Bedford ID. 2007. Biotype status and genetic polymorphism of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Greece: mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites. Bull. Entomol. Res. 97:29–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Viard F, Franck P, Dubois MP, Estoup A, Jarne P. 1998. Variation of microsatellite size homoplasy across electromorphs, loci, and populations in three invertebrate species. J. Mol. Evol. 47:42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, Vandelee T, Hornes M, Frijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuiper M. 1995. AFLP – a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:4407–4414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weber JL, Wong C. 1993. Mutation of human short tandem repeats. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2:1123–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Welsh J, McClelland M. 1990. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:7213–7218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Williams JGK, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:6531–6535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wilson IJ, Balding DJ. 1998. Genealogical inference from microsatellite data. Genetics 150:499–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wong A, Forbes MR, Smith ML. 2001. Characterization of AFLP markers in damselflies: prevalence of codominant markers and implications for population genetic applications. Genome 44:677–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wool D, Gerling D, Bellotti AC, Morales FJ. 1993. Esterase electrophoretic variation in Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) among host plants and localities in Israel. J. Appl. Entomol. 115:185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wool D, Gerling D, Bellotti A, Morales F, Nolt B. 1991. Spatial and temporal genetic variation in populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in Israel and Colombia – an interim report. Insect Sci. Appl. 12:225–230.Google Scholar
  135. Wool D, Gerling D, Nolt BL, Constantino LM, Bellotti AC, Morales FJ. 1989. The use of electrophoresis for identification of adult whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Israel and Colombia. J. Appl. Entomol. 107:344–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yan G, Romero-Severson J, Walton M, Chadee DD, Severson DW. 1999. Population genetics of the yellow fever mosquito in Trinidad: comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Mol. Ecol. 8:951–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhang DX, Hewitt GM. 2003. Nuclear DNA analyses in genetic studies of populations: practice, problems and prospects. Mol. Ecol. 12:563–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhang LP, Zhang YJ, Zhang WJ, Wu QJ, Xu BY, Chu D. 2005. Analysis of genetic diversity among different geographical populations and determination of biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in China. J. Appl. Entomol. 129:121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Hadjistylli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Judith K. Brown
    • 2
  • George K. Roderick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.School of Plant Sciences, The University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations