Advertisement

Phylogenetic Biology of the Bemisia tabaci Sibling Species Group

  • Judith K. BrownEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Whiteflies are classified in the family Aleyrodidae (Sternorrhyncha: Hemiptera [suborder Homoptera]) (Mound 1984; Mound and Halsey 1978). The closest relatives to whiteflies are aphids, mealybugs, psyllids, and scales, which all feed using piercing and sucking mouthparts (Martin 1987, 2003; Martin and Mound 2007).

Keywords

Gene Flow Insecticide Resistance Female Offspring Major Clade Sister Clade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Abdullah NMM, Singh J, Sohal BS. 2006. Behavioral hormoligosis in oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci on cotton. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 84:10–16.Google Scholar
  2. Abdullahi I, Winter S, Atiri GI, Thottappilly G. 2003. Molecular characterization of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations infesting cassava. Bull. Entomol. Res. 93:97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alon M, Benting J, Lueke B, Ponge T, Alon F, Morin S. 2006. Multiple origins of pyrethroid resistance in sympatric biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 36:71–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anthony N, Brown JK, Markham PG, ffrench-Constant RH. 1995. Molecular analysis of cyclodiene resistance-associated mutations among populations of the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 51:220–228.Google Scholar
  5. Attique MR, Rafiq M, Ghaffar A, Ahmad Z, Mohyuddin AI. 2003. Hosts of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Crop Prot. 22:715–720.Google Scholar
  6. Baumann P, Moran N, Baumann L. 2000. Bacteriocytes-associated endosymbionts of insects. In The Prokaryotes, ed. M Dworkin. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Bayhan E, Ulusoy MR, Brown JK. 2006. Host species, distribution, and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci ‘B biotype’ (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Turkey. J. Pest Sci. 79:233–240.Google Scholar
  8. Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Rosell RC, Markham PG. 1994. Geminivirus transmission and biological characterization of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes from different geographic regions. Ann. Appl. Biol. 125:311–325.Google Scholar
  9. Be’eri Y, Kapuler B. 1963. Summer squash. In Growing of Vegetables, Part B, ed. YM Margalit, pp. 235–240. Tel Aviv (in Hebrew): Sifriyyat Hassadeh Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Bellows TS, Perring TM, Gill RJ, Headrick DH. 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87:195–206.Google Scholar
  11. Berry S, Rey MEC, Rogan D, Fondong VN, Fauquet CM, Brown JK. 2004. Molecular evidence for distinct Bemisia tabaci geographicaly genotypes from cassava in Africa. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97:852–859.Google Scholar
  12. Bethke JA, Paine TD, Nuessly GS. 1991. Comparative biology, morphometrics and development of two populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton and poinsettia. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84:407–411.Google Scholar
  13. Bird J. 1957. A whitefly-transmitted mosaic of Jatropha gossypifolia. Tech. Pap. P. R. Agric. Exp. Stn. 22:1–35.Google Scholar
  14. Bird J, Brown JK. 1998. Displacement of the Sida race of Bemisia tabaci by the B biotype of the B. tabaci complex in Puerto Rico. In Proceedings of the Second International Whitefly and Geminivirus Workshop, San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 8–12, 1998.Google Scholar
  15. Bird J, Maramorosch K. 1975. Tropical Diseases of Legumes. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bird J, Maramorosch K. 1978. Viruses and virus diseases associated with whiteflies. Adv. Virus Res. 22:55–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bird J, Sanchez J. 1971. Whitefly-transmitted viruses in Puerto Rico. Tech. Pap. P. R. Agric. Exp. Stn. 55:461–467.Google Scholar
  18. Blackman RL, Cahill M. 1998. The karyotype of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 88:213–215.Google Scholar
  19. Bonato O, Lurette A, Vidal C, Fargues J. 2007. Modelling temperature-dependent bionomics of Bemisia tabaci Q biotype. Physiol. Entomol. 32:50–55.Google Scholar
  20. Boykin LM, Shatters RGJ, Rosell RC, McKenzie CL, Bagnall RA, De Barro PJ, Frolich DR. 2007. Global relationships of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) revealed using Bayesian analysis of mitochondria COI DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16:1306–1319.Google Scholar
  21. Brown WM. 1983. Evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA. In Evolution of Genes and Proteins, ed. M Nei, RK Koehn, pp. 62–88. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  22. Brown JK. 1990. An update on the whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in the Americas and the Caribbean Basin. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 39:5–23.Google Scholar
  23. Brown JK. 1994. The status of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) as a pest and vector in world agroecosystems. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 42:3–32.Google Scholar
  24. Brown JK. 2000. Molecular markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-begomovirus complexes. Virus Res. 71:233–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown JK. 2001. The Molecular Epidemiology of Begomoviruses. In Trends in Plant Virology, ed. JA Khan, J Dykstra, pp. 279–316. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Brown JK. 2007. The Bemisia tabaci complex: genetic and phenotypic variability drives begomovirus spread and virus diversification. Plant Dis. http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/btabaci/
  27. Brown JK, Bird J. 1992. Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in the Americas and the Caribbean Basin: past and present. Plant Dis. 76:220–225.Google Scholar
  28. Brown JK, Bird J. 1996. Introduction of an exotic whitefly (Bemisia) vector facilitates secondary spread of Jatropha mosaic virus, a geminivirus previously vectored exclusively by the Jatropha biotype. In Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, ed. D Gerling, RT Mayer, pp. 351–353. Andover, Hants: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  29. Brown JK, Caballero R, Torres-Jerez I. 1998. First report of Wolbachia infection in Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and a possible case of cytoplasmic incompatibility as evidenced by unidirectional mating between uninfected and infected whiteflies. In Proceedings of the Whitefly-Geminivirus Workshop. Managua, Nicaragua, October 24–30, 1998. p. 217.Google Scholar
  30. Brown JK, Coats S, Bedford ID, Markham PG, Bird J, Frohlich DR. 1995a. Characterization and distribution of esterase electromorphs in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biochem. Genet. 33:205–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown JK, Costa HS, Laemmlen F. 1991. First incidence of whitefly-associated squash silverleaf (SSL) of Cucurbita, and of white streaking (WSt) disorder of cole crops in Arizona and California. Plant Dis. 76:426.Google Scholar
  32. Brown JK, Dennehy TJ. 2006. First report of the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in the U.S.A. and resistance to insecticides in an Arizona population. Eur. Whitefly Stud. Network Newslett. http://www.whitefly.org/whiteflyforum/forum_posts.asp?TID=32&PN=1
  33. Brown JK, French R, Rogan D, Caballero R, Bird J. 2004a. Genetic variability and phylogeographical relationships of the Bemisia tabaci complex based on the mt cytochrome oxidase I gene. In 2nd European Whitefly Symposium, Cavtat, Croatia, October 5–9, 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Brown JK, Frolich DR, Rosell RC. 1995. The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of Bemisia tabaci or a species complex? Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40:511–534.Google Scholar
  35. Brown JK, Idris AM. 2005. Genetic differentiation of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) mitochondria COI and geographic congruence with the coat protein of the plant virus genus: Begomovirus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 98:827–837.Google Scholar
  36. Brown JK, Nelson MR. 1984. Geminate particles associated with cotton leaf crumple disease in Arizona. Phytopathology 74:987–990.Google Scholar
  37. Brown JK, Nelson MR. 1986. Whitefly-borne viruses of melons and lettuce in Arizona. Phytopathology 76:236–239.Google Scholar
  38. Brown JK, Perring TM, Cooper AD, Bedford ID, Markham PG. 2000. Genetic analysis of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) populations by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Biochem. Genet. 38:13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Brown JK, Rogan D, Legg J. 2004b. Hybridization between the ‘invader’ and ‘local’ B. tabaci haplotypes associated with severe mosaic disease of cassava in East Africa. In 2nd European Whitefly Symposium, Cavtat, Croatia, October 5–9, 2004.Google Scholar
  40. Burban C, Fishpool LDC, Fauquet C, Fargette D, Thouvenel JC. 1992. Host associated biotypes within West African populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hom., Aleyrodidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 113:416–423.Google Scholar
  41. Butler GD, Jr, Brown JK. 1985. Sweetpotato whitefly infection of cotton leaf crumple from weed hosts in 1984. The University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  42. Butler GD, Jr, Brown JK, Henneberry TJ. 1986. Effect of cotton seedling infection by cotton leaf crumple virus on subsequent growth and yield. J. Econ. Entomol. 79:208–211.Google Scholar
  43. Butler GD, Jr, Henneberry TJ, Clayton TE. 1983. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): development, oviposition, and longevity in relation to temperature. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76:310–313.Google Scholar
  44. Byrne DN, Bellows TS, Parrella MP. 1990. Whiteflies in agricultural systems. In Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management, ed. D Gerling, pp. 227–261. Andover, Hants: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  45. Byrne FJ, Cahill M, Denholm I, Devonshire AL. 1995. Biochemical identification of interbreeding between B-type and non-B-type strains of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Biochem. Genet. 33:13–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Byrne DN, Miller WB. 1990. Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of phloem sap and honeydew produced by Bemisia tabaci. J. Insect Physiol. 36:433–440.Google Scholar
  47. Caballero R. 2007. Systematics of the Bemisia tabaci complex and the role of endosymbionts in reproductive compatibility. PhD Dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. 107pp.Google Scholar
  48. Caballero R, Brown JK. 2008. Positive evidence for interbreeding and differential gene flow between three well characterized biotypes of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) excludes geographic and host barriers as isolating factors. J. Insect Sci. 8:10–11.Google Scholar
  49. Caballero R, Torres-Jerez I, Brown JK. 2001. Two distinct Wolbachia identified in Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) are associated with unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility in infected and uninfected biotypes. In Proceedings of The Sixth International Whitefly and Geminivirus Workshop, Ragusa, Sicily, February 27–March 3, 2001.Google Scholar
  50. Campbell B. 1993. Congruent evolution between whiteflies and their bacterial endosymbionts based on the respective 18S and 16S rDNAs. Curr. Microbiol. 26:129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Campbell BC, Steffen-Campbell JD, Gill RJ. 1994. Evolutionary origin of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorhyncha: Aleyrodidae) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Insect Mol. Biol. 3:73–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Campbell BC, Steffen-Campbell JD, Gill RJ. 1996. Origin and radiation of whiteflies: an initial molecular phylogenetic assessment. In Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, ed. D Gerling, RT Mayer, pp. 29–51. Andover, Hants: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  53. Carabali A, Bellotti AC, Montoya-Lerma J, Cuellar ME. 2005. Adaptation of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) to cassava, Manihot esculenta (Crantz). Crop Prot. 24:643–649.Google Scholar
  54. Chiel E, Gottlieb Zchori-Fein E, Mozes-Daube N, Katzir N, Inbar M, Ghanim M. 2007. Biotype-dependent secondary symbiont communities in sympatric populations of Bemisia tabaci. Bull. Entomol. Res. 97:407–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Clark MA, Baumann L, Munson MA, Baumann P, Campbell BC, Duffus JE, Osborne SL, Moran NA. 1992. The eubacterial endosymbionts of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) constitute a lineage distinct from the endosymbionts of aphids and mealybugs. Curr. Microbiol. 25:119–123.Google Scholar
  56. Coats SA, Brown JK, Hendrix DL. 1994. Biochemical characterization of biotype specific esterases in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 24:723–728.Google Scholar
  57. Cock MJW. 1986. Bemisia tabaci – a Literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography. Ascot: FAO/CAB.Google Scholar
  58. Cock MJW. 1993. Bemisia tabaci, an Update 1986–1992 on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography. Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks: CAB International Institute of Biological Control, 78 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Costa HS, Brown JK. 1990. Variation in biological characteristics, isozyme patterns and virus transmission among populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in Arizona. Phytopathology 80:888.Google Scholar
  60. Costa HS, Brown JK. 1991. Variation in biological characteristics and in esterase patterns among populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and the association of one population with silverleaf symptom development. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 61:211–219.Google Scholar
  61. Costa HS, Brown JK, Byrne DN. 1991a. Host plant selection by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under greenhouse conditions. J. Appl. Entomol. 112:146–152.Google Scholar
  62. Costa HS, Brown JK, Byrne DN. 1991b. Life history traits of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on six virus-infected or healthy plant species. Environ. Entomol. 20:1102–1107.Google Scholar
  63. Costa HS, Brown JK, Sivasupramaniam S, Bird J. 1993. Regional distribution, insecticide resistance, and reciprocal crosses between the ‘A’ and ‘B’ biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. Insect Sci. Appl. 14:127–138.Google Scholar
  64. Costa AS, Russell LM. 1975. Failure of Bemisia tabaci to breed on cassava plants in Brazil (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Cienc. Cult. 27:388–390.Google Scholar
  65. Costa HS, Toscano NC, Henneberry TJ. 1996. Mycetocyte inclusion in the oocytes of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 89:694–699.Google Scholar
  66. Costa HS, Wescot DM, Ullman DE, Rosell R, Brown JK, Johnson MW. 1995. Morphological variation in Bemisa endosymbionts. Protoplasma 189:194–202.Google Scholar
  67. De Barro PJ, Bourne A, Khan SA, Brancatini VAL. 2006. Host plant and biotype density interactions-their role in the establishment of the invasive B biotype of Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Invasions 8:287–294.Google Scholar
  68. De Barro PJ, Driver F, Trueman JWH, Curran J. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of world populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using ribosomal ITS1. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. De Barro PJ, Hart PJ. 2000. Mating interactions between two biotypes of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Bull. Entomol. Res. 90:103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. De Barro PJ, Trueman JWH, Frolich DR. 2005. Bemisia argentifolii is a race of B. tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): the molecular differentiation of B. tabaci populations around the world. Bull. Entomol. Res. 95:193–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. De la Rúa P, Simón B, Cifuentes D, Martinez-Mora C, Cenis JL. 2006. New insights into the mitochondrial phylogeny of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Mediterranean Basin. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 44:25–33.Google Scholar
  72. Delatte H, David P, Granier M, Lett JM, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M, Reynaud B. 2006. Microsatellites reveal extensive geographical, ecological and genetic contacts between invasive and indigenous whitefly biotypes in an insular environment. Genet. Res. Camb. 87:109–124.Google Scholar
  73. Delatte H, Reynaud B, Granier M, Thornary L, Lett JM, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M. 2005. A new silverleaf-inducing biotype Ms of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) indigenous to the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean. Bull Entomol. Res. 95:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Demichelis S, Arno C, Bosco D, Marian D, Caciagli P. 2005. Characterization of biotype T of Bemisia tabaci associated with Euphorbia characias in Sicily. Phytoparasitica 33:196–208.Google Scholar
  75. Dennehy TJ, DeGain BA, Harpold VS, Brown JK, Morin S, Fabrick JA, Byrne FJ, Nichols RL. 2006. New whitefly biotype with high levels of resistance to insecticides. The University of Arizona – Cooperative Extension Report, 32pp. Series P-144, ed. DN Byrne, P Baciewicz. http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1382/az1382_2.pdf
  76. Dittrich V, Ernst GH, Ruesch O, Uk S. 1990. Resistance mechanisms in sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) populations from Sudan, Turkey, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:1665–1670.Google Scholar
  77. Douglas AE. 1998. Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses: aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43:17–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Frohlich DR, Brown JK. 1994. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunit as a molecular marker in Bemisia tabaci and implications for population variability. In Abstract of Papers Presented at The International Workshop on Bemisia spp., Shoresh, Israel, October 3–7, 1994.Google Scholar
  79. Frohlich DR, Brown JK, Bedford I, Markham PG. 1996. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunit as a molecular marker in Bemisia, and implications for population variability. In Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management, ed. D Gerling, RT Mayer, pp. 143–145. Andover, Hants: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  80. Frohlich D, Torres-Jerez I, Bedford ID, Markham PG, Brown JK. 1999. A phylogeographic analysis of the Bemisia tabaci species complex based on mitochondrial DNA markers. Mol. Ecol. 8:1593–1602.Google Scholar
  81. Gawel NJ, Bartlett AC. 1993. Characterization of differences between whiteflies using RAPD-PCR. Insect Mol. Biol. 2:33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gennadius P. 1889. Disease of tobacco plantations in the Trikonia. The aleurodid of tobacco. [In Greek]. Ellenike Georgia 5:1–3.Google Scholar
  83. Gibson RW, Legg JP, Otim-Nape G. 1996. Unusually severe symptoms are a characteristic of the current epidemic of mosaic virus disease of cassava in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 128:479–490.Google Scholar
  84. Gill RJ. 1990. The morphology of whiteflies. In Whiteflies: Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management, ed. D Gerling, pp. 13–46. Andover, Hants: Intercept Ltd.Google Scholar
  85. Gill RJ. 1992. A review of the sweetpotato whitefly in southern California. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 68:144–152.Google Scholar
  86. Guirao PF, Beitia F, Cenis JL. 1997. Biotype determination of Spanish populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 87:587–593.Google Scholar
  87. Hadjistylli MC. 2003. Mating interactions between two Bemisia tabaci biotypes and their implications for pest and resistance management. MS Thesis, Imperial College, London. 80pp.Google Scholar
  88. Hamon A, Salguero V. 1987. Bemisia tabaci, sweetpotato whitefly, in Florida (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae: Aleyrodinae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville. Entomology Circular No. 292.Google Scholar
  89. Harrison BD, Zhou X, Otim-Nape GW, Liu Y, Robinson DJ. 1997. Role of a novel type of double infection in the geminivirus-induced epidemic of severe cassava mosaic in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 131:437–448.Google Scholar
  90. Horowitz AR, Denholm I, Gorman K, Cenis JL, Kontsedaloy S. 2003. Biotype Q of Bemisia tabaci identified in Israel. Phytoparasitica 31:94–98.Google Scholar
  91. Hsieh CH, Wang CH, Ko CC. 2006. Analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex and distribution in eastern Asia based on mitochondrial DNA markers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99:968–975.Google Scholar
  92. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F. 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Husain MA, Trehan KN. 1933. Observations on the life-history, bionomics and control of the whitefly of cotton (Bemisia gossypiperda M and L). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 3:701–753.Google Scholar
  94. Kanmiya K. 2006. Mating behaviour and vibratory signals in whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). In Contemporary Topics in Entomology Series: Insect Sounds and Communication, ed. S Drosopoulous, M Claridge, pp. 365–379. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  95. Khasdan V, Levin I, Rosner A, Morin S, Konsedalov S, Rippa M, Kleitman S, Mory R, Horowitz AR. 2005. Using DNA markers to identify biotypes B and Q of Bemisia tabaci in population dynamics studies in Israel. In 21st Annual Meeting of the Entomology Society of Israel, Bet Dagan, Israel.Google Scholar
  96. Kirk AA, Lacey LA, Brown JK, Ciomperlik MA, Goolsby JA, Vacek DC, Wendel LE, Napompeth B. 2000. Variation within the Bemisia tabaci s.l. species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies leading to successful biological control of Bemisia biotype B in the USA. Bull Entomol. Res. 90:317–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Legg JP. 1994. Genetic polymorphisms amongst Ugandan populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), vector of African cassava mosaic geminivirus. Trop. Sci. 34:73–81.Google Scholar
  98. Legg JP. 1996. Host-associated strains within Ugandan populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hom, Aleyrodidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 120:523–527.Google Scholar
  99. Legg JP, Asiimwe P, Njukeng AP, Sseruwagi P, Brown JK. 2008. Distribution trends of two haplotypes of the Bemisia tabaci complex associated with cassava and the severe mosaic disease pandemic in Africa. In Proceedings of the 4th International Whitefly Meeting, Duck Key, Florida, December 3–6, 2006. J. Insect Sci. 8:27–28.Google Scholar
  100. Legg JP, French R, Rogan D, Okao-Okuja G, Brown JK. 2002. A distinct Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) genotype cluster is associated with the epidemic of severe cassava mosaic virus disease in Uganda. Mol. Ecol. 11:1219–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Liu SS, De Barro PJ, Xu J, Luan JB, Zang LS, Ruan YM, Wan FH. 2007. Asymmetric mating interactions drive widespread invasion and displacement in a whitefly. Science 318:1769–1772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lopez-Avila A. 1986. Taxonomy and biology. In Bemisia tabaci – A literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated Bibliography, ed. MJW Cock, pp. 3–11. Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks: CAB International Institute of Biological Control.Google Scholar
  103. Martin JH. 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera: Alerodidae). Trop. Pest Manage. 33:298–322.Google Scholar
  104. Martin JH. 2003. Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) – their systematic history and the resulting problems of conventional taxonomy, with special reference to descriptions of Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889). Entomol. Gaz. 54:125–136.Google Scholar
  105. Martin JH, Mound LA. 2007. An annotated check list of the world’s whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Zootaxa 149:21–84.Google Scholar
  106. Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Seal S. 2001. Mating compatibility, life-history traits, and RAPD-PCR variation in Bemisia tabaci associated with the cassava mosaic disease pandemic in East Africa. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 99:13–23.Google Scholar
  107. Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Seal S, Gibson G, Cooper J. 2002. Co-adaptation between cassava mosaic geminiviruses and their local vector populations. Virus Res. 86:71–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Morin S, Williamson MS, Goodson SJ, Brown JK, Tabashnik BE, Dennehy TJ. 2002. Mutations in the Bemisia tabaci sodium channel gene associated with resistance to a pyrethroid plus organophosphate mixture. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:1781–1791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mound LA. 1963. Host correlated variation in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London A 38:171–180.Google Scholar
  110. Mound LA. 1984. Zoogeographical distribution of whiteflies. Curr. Topics Vector Res. 2:185–197.Google Scholar
  111. Mound LA. 1993. Whitefly evolutionary strategies: host-specificity, polyphagy, or biotypes. In Memorias, XX Congresso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia, July 13–16, 1993, Cali, Colombia, pp. 244–250.Google Scholar
  112. Mound LA, Halsey SH. 1978. Whitefly of the World: A Systematic Catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with Host Plant and Natural Enemy Data. Chichester: British Museum and John Wiley & Sons, 340pp.Google Scholar
  113. Moya A, Guirao P, Cifuentes D, Beitia F, Cenis JL. 2001. Genetic diversity of Iberian populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Ecol. 10:891–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Neil JW, Bentz J. 1999. Evidence for the stage inducing phenotypic plasticity in pupae of the polyphagus whiteflies Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia argentifolii [(sic) tabaci] (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and the raison d’ être. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 92:774–787.Google Scholar
  115. Osmondi AB, Obeng-Otori D, Kyerematen RA, Danquah EY. 2005. Host preferences and suitability of some selected crops for two biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in Ghana. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 115:393–400.Google Scholar
  116. Pascual S. 2006. Mechanisms in competition under laboratory conditions between Spanish biotypes B and Q of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Span. J. Agric. Res. 4:351–354.Google Scholar
  117. Pascual S, Callèjas C. 2004. Intra- and interspecific competition between biotypes B and Q Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Spain. Bull. Entomol. Res. 94:369–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Perring TM. 2001. The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop Prot. 20:725–737.Google Scholar
  119. Perring TM, Cooper A, Rodriguez RJ, Farrar CA, Bellows TS, Jr. 1993. Identification of whitefly species by genomic and behavioral studies. Science 259:74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Perring T, Symmes EJ. 2006. Courtship behavior of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and whitefly mate recognition. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99:598–606.Google Scholar
  121. Qiu B-L, Coats SA, Ren SX, Idris AM, Caixia XU, Brown JK. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of native and introduced Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) from China and India based on mtCO1 sequencing and host plant comparisons. Prog. Nat. Sci. 17:645–654.Google Scholar
  122. Rogers AR, Harpending H. 1992. Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 9:552–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ronda M, Adan A, Beitia F, Cifuentes D, Cenis JL. 2000. Interbreeding between biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. Eur. Whitefly Stud. Network Newslett. November (Issue No. 07).Google Scholar
  124. Rosell RC, Bedford ID, Frolich DR, Gill RJ, Brown JK, Markham PG. 1997. Analysis of morphological variation in distinct populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90:575–589.Google Scholar
  125. Rosemeyer ME, Brown JK, Nelson MR. 1986. Five viruses isolated from field-grown buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima HBK, a potential crop for semi-arid lands. Plant Dis. 70:405–409.Google Scholar
  126. Russell LM. 1957. Synonyms of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 52:122–123.Google Scholar
  127. Schlee D. 1970. Verwandtschaftsforschung an fossilen und rezenten Aleyrodina (Insectas, Hemiptera). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 213:1–74.Google Scholar
  128. Schrader F. 1920. Sex determination in the whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). J. Morphol. 34:267–297.Google Scholar
  129. Schuster DJ, Mueller TF, Kring JB, Price JF. 1990. Relationship of sweet potato whitefly to a new tomato fruit disorder in Florida. Hortic. Sci. 25:1618–1620.Google Scholar
  130. Servín-Villegas R, Troyo-Dieguez E, Martínez-Carrillo JL. 2006. Wild hosts of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring in semiarid northwest Mexico. Southwest. Entomol. 26:239–244.Google Scholar
  131. Simon B, Cenis JL, Demichelis S, Rapisarda C, Caciagli P, Bosco D. 2003. Survey of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in Italy (T) from Euphorbia characias. Bull. Entomol. Res. 93:259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sseruwagi P, Legg J, Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Rey MEC, Brown JK. 2005. Genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations and presence of the B biotype and a non-B biotype that can induce silverleaf symptoms in squash, in Uganda. Ann. Appl. Biol. 147:253–265.Google Scholar
  133. Sseruwagi P, Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Rey MEC, Brown JK, Legg JP. 2006. Colonization of non-cassava plant species by cassava whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in Uganda. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 119:145–153.Google Scholar
  134. Stouthamer R, Breeuwer JAJ, Hurst GDD. 1999. Wolbachia pipientis: microbial manipulator of arthropod reproduction. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:71–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Thao ML, Baumann P. 2004a. Evolutionary relationships of primary prokaryotic endosymbionts of whiteflies and their hosts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:3401–3406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Thao ML, Baumann P. 2004b. Evidence for multiple acquisition of Arsenophonus by whitefly species (Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae). Curr. Microbiol. 48:140–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Thompson WMO. 2003. A new host plant species for the cassava biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hom., Aleyrodidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 127:374–376.Google Scholar
  138. Ueda S, Kitamura S, Kijima K, Honda KI, Kanmiya K. 2009. Distribution and molecular characterization of distinct Asian populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Japan. J. Appl. Entomol. 133:355–366.Google Scholar
  139. Viscarret MM, Torres-Jerez I, Agostini de Manero E, López SN, Botto EE, Brown JK. 2003. Mitochondrial DNA evidence for a distinct clade of New World Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Argentina and Bolivia, and presence of the Old World B biotype in Argentina. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 96:65–72.Google Scholar
  140. Walker GP, Perring TM. 1994. Feeding and oviposition behavior of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) interpreted from AC electronic feeding monitor waveforms. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87:363–374.Google Scholar
  141. Weeks AR, Breeuwer JAJ. 2003. A new bacterium from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum that causes sex-ratio distortion. In Insect Symbiosis, ed. K Bourtzis, TA Miller, pp. 165–176. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  142. Weeks AR, Marec F, Breeuwer JAJ. 2001. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females. Science 292:2479–2482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Weeks AR, Velten R, Stouthamer R. 2003. Incidence of a new sex-ratio-distorting endosymbiotic bacterium among arthropods. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 270:1857–1865.Google Scholar
  144. Wool D, Gerling D, Belloti AC, Morales FJ. 1993. Esterase electrophoretic variation in Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) among host plants and localities in Israel. J. Appl. Entomol. 115:185–196.Google Scholar
  145. Wool D, Gerling D, Nolt BL, Constantino LM, Bellotti AC, Morales FJ. 1989. The use of electrophoresis for identification of adult whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Israel and Colombia. J. Appl. Entomol. 107:344–350.Google Scholar
  146. Xingxia WU, Zhengxi LI, Dunxiao HU, Zuorui S. 2003. Identification of Chinese populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) by analyzing ribosomal ITS1 sequence. Prog. Nat. Sci. 13:276–281.Google Scholar
  147. Yokomi RK, Hoelmer KA, Osborne LS. 1990. Relationship between the sweetpotato whitefly and the squash silverleaf disorder. Phytopathology 80:895–900.Google Scholar
  148. Zchori-Fein E, Brown JK. 2002. Diversity of prokaryotes associated with Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 95:711–718.Google Scholar
  149. Zchori-Fein E, Gottlieb EY, Kelly SE, Brown JK, Wilson JM, Karr TL, Hunter MS. 2001. A newly discovered bacterium is associated with parthenogenesis and a change in host selection behavior in parasitoid wasps. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98:12555–12560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zhang DX, Hewitt GM. 1996. Nuclear integrations: challenges for mitochondrial markers. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11:247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Zhang LP, Zhang YJ, Zhang WJ, Wu QJ, Xu BY, Chu D. 2005. Analysis of genetic diversity among different geographical populations and determination of biotypes of Bemisia tabaci in China. J. Appl. Entomol. 129:121–128.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Plant Sciences, The University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations