Sombere stemming

  • H. W. J. van Marwijk
  • H. de Vries
  • A. T. F. Beekman

Een sombere stemming kan een normaal verschijnsel zijn, horend bij een rouwproces en bij verliesverwerking, wanneer het verlies reëel is. Zo is het begrijpelijk dat iemand somber is na het overlijden van een dierbare of wanneer er sprake is van een ernstige somatische ziekte als reumatoïde artritis. Normale somberheid staat in een invoelbare verhouding tot de aanwezige verliesen stressfactoren. Deze depressiviteit vermindert wanneer men erin slaagt het verlies te verwerken en de stressfactoren aan te pakken.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatuur

  1. 1.
    Spijker J, Bijl RV, Graaf R de, et al. Care utilization and outcome of DSM-III-R major depression in the general population. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Acta Psychiatr Scand; 2001; 104: 19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    UMDS MSc in General Practice Teaching Group. ‘You’re depressed’; ‘No I’m not’: GPs’ and patients’ different models of depression. Br J Gen Pract 1999; 49: 123–124Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karlsson H, Lehtinen V, Joukamaa M. Psychiatric morbidity among frequent attender patients in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1995; 17: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freeling P, Rao BM, Paykel ES, et al. Unrecognised depression in general practice. BMJ 1985; 290: 1880–1883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klinkman MS. Competing demands in psychosocial care. A model for the identification and treatment of depressive disorders in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1997; 19: 98–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ormel J, Brink W van den, Meer K van der, et al. Prevalentie, signalering en beloop van depressie in de huisartsenpraktijk. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 1994; 138: 123–126Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weel-Baumgarten EM van, Bosch WJ van den, Hoogen HJ van den, et al. The validity of the diagnosis of depression in general practice: Is using criteria for diagnosis as a routine the answer? Br J Gen Pract 2000; 50: 284–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bijl RV, Ravelli A, Zessen G van. Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1998; 33: 587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wells KB, Stewart A, Hays RD, et al. The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA 1989; 262: 914–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hays RD, Wells KB, Sherbourne CD, et al. Functioning and well-being outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52: 11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams JW, Kerber CA, Mulrow CD, et al. Depressive disorders in primary care: prevalence, functional disability, and identification. J Gen Intern Med 1995; 10: 7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penninx BWJH, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, et al. Depressive symptoms and physical decline in communitydwelling older persons. JAMA 1998; 279: 1720–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anonymous. DSM-IV Patiëntenzorg. Diagnostiek en classificatie van psychische stoornissen voor de geneeskunde [vertaling van de DSM-IV-PC]. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beekman ATF, Deeg DJH, Braam AW, et al. Consequences of major and minor depression in later life: A study of disability, well-being and service utilization. Psychol Med 1997; 27: 1397–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weel-Baumgarten EM van. Depression: the long-term perspective. A follow-up study in general practice [dissertation]. Nijmegen: Katholieke Universiteit; 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dawson A, Tylee A, editors. Depression: social and economic timebomb: Strategies for quality care. London: BMJ Books; 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Von Korff M, Goldberg D. Improving outcomes in depression. The whole process of care needs to be enhanced. BMJ 2001; 323: 948–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simon GE, Katon W, Rutter C, et al. Impact of improved depression treatment in primary care on daily functioning and disability. Psychol Med 1998; 28: 693–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldberg D, Privett M, Ustun B, et al. The effects of detection and treatment on the outcome of major depression in primary care: A naturalistic study in 15 cities. Br J Gen Pract 1998; 48: 1840–1844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okkes IM, Oskam SK, Lamberts H. Van klacht naar diagnose. Episodegegevens uit de huisartspraktijk. Bussum: Coutinho; 1998.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marwijk HWJ van, Grundmeijer HGLM, Brueren MM, et al. NHG-Standaard Depressie. Huisarts Wet 1994; 37: 482–490Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buntinx F. Screening versus diagnosis: complex problems [In Dutch]. Huisarts Wet 2004; 47: 230–235Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Spijker J, de Graaf R, Bijl RV, et al. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Br J Psychiatry 2002; 181: 208–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Marwijk HWJ, Grundmeijer HGLM, Bijl RV, et al. NHG-Standaard Depressieve stoornis (depressie). Eerste herziening. Huisarts Wet 2003; 46: 614–623Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moore DJ, Bona JR. Advances in the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders: implications for internal medicine. Depression and dysthymia. Med Clin North Am 2001; 85: 631–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ballenger JC. Comorbidity of panic and depression: implications for clinical management. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13(Suppl 4): S13-S17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ormel J, Brink W van den, Meer K van der, et al. Prevalentie, signalering en beloop van depressie in de huisartsenpraktijk. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 1994; 138: 123–126Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ormel J, Von Korff M, Ustun TB, et al. Common mental disorders and disability across cultures. Results from the WHO collaborative study on psychological problems in general health care. JAMA 1995; 272: 1741–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meer K van der, Tiemens BG, Brink W van den. Depressie in de eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg; internationale gegevens over prevalentie en behandeling, onder meer uit Nederland. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 1996; 140: 2135–2139Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Comino D, Silovec V, Manicavasagarc E, et al. Agreement in symptoms of anxiety and depression between patients and GPs: the influence of ethnicity. Fam Pract 2001; 18: 71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kessler D, Bennewith O, Lewis G, et al. Detection of depression and anxiety in primary care: follow up study. BMJ 2002; 325: 1016–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Depression Guideline Panel. Depression in primary care: volume 2. Diagnosis of major depression. Rockville: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1993.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wouda J, Wiel H van der, Vliet K van. Medische communicatie. Gespreksvaardigheden voor de arts. Utrecht: De Tijdstroom; 1997.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Terluin B, Hout HP van, Marwijk HWJ van, et al. Reliability and validity of the assessment of depression in general practice: the Short Depression Interview (SDI). Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2002; 24: 396–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Arthur A, Jagger C, Lindesay J, et al. Using an annual over-75 health check to screen for depression: Validation of the short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15) within general practice. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14: 431–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ormel J, Brink W van den, Koeter MWJ, et al. Recognition, management, and outcome of psychological disorders in primary care: a naturalistic follow-up study. Psychol Med 1990; 20: 909–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gilbody SM, House AO, Sheldon TA. Routinely administered questionnaires for depression and anxiety: systematic review. BMJ 2001; 322: 406–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams JW, Jr, Mulrow CD, Kroenke K, et al. Case-finding for depression in primary care: a randomized trial. Am J Med 1999; 106: 36–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1.000 study. JAMA 1994; 272: 1749–1756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care 2003; 41: 1284–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Williams JW, Jr., Pignone M, Ramirez G, et al. Identifying depression in primary care: a literature synthesis of case-finding instruments. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2002; 24: 225–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wyshak G, Barsky AJ. Relationship between patient self-ratings and physician ratings of general health, depression, and anxiety. Arch Fam Med 1994; 3: 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marwijk HWJ van, Linde J van der, Nolen WA, et al. De ‘Depressieherkenningsschaal’: een hulpmiddel bij het diagnosticeren van depressie in de huisartspraktijk. Ned Tijdschr Geneesk 1996; 140: 2127–2131Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marwijk HWJ van, Wallace P, Bock GH de, et al. Evaluation of the feasibility, reliability and diagnostic value of shortened versions of the geriatric depression scale. Br J Gen Pract 1995; 45: 195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klinkman MS, Coyne JC, Gallo S, et al. False positives, false negatives, and the validity of the diagnosis of major depression in primary care. Arch Fam Med 1998; 7: 451–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, et al. Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many. J Gen Intern Med 1997; 12: 439–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dinant GJ, Wijk MAM van, Janssens HJEM, et al. NHG-Standaard Bloedonderzoek. Algemene principes en uitvoering in eigen beheer. Huisarts Wet 1994; 37: 202–211Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. J. van Marwijk
    • 1
  • H. de Vries
    • 2
  • A. T. F. Beekman
    • 3
  1. 1.afdeling Huisartsgeneeskunde en EMGO-InstituutVrije Universiteit Medisch CentrumAmsterdam
  2. 2.afdeling Huisartsgeneeskunde en EMGO-InstituutVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdam
  3. 3.afdeling Psychiatrie en EMGOInstituutVrije Universiteit Medisch Centrum en GGZ Buiten-amstelAmsterdam

Personalised recommendations