Advertisement

Het gebruik van overige Tripmiddelen

  • Hylke Vervaeke

Tripmiddelen, ook wel hallucinogenen of psychedelica genoemd, worden al van oudsher gebruikt door de mensheid voor rituele, religieuze, spirituele en recreatieve doeleinden. De tripmiddelen kunnen op basis van hun chemische structuur onderverdeeld worden in verschillende klassen. De meeste tripmiddelen behoren tot de fenethylaminen of de tryptaminen. De fenethylaminen vormen een groep diverse stoffen die als basisstructuur fenethylamine hebben (zie figuur 13.1).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Referenties

  1. Alper KR. et al. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine. Am J Addict 1999; 8(3): 234–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alper KR, Lotsof HS, Kaplan CD. The ibogaine medical subculture. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 115(1): 9–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arvanov VL. et al. LSD and DOB: interaction with 5-HT2A receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the rat prefrontal cortex. Eur J Neurosci 1999; 11(9): 3064–3072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balikova M. Nonfatal and fatal DOB (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine) overdose. Forensic Sci Int 2005; 153(1): 85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beltman W. et al. Smartshops. Overzicht van producten, geclaimde werking en hun medisch-toxicologische relevantie. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu; 1999.Google Scholar
  6. Binev R, Valchev I, Nikolov J. Clinical and pathological studies on intoxication in horses from freshly cut Jimson weed (Datura stramonium)-contaminated maize intended for ensiling. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2006; 77(4): 215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boer D de, Bosman I. A new trend in drugs-of-abuse; the 2C-series of phenethylamine designer drugs. Pharm World Sci 2004; 26(2): 110–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyer EW. Dextromethorphan abuse. Pediatr Emerg Care 2004; 20(12): 858–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braida D. et al. Involvement of kappa-Opioid and Endocannabinoid System on Salvinorin A-Induced Reward. Biol Psychiatry; 2007.Google Scholar
  10. Bruhn JG. et al. Mescaline use for 5700 years. Lancet 2002; 359(9320): 1866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryner JK. et al. Dextromethorphan abuse in adolescence: an increasing trend: 1999–2004. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160(12): 1217–1222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Callaway JC, Grob CS. Ayahuasca preparations and serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a potential combination for severe adverse interactions. J Psychoactive Drugs 1998; 30(4): 367–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Capasso R. et al. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2006; 18(1): 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carpenter WT. The schizophrenia ketamine challenge study debate. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46(8): 1081–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chyka PA. et al. Dextromethorphan poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2007; 45(6): 662–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Copeland J, Dillon D. The health and psycho-social consequences of ketamine use. International Journal of Drug Policy 2005; 16: 122–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cornish JW. et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study of highdose dextromethorphan in methadone-maintained male inpatients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2002; 67(2): 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craven R. Ketamine. Anaesthesia 2007; 62 Suppl 1: 48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Curtis B. et al. Postmortem identification and quantitation of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine using GC-MSD and GC-NPD. J Anal Toxicol 2003; 27(7): 493–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Degenhardt L, Dunn M. The epidemiology of GHB and ketamine use in an Australian household survey. Intern Journ of Drug Policy 2008.Google Scholar
  21. Desai S. et al. Chronic addiction to dextromethorphan cough syrup: a case report. J Am Board Fam Med 2006; 19(3): 320–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diker D. et al. Coma as a presenting sign of Datura stramonium seed tea poisoning. Eur J Intern Med 2007; 18(4): 336–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillon P, Copeland J, Jansen K. Patterns of use and harms associated with non-medical ketamine use. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003; 69(1): 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doering-Silveira E. et al. Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context. J Psychoactive Drugs 2005; 37(2): 141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. EMCDDA Risk Assessments. Report on the risk assessment of ketamine in the framework of the joint action on new synthetic drugs. Eur Monitor Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; 2002.Google Scholar
  26. EMCDDA Risk Assessments. Report on the risk assessment of 2C-I, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 in the framework of the joint action on new synthetic drugs. Eur Monitor Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; 2004.Google Scholar
  27. Fantegrossi WE. et al. Hallucinogen-like actions of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7) in mice and rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 181(3): 496–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fantegrossi WE, Woods JH, Winger G. Transient reinforcing effects of phenylisopropylamine and indolealkylamine hallucinogens in rhesus monkeys. Behav Pharmacol 2004; 15(2): 149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gable RS. Comparison of acute lethal toxicity of commonly abused psychoactive substances. Addiction 2004; 99(6): 686–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gable RS. Risk assessment of ritual use of oral dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala alkaloids. Addiction 2007; 102(1): 24–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganetsky M, Babu KM, Boyer EW. Serotonin syndrome in dextromethorphan ingestion responsive to propofol therapy. Pediatr Emerg Care 2007; 23(11): 829–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gill JR, Stajic M. Ketamine in non-hospital and hospital deaths in New York City. J Forensic Sci 2000; 45(3): 655–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gonzalez-Maeso J. et al. Hallucinogens recruit specific cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated signaling pathways to affect behavior. Neuron 2007; 53(3): 439–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grundmann O. et al. Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: an update on pharmacology and analytical methodology. Planta Med 2007; 73(10): 1039–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halpern JH. et al. Psychological and cognitive effects of long-term peyote use among Native Americans. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58(8): 624–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hellinga H, Plomp H. Uit je bol. Amsterdam: Prometheus; 1994.Google Scholar
  37. Hermle L, et al. Mescaline-induced psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurometabolic effects in normal subjects: experimental psychosis as a tool for psychiatric research. Biol Psychiatry 1992; 32(11): 976–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hollister LE, Sjoberg BM. Clinical Syndromes and Biochemical Alterations Following Mescaline, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, Psilocybin and a Combination of the Three Psychotomimetic Drugs. Compr Psychiatry 1964; 20: 170–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huang EY, Liu TC, Tao PL. Co-administration of dextromethorphan with morphine attenuates morphine rewarding effect and related dopamine releases at the nucleus accumbens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2003; 368(5): 386–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jacob MS, Presti DE. Endogenous psychoactive tryptamines reconsidered: an anxiolytic role for dimethyltryptamine. Med Hypotheses 2005; 64(5): 930–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jansen K. Ketamine, Dreams and Realities. Florida: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies; 2000.Google Scholar
  42. Korf D, Nabben T, Benschop A. Antenne 2003. Trend in alcohol, tabak en drugs bij jonge Amsterdammers. Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers; 2004.Google Scholar
  43. Krupitsky E. et al. Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up. J Subst Abuse Treat 2002; 23(4): 273–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krupitsky EM, Grinenko AY. Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research. J Psychoactive Drugs 1997; 29(2): 165–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Krupitsky EM. et al. Single versus repeated sessions of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for people with heroin dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs 2007; 39(1): 13–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Laar M van. et al. Nationale Drug Monitor. Jaarbericht 2005. Utrecht: Trimbos Instituut; 2006.Google Scholar
  47. Lahti AC. et al. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine stimulate psychosis in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1995; 13(1): 9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Large CH. Do NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia predict the clinical efficacy of antipsychotic drugs? J Psychopharmacol 2007; 21(3): 283–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li JX, Rice KC, France CP. Discriminative stimulus effects of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM) in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007.Google Scholar
  50. Maas U, Strubelt S. Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction treatment could be related to sudden cardiac death caused by autonomic dysfunction. Med Hypotheses 2006; 67(4): 960–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maisonneuve IM, Glick SD. Anti-addictive actions of an iboga alkaloid congener: a novel mechanism for a novel treatment. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75(3): 607–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKenna DJ. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges. Pharmacol Ther 2004; 102(2): 111–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller SC. Dextromethorphan psychosis, dependence and physical withdrawal. Addict Biol 2005; 10(4): 325–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morgan CJ, Monaghan L, Curran HV. Beyond the K-hole: a 3-year longitudinal investigation of the cognitive and subjective effects of ketamine in recreational users who have substantially reduced their use of the drug. Addiction 2004; 99(11): 1450–1461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morris BJ, Cochran SM, Pratt JA. PCP: from pharmacology to modelling schizophrenia. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2005; 5(1): 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Narendran R. et al. Altered prefrontal dopaminergic function in chronic recreational ketamine users. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(12): 2352–2359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nichols DE. Hallucinogens. Pharmacol Ther 2004; 101(2): 131–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Okon T. Ketamine: an introduction for the pain and palliative medicine physician. Pain Physician 2007; 10(3): 493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Parissis D. et al. Neurological findings in a case of coma secondary to Datura stramonium poisoning. Eur J Neurol 2003; 10(6): 745–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Paskulin R. et al. Ibogaine affects brain energy metabolism. Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 552(1-3): 11–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pijlman F, Krul J, Niesink R. Uitgaan en veiligheid: feiten en fictie over alcohol, drugs en gezondheidsverstoringen. Utrecht: Trimbos Instituut; 2003.Google Scholar
  62. Prisinzano TE. Psychopharmacology of the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum. Life Sci 2005; 78(5): 527–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rammer L, Holmgren P, Sandler H. Fatal intoxication by dextromethorphan: a report on two cases. Forensic Sci Int 1988; 37(4): 233–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Riba J. et al. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306(1): 73–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Riba J. et al. Subjective effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 154(1): 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saunders N, Saunders A, Pauli M. In search of the ultimate high. Spiritual experience through psychoactives. Londen: Random House; 2000.Google Scholar
  67. Schier J. Avoid unfavorable consequences: dextromethorpan can bring about a falsepositive phencyclidine urine drug screen. J Emerg Med 2000; 18(3): 379–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schifano F. et al. New trends in the cyber and street market of recreational drugs? The case of 2C-T-7 (‘Blue Mystic’). J Psychopharmacol 2005; 19(6): 675–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schultes R, Hofmann A. Over de planten der Goden. Oorspong van het gebruik van hallucinogenen. Utrecht: Het Spectrum; 1997.Google Scholar
  70. Shulgin A. PIHKAL. A chemical love story. Berkeley, California: Transform Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  71. Siebert DJ. Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: new pharmacologic findings. J Ethnopharmacol 1994; 43(1): 53–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sklerov J. et al. A fatal intoxication following the ingestion of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in an ayahuasca preparation. J Anal Toxicol 2005; 29(8): 838–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith RL. et al. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998; 61(3): 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spina SP, Taddei A. Teenagers with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning. Cjem 2007; 9(6): 467–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Berg LM. Differential tolerance to biological and subjective effects of four closely spaced doses of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 39(9): 784–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Strassman RJ. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Behav Brain Res 1996; 73(1-2): 121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ungern-Sternberg BS von. et al. A deeper level of ketamine anesthesia does not affect functional residual capacity and ventilation distribution in healthy preschool children. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17(12): 1150–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vortherms TA, Roth BL. Salvinorin A: from natural product to human therapeutics. Mol Interv 2006; 6(5): 257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wei D. et al. Acute iboga alkaloid effects on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels in nucleus accumbens and striatum in rats. Brain Res 1998; 800(2): 260–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zarate CA. et al. A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63(8): 856–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hylke Vervaeke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations