Epidemiology of Whiplash-Associated Disorders

  • F. IoppoloEmail author
  • R. S. Rizzo


Until recently, there was no consensus on the definition of whiplash. According to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) on whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), “whiplash is an acceleration-deceleration mechanism of energy transfer to the neck. It may result from rear-end or side-impact motor vehicle collisions, but can also occur during diving or other mishaps. The impact may result in bony or soft-tissue injuries (whiplash-injury), which in turn may lead to a variety of clinical manifestations called Whiplash-Associated Disorders.”[1] Patients with whiplash can be classified by the severity of signs and symptoms: Grade 0 means no complaints or physical signs; Grade 1 indicates neck complaints (such as pain, tenderness, and stiffness) but no physical signs; Grade 2 indicates neck complaints and musculoskeletal signs (such as a decreased range of motion or muscle weakness); and Grade 3 and Grade 4 indicate neck complaints and, respectively, neurological signs (such as sensory deficit) or fracture or dislocation.


Neck Pain Insurance Claim Whiplash Injury Motor Vehicle Collision Average Annual Incidence 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation“Sapienza” UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation UnitNomentana HospitalFonte Nuova, RomeItaly

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