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Pharmacokinetics of MDMA

  • Enno FreyeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Effects of MDMA usually begin 30–45 min after oral administration of a 75–150 mg dose with peak effects occurring 60–90 min after ingestion, which start to diminish after 2 h, however lasting up to 8 h (Table 3). The time to maximum concentration (Tmax) is 2 h after oral ingestion of MDMA 50, 75, or 125 mg. The half-life shows little variation after a wide range of doses. After a 50-, 75-, or 125-mg dose, the half-life is 8 h [49]. Other studies found the half-life to be 9.53 h after a 75-mg dose and 9.12 h after a 125-mg dose [50]. The maximum concentration (Cmax) after oral ingestion appears to be dose dependent. A Cmax of 105.6 ng/ml was reported in a single subject who took a 50-mg dose [51], whereas a Cmax of 330 ng/ml was found in another subject who took MDMA 135 mg [52]. In a group of eight subjects, the Cmax values after ingestion of MDMA 75 mg and 125 mg were 126.5 and 226.3 ng/ml, respectively [50], whereas in another group of eight subjects, Cmax values of 130.9 and 236.4 ng/ml were obtained after ingestion of MDMA 75 mg and 125 mg, respectively [49]. These studies indicate, that the Cmax exhibits a slightly greater-than-expected increase compared with the increase in dose. According to these observations, and following a usual recreational dose of 100–150 mg, the Cmax should be in the range of 200–300 ng/ml. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) data from these studies also suggests nonlinearity. The AUC measured over 24 h after ingestion of a 125-mg dose (2,235.9 µg/l/h) is more than twice the AUC after ingestion of a 75-mg dose (995.4 µg/l/h [50]. Nonlinearity is further supported by other evidence, in which the dose ratio of MDMA was 1:3 (50 mg and 150 mg), whereas the AUC ratio over 24 h after ingestion was greater than 1:10. The authors suggested that the non-renal clearance of MDMA is dose dependent.

Keywords

Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Malignant Hyperthermia MDMA User 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany

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